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Principles of Management

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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
Session 14.42
UNDERSTANDING MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
INTRODUCTION
Communication between managers and employees provides the information necessary to get work done
effectively and efficiently in organizations. In this and following lecture, basic concepts in managerial
communications will be presented including: the interpersonal communication process, methods of
communicating, barriers to effective communications and ways to overcome these barriers, communication
flow and communication networks, and contemporary issues and challenges associated with electronic
communications and information technology.
The Nature of managerial communication
A.
Communication is the transfer and understanding of meaning.
1.
If no information or ideas have been conveyed or transferred, communication hasn't taken place.
2.
For communication to be successful, the meaning must be imparted and understood.
B.
Good communication does not require agreement with the message, just clear understanding of the
message.
C.
Managerial communication encompasses both interpersonal communication (between two or
more people) and organizational communication (all the patterns, networks, and system of
communication within an organization).
D.
Communication and associated interpersonal processes are important ingredients of
organizational effectiveness.
E.
Communication is the exchange of messages between people for the purpose of achieving
common meanings.
F.
Managers use two types of communication in their work.
1.
Verbal communication is the use of words to communicate.
a.
Written communication includes letters, memoranda, reports, newsletters,
policy manuals, etc.
b.
Disadvantage includes the fact that the conversations may be time-
consuming and difficult to terminate, and that additional time may have to
be spent to document what was said.
2.
Nonverbal communication is communication by means of elements and
behaviors that are not coded into words.
3.
Nonverbal Communication is communication transmitted without words. The best-known types
of nonverbal communication are body language and verbal intonation.
a.
Body language refers to gestures, facial expressions, and other body movements that convey
meaning.
b.
Verbal intonation refers to the emphasis someone gives to words or phrases that convey meaning.
The communication process can be analyzed into its basic components
1.
The sender is the initiator of the message.
2.
Encoding is the process of translating the intended meaning into symbols.
a.
Symbols include words and gestures.
b.
The sender's choice of symbols depends upon
1)
Sender encoding skills.
2)
Assessments of the ability of the intended receiver to understand
various symbols
3)
Judgments regarding the appropriateness of the use of certain
symbols
4)
Past experience in similar situations
5)
Job status and education
6)
Emotional state at the time of the communication attempt
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
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3.
The message is the encoding-process outcome, which consists of verbal and
nonverbal symbols that have been developed to convey meaning to the receiver.
a.
The medium is the method used to convey the message to the intended
receiver, e.g., telephone, meeting, formal report.
b.
Factors to consider when selecting a medium include relative speed, cost,
intelligibility, convenience, timing, flow of communication, feedback
options, interpersonal dynamics, and documentation.
4.
The receiver is the person with whom the message is exchanged.
a.
Decoding is the process of translating the symbols into the interpreted message.
1)
Effective communication results in the senders and receivers achieving a common meaning.
2)
The receiver needs to consider the medium and the context of the message.
b.
Noise is any factor in the communication process that interferes with exchanging messages and
achieving common meaning.
c.
Feedback is the basic response of the receiver to the interpreted message.
1)
The receiver becomes the sender during feedback.
2)
Feedback provides preliminary information to the sender about the success of the communication.
3)
One-way communication is the communication that results when the communication process
does not allow for feedback.
4)
Two-way communication is the communication that results when the communication process
explicitly includes feedback.
Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication
1.
Filtering is the deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favorable to the
receiver.
a.
As information is communicated up through the organizational levels, it's condensed and
synthesized, and those doing the condensing filter communication through their personal interests
and perceptions of what is important.
b.
The more that organizational cultural reward emphasizes style and appearance, the more that
managers will be motivated to filter communications in their favor.
2.
Selective perception is when people selectively interpret what they see or hear on the basis of
their interests, background, experience, and attitudes.
3.
Emotions influence how a receiver interprets a message when it is received. It's best to avoid
reacting to a message when the receiver is upset because he/she is not likely to be thinking clearly.
4.
Information overload happens when the information we have to work with exceeds our
processing--such as 600 waiting e-mail messages in the inbox.
a.
Receivers tend to select out, ignore, pass over, or forget information when they have too much
information.
b.
Or, receivers may put off further processing until the overload situation is over--still ineffective
communication.
5.
Defensiveness--engaging in behaviors such as verbally attacking others, making sarcastic remarks,
being overly judgmental, and questioning others' motives--happens when people feel that they're
being threatened.
6.
Language--words mean different things to different people.
a.
Age, education, and cultural background can influence language use and definition given to words
b.
Jargon is specialized terminology or technical language that members of a group use to
communicate among themselves.
7.
National culture can affect the way a manager chooses to communicate.
Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication
1.
Use feedback. This feedback can be verbal or nonverbal.
2.
Simplify language.
3.
Listen actively.
a.
