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Sport Psychology (PSY407)
This lecture is a continuation of lecture twelve, the remaining five concepts of attention and
concentration which will be discussed in this lecture are:
Attentional narrowing
Being in the zone
Measuring attentional focus
Attention control training
Associative versus dissociative attentional styles.
Attention Narrowing
An athlete's ability to attend to appropriate stimuli during competition has been termed attentional
focus. The concept of attentional focus includes the ability of an athlete to both narrow and broaden
her attention when necessary. For example, in cricket, a fielder attempting to run out a batsman must be
able to broaden his attentional focus in order to see other teammate who will be collecting his throw
and hitting the stumps. The same player must be able to narrow his attentional focus while batting in
order to block out distractions from the crowd.
The notation of attentional narrowing is best understood in terms of cue utilization. Environmental
cues provide the athlete with needed information for a skilled performance. In any sport task, many
cues are available to the athlete. Some are relevant and necessary for quality performance; others are
irrelevant and can damage performance. Under conditions of low arousal, the athlete picks up both
relevant and irrelevant cues. The presence of irrelevant cues should result in a decrement in
performance. As arousal increases, the athlete's attention begins to narrow. At some optimal point,
attentional narrowing gates out all of the irrelevant cues and allows the relevant cues to remain. At this
point performance should be at its best. If arousal increases still further, attention continues to narrow
and relevant cues are gated out, causing deterioration in performance.
High levels of arousal may also lead to the phenomenon of distractibility. In addition to gating out
potentially relevant cues, high arousal may also decrease an athlete's ability to selectively attend to one
stimulus at a time. Distractibility has the effect of decreasing the athlete's ability to discriminate relevant
and irrelevant cues, and to focus upon relevant cues. The athlete who is suffering from distractibility
tends to experience sudden and significant decrements in performance. Performing in an athletic event
requires an athlete to narrowly focus upon the task at hand in order to realize success. Too much
arousal undermines the athlete's ability to narrowly focus attention in a quality manner, while too little
arousal may introduce unwanted competition between irrelevant and relevant cues.
Most recently, Janelle, Singer, and Williams (1999) reported the results of an experiment in which
increased arousal decreased performance on both a central car driving task and a peripheral reaction
time task. Similarly, research conducted by Williams and Elliot (1999) showed that under conditions of
increased and decreased attentional narrowing, athletes alter the way in which they scan peripheral
information. Under conditions of low arousal, athletes used peripheral vision (broad focus). Under
conditions of high arousal they use peripheral scanning (narrow focus).
Attentional flexibility refers to the ability of athletes to quickly and effectively shift their attention from
one location to another. Another characteristic of attentional flexibility is the ability of individuals to
shift from a very narrow attentional focus to a very broad focus.
Sport Psychology (PSY407)
Cognitive interference is defined as "thoughts of escape" and "task-irrelevant thoughts". Any random thought or
event that would tend to break an athlete's concentration could be considered cognitive interference.
When Athletes Are In the Zone
When the body is brought to peak condition and the mind is completely focused, even unaware of what it's
doing, an individual can achieve the extraordinary (Tolson, 2000). The concept of a zone of optimal functioning
was first introduced by Russian psychologist Yuri Hanin (1980) when he presented his theory of optimal
functioning relative to state anxiety. Another individual who is often mentioned in discussion of the "zone" is
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, (1975) who generated the concept of FLOW. Being a "physical genius" is not just
being in the "zone", it is perfecting your game mentally and physically, so that you are in the "zone" when you
need to be.
In learning a new sport skill, an athlete must focus upon controlled processing of information. This means
that the athlete must attend to the details of executing the skill to be learned. For example, a beginning
basketball player's attention is focused on learning how to dribble a basketball, to the exclusion of other
important cues. Controlled processing is relatively slow and effortless, consuming most of the available
information processing capacity of the individual.
Once a sport skill is mastered, it comes under automatic processing. The execution of the skill is still being
monitored by the brain, but because it is well learned it requires little conscious attention. Now, the basketball
player will be focusing most of the available information processing space on other basketball related cues.
The perfect execution of a sport skill is best thought of as an elegant interaction between mind and body.
Measuring Attentional Focus
Landers (1988) identified three primary ways in which attention may be measured by sport psychologists. In
method one a behavioral assessment of attention is made using the reaction time probe technique. In this
procedure, attention demands of a primary are estimated based on a subject's performance on a secondary
reaction time task. The second method used by sport psychologists for assessing attention is the use of
psychological indicators. Psychological arousal and attentional focus are closely related. As the level of arousal
increases, an individual's attentional focus tends narrows. The third method is through the use of the self-report.
The self report method is more of an indicator of attentional focus as a personality trait or disposition
Attention Control Training
Sport psychologists have written extensively about attention control training (Nideffer, 1992; Nideffer & Sagal,
1998; Schmid & Peper, 1998; Zinsser, Bunker, & Williams, 2001). The primary component of attention control
training (ACT) is the process of narrowing or widening attention through arousal management strategies.
Focusing Attention
As an athlete prepares for competition, she will focus her attention internally, as she considers thoughts and
feelings associated with analyzing and rehearsing; and externally, as she assesses the situation, teammates, and
opponents. Attention control required for actual competition is generally externally focused and ranges from
narrow to broad, depending on the situation.
Thought Stopping and Centering
In addition to arousal management, attention training must teach the athlete how to eliminate negative
thoughts. Self-talk is an attentional strategy designed to focus an athlete on positive thoughts and
Sport Psychology (PSY407)
behaviors. It is critically important that the athlete learns to use attention to stop negative thoughts and
to focus on positive thoughts. Attention control is a technique designed to keep the athlete from slipping
into a cycle of anxiety and self-doubt.
