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History and Systems of Psychology

ANTI-PSYCHIATRY MOVEMENT:D.L. Rosenhan, R.D. Laing, Aaron Esterson

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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Lesson 40
ANTI-PSYCHIATRY MOVEMENT
Anti-psychiatry refers to approaches which fundamentally challenge the theory or practice of mainstream
psychiatry in general and biological psychiatry in particular. Anti-psychiatric criticisms of mainstream
psychiatry include that it uses medical concepts and tools inappropriately, that it treats patients against their
will or inappropriately dominates other approaches to mental health, that its medical and ethical integrity are
compromised by its financial and professional links with pharmaceutical companies, and that it uses a
system of categorical diagnosis that is stigmatizing and is perceived by too many of its patients as
demeaning and controlling.
A significant minority of mental health professionals and acsademics profess anti-psychiatry views, and even
some psychiatrists hold such views in regard to mainstream (biological) psychiatry. Psychiatrists generally
view anti-psychiatry as a fringe movement with little or no scientific validity, although it is difficult to
quantify the proportion of the general public or professionals involved, or the range of views held.
D.L. Rosenhan
Anti-psychiatry movement can be understood by looking at an experiment undertaken by an American
psychologist D.L. Rosenhan. The experiment was that, three women and five men who were perfectly
normal and most of them were well educated, entered in 12 mental institutions of different places in U.S.A.
They posed as mental patients saying that they hear voices, but apart from this, offered completely correct
information about themselves. These "patients" remained in hospitals for 19 days on the average. Based
upon the experiences of these posing patients, Rosenhan concluded that:
·
It is impossible to distinguish between normal people and patients according to the rules and
procedures of mental hospitals.
·
Mental hospitals leave extremely negative effects on inmates.
·
Mental hospitals treat patients without pity and with cruelty.
·
That the overall environment of mental hospitals needs great improvement.
Further, research showed in this context that up to 80% patients released from mental hospitals went back
and are re-admitted.
So a realization arose among psychologists that the methods of treatment being used by psychiatrists were
inadequate and inappropriate for the treatment of mental disorders. Some psychologists and psychiatrists
rejected these methods, and that is why their approach is called Anti-Psychiatry.
R.D. Laing
R.D. Laing was a British psychiatrist, who was born in 1927 and died in 1989. Laing wrote extensively on
mental illness and particularly the experience of psychosis. He is being noted for his views, influenced by
existential philosophy, on the causes and treatment of mental illness, which went against the psychiatric
orthodoxy of the time by taking the expressions or communications of the individual patient or client as
representing valid descriptions of live experience or reality rather than focusing on symptoms of some
separate or underlying disorder. He is often associated with the anti-psychiatry movement, although like
many of his contemporaries also critics of psychiatry, he himself rejected this label. He made a significant
contribution to the ethics of psychology.
His book "The Divided Self" appeared in 1959 and is considered to represent the basic view of anti-
psychiatry movement. Laing used the existential philosophy to understand and explain the concept of
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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
mental illness, thereby trying to look at schizophrenia from the patient's point of view. He was against
labeling mental diseases, because he thought that from the patient's view, he is not suffering from a disease.
In his opinion labeling was used to control people. In other words, in his own view no patient was sick. All
that he was suffering from was labeled on him by the people who are treating him. Therefore, Laing
suggested that the patient's point of view should be kept in mind while treating mental diseases.
In his view the cause of mental disease was division in the self and the therapy suggested by Laing is known
as "Metanoia." Metanoia means a change in the mind. This could be achieved in various ways such as arts,
discussions, seminars, etc. He established a place called Kingsley Hall where activities such as seminars,
discussions, dance, yoga, painting, stitching were carried out to create and achieve metanoia.
Aaron Esterson
Another prominent psychologist in anti-psychiatry movement was Aaron Esterson who was born in 1923
and died in 1982.
Esterson focused on family therapy and showed that the family picks up a person and then labels that
person "mad." This is called scapegoating. In his book he relates the case of a young girl who was thought
by her parents to be mentally sick but in reality she was healthy. Therefore Esterson showed that madness
or schizophrenia is an expression of scapegoating of the family. His method of treatment was to expose the
mechanisms of scapegoating to the patient and make the patient realize that he or she was not sick but was
just being called sick. In that way the patient would be able to deal with any future labeling upon him.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Methodology, Grading, Course Overview up to Midterm
  2. ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY/PSYCHOLOGY:Socrates, Plato
  3. GREEK THINKERS:Aristotle, Contiguity, Contrast
  4. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Saint Augustine, Avicenna
  5. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Al-Ghazali, Ibn-Rushd, Averroes
  6. RENAISSANCE:Rene Descartes
  7. ASSOCIATIONISTS:Thomas Hobbes, John Locke
  8. ASSOCIATIONISTS:David Hume, FRENCH REVOLUTION, Denis Diderot
  9. GERMAN CONTRIBUTION:Wilhelm Liebniz, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Hegel
  10. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
  11. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Ivan Pavlov, Reflex, Acquisition
  12. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Vladimir Bekhterev
  13. IMPACT OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES ON PSYCHOLOGY:Charles Darwin, Gustav Fechner
  14. STRUCTURALIST SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY:Wilhelm Wundt
  15. FUNCTIONALISM:William James, John Dewey
  16. EUROPEAN FUNCTIONALISTS:David Katz, Edgar Rubin, Jean Piaget
  17. BEHAVIORISM:Edward Lee Thorndike, Law of belongingness
  18. BEHAVIORISM:Albert Weiss, Edwin Holt, Learning, Canalization, Walter Hunter
  19. BEHAVIORISM:J.B.Watson
  20. NEO-BEHAVIOURISTS:Clark Hull, Edward Tolman, Edwin Gutherie
  21. NEO-BEHAVIORISTS:B.F. Skinner, Karl Lashley, Donald Hebb, Hobart Mowrer
  22. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Max Wertheimer, Similarity, Proximity, Closure
  23. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka, Edward De Bono
  24. GESTALT SCHOOL AND DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY:Kurt Lewin, DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY
  25. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Leon Vygotsky, Sergei Rubenstein
  26. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Alexei Leontiev, K.M Bykov
  27. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL DISORDERS
  28. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL ILLNESS:Philippe Pinel, Sameul Tuke
  29. SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT:The Superego
  30. SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTICAL MOVEMENT:Anna Freud
  31. CARL JUNG AND ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  32. JUNG’S ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  33. ALFRED ADLER AND INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY:Alfred Adler
  34. NEO-FREUDIANS:Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney
  35. NEO-FREUDIANS:Karen Horney, Erich Fromm
  36. ERIKSON and MORENO:J.L. Moreno, Protagonist, Audience, Role playing
  37. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY:Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Positive Psychology
  38. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT
  39. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT:Biological Approaches
  40. ANTI-PSYCHIATRY MOVEMENT:D.L. Rosenhan, R.D. Laing, Aaron Esterson
  41. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD:Frantz Fanon
  42. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD CHINA AND PAKISTAN
  43. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21st CENTURY
  44. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Consumer Psychology
  45. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Sports Psychology, Positive Psychology