Listening is an active search for meaning, whereas hearing is passive.
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
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b.
Active listening is listening for full meaning without making premature judgments or
interpretations, and demands total concentration.
c.
Active listening is enhanced by developing empathy with the sender--placing yourself in the
sender's position.
d.
Emotions: The simplest answer is for a manager to refrain from communicating until he/she has
regained composure.
4.
Watch nonverbal cues--actions speak louder than words.
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
A.
Formal versus Informal Communication.
1.
Formal communication refers to communication that follows the official chain of command or is
part of the communication required to do one's job.
2.
Informal communication is organizational communication that is not defined by the
organization's structural hierarchy.
a.
Informal communication systems permit employees to satisfy their needs for social interaction.
b.
Informal communication systems can improve an organization's performance by creating
alternative, and frequently faster and more efficient, channels of communication.
Direction of Communication Flow
1.
Downward communication--flows from a manager to employees and is used to inform, direct,
coordinate, and evaluate employees.
2.
Upward communication flows from employees to managers
a.
Upward communication can be used in order to keep managers aware of how employees feel about
their jobs, their coworkers, and the organization in general.
b.
The organizational culture influences the extent of upward communication. A climate of trust,
respect, and participative decision making will encourage considerable upward communication. A
highly mechanistic and authoritarian environment will severely limit upward communication in
both style and content.
3.
Lateral communication takes place among employees on the same organizational level.
4.
Diagonal communication is communication that cuts across both work areas and organizational
levels.
a.
The increased use of e-mail facilitates diagonal communications.
b.
Diagonal communication has the potential to create problems if employees don't keep their
managers informed.
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Table of Contents:
  1. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT:The Egyptian Pyramid, Great China Wall
  2. MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS:Why Study Management?
  3. MANAGERIAL ROLES IN ORGANIZATIONS:Informational roles, Decisional roles
  4. MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS I.E. POLCA:Management Process, Mistakes Managers Make
  5. MANAGERIAL LEVELS AND SKILLS:Middle-level managers, Top managers
  6. MANAGEMENT IDEAS: YESTERDAY AND TODAY, Anthropology, Economics
  7. CLASSICAL VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Scientific management
  8. ADMINISTRATIVE VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Division of work, Authority
  9. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT:The Hawthorne Studies
  10. QUANTITATIVE, CONTEMPORARY AND EMERGING VIEWS OF MANAGEMENT
  11. SYSTEMíS VIEW OF MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION:Managing Systems
  12. ANALYZING ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
  13. 21ST CENTURY MANAGEMENT TRENDS:Organizational social Responsibility
  14. UNDERSTANDING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT WTO AND SAARC
  15. DECISION MAKING AND DECISION TAKING
  16. RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Models of Decision Making
  17. NATURE AND TYPES OF MANAGERIAL DECISIONS:Decision-Making Styles
  18. NON RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Group Decision making
  19. GROUP DECISION MAKING AND CREATIVITY:Delphi Method, Scenario Analysis
  20. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-I:Methods of Forecasting, Benchmarking
  21. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-II:Budgeting, Scheduling, Project Management
  22. PLANNING: FUNCTIONS & BENEFITS:HOW DO MANAGERS PLAN?
  23. PLANNING PROCESS AND GOAL LEVELS:Types of Plans
  24. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE (MBO):Developing Plans
  25. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT -1:THE IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
  26. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT - 2:THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
  27. LEVELS OF STRATEGIES, PORTERíS MODEL AND STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT (BCG) AND IMPLEMENTATION
  28. ENTREPRENEURSHIP MANAGEMENT:Why Is Entrepreneurship Important?
  29. ORGANIZING
  30. JOB DESIGN/SPECIALIZATION AND DEPARTMENTALIZATION
  31. SPAN OF COMMAND, CENTRALIZATION VS DE-CENTRALIZATION AND LINE VS STAFF AUTHORITY
  32. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND ORGANIC VS MECHANISTIC VS VIRTUAL STRUCTURES
  33. LEADING AND LEADERSHIP MOTIVATING SELF AND OTHERS
  34. MASLOWíS NEEDS THEORY AND ITS ANALYSIS
  35. OTHER NEED AND COGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  36. EXPECTANCY, GOAL SETTING AND RE-ENFORCEMENT THEORIES
  37. MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE PROFESSIONALS LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORIES
  38. BEHAVIORAL AND SITUATIONAL MODELS OF LEADERSHIP
  39. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP MODELS
  40. UNDERSTANDING GROUP DYNAMICS IN ORGANIZATIONS
  41. GROUP CONCEPTS, STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT AND TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
  42. UNDERSTANDING MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  43. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND CHANNELS EFFECT OF ICT ON MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  44. CONTROLLING AS A MANAGEMENT FUNCTION:The control process
  45. CONTROLLING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY