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Human Resource Development

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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
VU
Lesson 11
TYPES OF TRANSACTIONS
Within ego states there are three different types of transaction: complementary, crossed, and ulterior
Complementary Transactions
A complementary transaction occurs when the sender of the message gets the intended response from the
receiver. For example, an employee makes a mistake and, wanting some sympathy, apologizes to the boss.
Employee ­ `I just dropped the thing when I was almost done. Now I have to do it all over again.'
Supervisor ­ `It happens to all of us; don't worry about it.' This complementary transaction is illustrated below.
SUPERVISOR
EMPLOYEE
P
P
A
A
C
C
Another example of a complementary transaction is a supervisor who wants a job done and delegates it,
expecting the employee to do it. The supervisor behaves on an adult-to-adult level. Supervisor ­ `please get this
order ready for me by two o'clock.' Employee ­ `I'll have it done before two o' clock, no problem.'
Generally, complementary transactions result in more effective communication with fewer hurt feelings and
arguments. In other words, they help human relations and performance. Exceptions are if an employee uses an
adapted child or critical parent ego state and the supervisor does, too. These complementary transactions can
lead to problems.
Crossed Transactions
Crossed transactions occur when the sender of the message does not get the expected response from the
receiver. Returning to our first example: Employee ­ `I just dropped the thing when I was almost done. Now I
have to do it all over again.' Supervisor ­ `you are so clumsy.' This transaction is illustrated below.
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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
VU
SUPERVISOR
EMPLOYEE
P
P
A
A
C
C
From our second example: Supervisor ­ `please get this order ready for me by two o' clock.' Employee ­ `why
do I have to do it? Why don't you do it yourself? I am busy.' This cross transaction is an adult ­ adapted ­ to ­
child response.
Generally, cross transactions result in surprise, disappointment, and hurt feelings for the sender of the message.
The unexpected response often gets the person emotional, which often results in his or her changing to the
adapted child ego sate, which causes the communication to deteriorate further. Cross transactions often end in
arguments and hurt human relations.
Cross transactions can be helpful when the negative parent or child ego response is crossed with an adult
response. This cross over may result in the preferred adult ­ to ­ adult conversation.
Ulterior Transactions
Ulterior, or hidden, transactions occur when the words seem to be coming from one ago state, but in reality the
words or behaviors are coming from another. For example, after a training program, one of the participants
came up to a consultant asking advice on an adult ego sate. When the consultant gave advice, the participant
twice had quick responses as to why the advice would not work (child rather than adult behavior). The
consultant realized that what the participant actually wanted was sympathetic understanding for his situation,
not advice. The consultant stopped making suggestions and listened actively, using reflective responses. The
consultant changed from the adult to the sympathetic parent ego state in order to have a complimentary
transaction.
Sometimes people don't know what they want or how to ask for it in a direct way, so they use ulterior
transactions. When possible, it is best to avoid ulterior transactions because they tend to waste time. Avoid
making people search for your hidden meanings. Plan your message before you send it. When receiving
messages look for ulterior transactions and turn them into complimentary transactions, as stated above.
Life Positions
Attitudes affect your behavior and human relations. Within the TA framework, you have attitudes toward
yourself and toward others. Positive attitudes are described as OK, and negative attitudes are described as
NOT OK. The four life positions are illustrated below.
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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
VU
I'm OK ­ You're not OK
I'm OK ­ You're OK
POSITIVE
Attitude towards
oneself
I'm not OK ­ You're not OK
I'm not OK ­ You're OK
NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE
POSITVE
Attitudes toward others
The most desirable life position is shown in the upper right hand box: "I am OK ­ You are OK". With a
positive attitude towards yourself and others, you have a greater chance for having adult ­ to ­ adult ego state
communication. You can change your attitude, and you should, if they are not positive, to create win ­ win
situations. People with a positive self-concept tend to have positive attitudes.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  2. FOUNDATIONS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR:Attitudes, Personality, Emotional Intelligence
  3. PERCEPTION:Attribution Theory, Shortcuts Frequently Used in Judging Others
  4. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION:Why Choose Big Five Framework?, THE OUTCOME OF FIVE FACTOR MODEL
  5. FIVE FACTOR MODEL:The Basis of Intrinsically Motivated Behavior, Intrinsic Motivation and Values
  6. MOTIVATION:EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION, Designing Motivating Jobs
  7. The Motivation Process:HOW TO MOTIVATE A DIVERSE WORKFORCE?,
  8. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION:PRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
  9. THE WORLD BEYOND WORDS:DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION, MINDFUL LISTENING
  10. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS:EGO STATES, Parent Ego State, Child Ego State
  11. TYPES OF TRANSACTIONS:Complementary Transactions, Crossed Transactions, Ulterior Transactions
  12. NEURO-LINGUISTIC-PROGRAMMING
  13. CREATE YOUR OWN BLUEPRINT
  14. LEADERSHIP:ORGANIZATIONAL DEMOCRACY
  15. LEADERSHIP:Environment and Strategic Leadership Link, Concluding Remarks
  16. UNDERSTANDING GROUP BEHAVIOR:Stages of Group Development, Advantages of Group Decision Making
  17. UNDERSTANDING TEAM BEHAVIOR:TYPES OF TEAMS, Characteristics of Effective Teams,
  18. EMOTIONAL FACET:PHYSICAL FACET
  19. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT & THE ROLE OF GOVERNACE:Rule of Law, Transparency,
  20. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and Its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  21. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI):Methodology,
  22. REPORTS:Criticisms of Freedom House Methodology, GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS
  23. SECTORS OF A SOCIETY: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS:PUBLIC SECTOR, PRIVATE SECTOR
  24. NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS):Types, Methods, Management, Citizen organization
  25. HEALTH SECTOR:Health Impact of the Lebanon Crisis, Main Challenges,
  26. A STUDY ON QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE
  27. ADULT EDUCATION:Lifelong learning
  28. THE PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ADULT EDUCATION:Problems of Adult Literacy, Strategies for Educating Adults for the Future
  29. TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION:VET Internationally, Technical Schools
  30. ASSESSING THE LINK BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL FORMATION AND PERFORMANCE OF A UNIVERSITY
  31. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION:Social responsibility, Curriculum content
  32. ENVIRONMENT:Dark Greens and Light Greens, Environmental policy instruments
  33. HDI AND GENDER SENSITIVITY:Gender Empowerment Measure
  34. THE PLIGHT OF INDIAN WOMEN:
  35. ENTREPRENEURSHIP:Characteristics of entrepreneurship, Advantages of Entrepreneurship
  36. A REVISIT OF MODULE I & II
  37. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT & ECONOMIC GROWTH (1975 TO 2003):
  38. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP:Origins, The Desired Outcomes of PPPs
  39. PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP):Situation in Pakistan,
  40. DEVOLUTION REFORMS A NEW SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT:
  41. GOOD GOVERNANCE:Participation, Rule of law, Accountability
  42. MACROECONOMIC PROFILE OF A COUNTRY: EXAMPLE ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN
  43. COORDINATION IN GOVERNANCE: AN EXAMPLE OF EU, The OMC in Social Inclusion
  44. MOBILIZING REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: THE ASEAN UNIVERSITY NETWORK, A CASE STUDY
  45. GOVERNMENT PRIORITIES AND POLICIES:Role of Government, Socio Cultural Factors in Implementing HRD Programs