It is important for an athlete to approach every sport situation with a positive attitude and belief that she
can win. When negative thoughts come into consciousness, they must be removed or replaced by
positive thoughts. The process of stopping a negative thought and replacing it with a positive one is
referred to as thought stopping (Zinsser et al, 2001). It is a basic principle of psychology that an athlete
cannot give quality attention to more than one attention-demanding task at a time. Once the negative
thought has been displaced, the athlete centers her attention internally. The process of centering
involves directing thoughts internally. Many athletes accomplish this by taking a deep breath and exhaling
The following basic steps are used in the thought-stopping and creating procedure:
Displace any negative thought that comes into your mind with a positive thought.
Center your attention internally while making minor adjustments in arousal.
Narrowly focus your attention externally on a task-relevant cue associated with proper form.
Execute the sport skill as soon as you have achieved a feeling of attentional control.
Learning the thought-stopping and centering procedure takes practice. The critical point to understand is
that negative thoughts can be displaced, and that though the process of centering, the thoughts that
capture attention can be controlled. The conscious process of thought stopping and centering will divert
the athlete's attention from threatening thoughts and anxiety-producing stimuli. Selective attention will
effectively gate out the unwanted thoughts if the correct thoughts are pertinent and meaningful to the
Associative Versus Dissociative Attentional Style
Morgan (1978) hypothesized that marathon runners adopt one of two attentional styles to assist them in
training and competition. The associators internalize the directions dimension of attention and focus on
the body's sensory feedback signals. The dissociators externalize the direction dimension of attention and
gate out or block sensory information from the body.
Measurement of Attentional Style
Masters and Ogle (1998a) noted that researchers have utilized six different methods of measurements.
Methods of measurement include:
Pencil-and-paper inventories
Structured interviews
Tape recording during running
Objective data
Subjective data
Experimenter rating
Pencil-and-paper inventories include the Running Style Questionnaire (RSQ; Silva & Appelbaum, 1989);
Brewer, Van Raalte & Linder, 19996), and the Thoughts During Running Scale (TDRS; Goode & Roth,
Sport Psychology (PSY407)
Cox, H. Richard. (2002). Sport Psychology: Concepts and Applications. (Fifth Edition). New York: McGraw-
Hill Companies
Lavallec. D., Kremer, J., Moran, A., & Williams. M. (2004) Sports Psychology: Contemporary Themes. New
York: Palgrave Macmillan Publishers
Table of Contents:
  1. SPORT PSYCHOLOGY DEFINED:Issue of Certification, The Research Sport Psychologist
  2. SELF-CONFIDENCE AND SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Successful Performance, Verbal persuasion
  3. SELECTING SELF-TALK STATEMENTS:Skill accusation, Controlling effort
  4. GOAL ORIENTATION:Goal Involvement, Motivational Climate
  5. CAUSAL ATTRIBUTION IN SPORT:Fritz Heiderís Contribution, Other Considerations
  7. MOTIVATION IN SPORT:Social Factors, Success and Failure, Coachesí Behavior
  9. PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE GOAL SETTING:Clearly identify time constraints
  10. A TEAM APPROACH TO SETTING GOALS:The Planning Phase, The Meeting Phase
  11. YOUTH SPORT:Distress and anxiety, Coach-Parent Relationships
  12. ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION IN SPORT:Information Processing, Memory Systems
  13. ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION IN SPORT:Measuring Attentional Focus
  14. PERSONALITY AND THE ATHLETE:Personality Defined, Psychodynamic Theory
  15. THE MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY:Projective Procedures, Structured Questionnaire
  16. PERSONALITY AND THE ATHLETE:Athletic Motivation Inventory, Personality Sport Type
  21. COPING STRATEGIES IN SPORT:Measurement of Coping Skill
  22. RELAXATION STRATEGIES FOR SPORT:Progressive Relaxation, Autogenic Training
  23. AROUSAL ENERGIZING STRATEGIES:Team Energizing Strategies, Fan Support
  24. AROUSAL ENERGIZING STRATEGIES:Precompetition Workout, Individual Goal Setting
  25. IMAGERY:Skill Level of the Athletes, Time Factors and Mental Practice
  26. IMAGERY:Symbolic Learning Theory, Imagery Perspective. Sensory Mode
  27. IMAGERY:Paivioís Two-Dimensional Model, Developing Imagery Skills
  28. THE ROLE OF HYPNOSIS IN SPORT:Defining Hypnosis, Social-Cognitive Theory
  29. THE ROLE OF HYPNOSIS IN SPORT:Achieving the Hypnotic Trance, Hypnotic Phase
  30. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING:Psychological Skills Training Program
  31. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING:Performance profiling, Performance routines
  32. ETHICS IN SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Competence, Integrity, Social Responsibility
  33. AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE IN SPORT:Defining Aggression, Catharsis hypothesis
  34. AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE IN SPORT:The Catharsis Effect, Fan Violence
  35. AUDIENCE AND CROWD EFFECTS IN SPORTS:Social Facilitation, Crowd Hostility
  36. TEAM COHESION IN SPORT:Measurement of Team Cohesion
  37. TEAM COHESION IN SPORT:Predicting Future Participation, Team Building
  38. LEADERSHIP IN SPORT:Fiedlerís Contingency Theory, Coach-Athlete Compatibility
  39. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Special Populations, Clinical Patients
  40. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Social Interaction Hypothesis, Amine Hypothesis
  41. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:The Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory
  42. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Exercise Addiction, Bulimia Nervosa, Muscle Dysmorphia
  43. BURNOUT IN ATHLETES:Overtraining and Overreaching, Recommended Intervention
  44. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ATHLETIC INJURIES:Personality Factors, Coping Resources
  45. DRUG ABUSE IN SPORT AND EXERCISE:Stimulants, Depressants