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Human Resource Development

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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
VU
Lesson 10
TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS
Transactional analysis (TA) provides useful models for leadership styles. Eric Berne developed transactional
analysis, and it has been applied, and written about ever since. TA has been used with organizational
development and to improve quality of work life. Recently TA has been used to develop multinational
corporations prepare mangers to operate efficiently within other cultures. TA is being used within relationship
marketing to develop good human relations with customers.
Transactional analysis is a method of understanding behavior in interpersonal dynamics. When you talk to
someone about anything, you are involved in interpersonal dynamics, and a series of transactions take place. An
organization is a product of the process of its human relations.
Organizations have trained their employees in TA to improve their ability to handle difficult personal
situations. A few of these companies include Pan American World Airways, the United Telephone Company of
Texas, and Pitney Bowes. Studying TA can help you better understand people's behavior, and how to deal with
emotions in a more positive way.
Below are three ego states, types of transactions, and life positions and stroking. Keep in mind that people are
diverse and you will encounter a variety of ego states.
EGO STATES
According to Berne, we all have three major ego states that affect our behavior or the way we transact. The
three ego states are the parent, child, and adult. We change ego states throughout the day, and even during a single
discussion a series of transactions can take place between different ego states. Your parent, child, and adult ego
states interact with other people's parent, child, and adult ego states. Understanding the ego state of the person
you are interacting with can help you to understand his or her behavior and how to transact in an effective way.
Parent Ego State
When the parent ego is in control, people behave from one of two perspectives:
1. Critical Parent. When you behave and respond with evaluative responses that are critical, judgmental,
opinionated, demanding, disapproving, disciplining, and so on, you are in critical parent ego state. People
in the critical parent ego use a lot of do's and don'ts. Managers using the autocratic style tend to be in
critical parent ego state because they use high task/directive behavior.
2. Sympathetic Parent. On the other hand, you can also be a different type of parent. When you behave and
respond with reassuring response that are protecting, permitting, consoling, caring, nurturing, and so on,
you are in sympathetic parent ego state. Managers using the consultative and participative styles tend to be
in sympathetic parent ego state because they are using high supportive/relationship behavior.
Child Ego State
When the child ego state is in control, people behave from one of two perspectives:
1. Natural Child. When you behave and respond with probing responses that shows curiosity, intimacy, fun,
joyfulness, fantasy, impulsiveness, and so on, you are in natural child ego state. Successful managers do not
tend to continuously operate from the natural child ego state.
2. Adapted Child. When you behave with confronting responses that express rebelliousness, pouting, anger,
fear, anxiety, inadequacy, procrastination, blaming others, and so on, you are in adapted child ego state.
Managers should avoid behaving from the adapted child ego state because this type of behavior often leads
to the employee becoming emotional and behaving in a similar manner. When managers are transacting
with an employee in this ego state, they should not react with similar behavior, but should be in the adult
ego state.
Adult Ego State
When the adult ego is in control, people behave in a thinking, rational, calculating, factual, unemotional
manner. The adult gathers information, reasons things out, estimates probabilities, and makes decision with
cool and calm behavior. When communicating in the adult ego state, you avoid becoming the victim of the
other person by controlling your response to the situation.
Generally, the most effective behavior, human relations, and performance come from the adult ego state. When
interacting with others, you should be aware of their ego state. Are they acting like a parent, child, or adult?
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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
VU
Identifying their ego state will help you understand why they are behaving the way they are and help you to
determine which ego state you should use during the interaction. For example, if the person is acting like an
adult, you most likely should, too. If the person is acting like a child, it may be appropriate way for you to act
like a parent rather than an adult. And there are times when it is appropriate for you to act out of the child ego
state and have a good time.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  2. FOUNDATIONS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR:Attitudes, Personality, Emotional Intelligence
  3. PERCEPTION:Attribution Theory, Shortcuts Frequently Used in Judging Others
  4. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION:Why Choose Big Five Framework?, THE OUTCOME OF FIVE FACTOR MODEL
  5. FIVE FACTOR MODEL:The Basis of Intrinsically Motivated Behavior, Intrinsic Motivation and Values
  6. MOTIVATION:EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION, Designing Motivating Jobs
  7. The Motivation Process:HOW TO MOTIVATE A DIVERSE WORKFORCE?,
  8. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION:PRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
  9. THE WORLD BEYOND WORDS:DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION, MINDFUL LISTENING
  10. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS:EGO STATES, Parent Ego State, Child Ego State
  11. TYPES OF TRANSACTIONS:Complementary Transactions, Crossed Transactions, Ulterior Transactions
  12. NEURO-LINGUISTIC-PROGRAMMING
  13. CREATE YOUR OWN BLUEPRINT
  14. LEADERSHIP:ORGANIZATIONAL DEMOCRACY
  15. LEADERSHIP:Environment and Strategic Leadership Link, Concluding Remarks
  16. UNDERSTANDING GROUP BEHAVIOR:Stages of Group Development, Advantages of Group Decision Making
  17. UNDERSTANDING TEAM BEHAVIOR:TYPES OF TEAMS, Characteristics of Effective Teams,
  18. EMOTIONAL FACET:PHYSICAL FACET
  19. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT & THE ROLE OF GOVERNACE:Rule of Law, Transparency,
  20. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and Its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  21. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI):Methodology,
  22. REPORTS:Criticisms of Freedom House Methodology, GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS
  23. SECTORS OF A SOCIETY: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS:PUBLIC SECTOR, PRIVATE SECTOR
  24. NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS):Types, Methods, Management, Citizen organization
  25. HEALTH SECTOR:Health Impact of the Lebanon Crisis, Main Challenges,
  26. A STUDY ON QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE
  27. ADULT EDUCATION:Lifelong learning
  28. THE PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ADULT EDUCATION:Problems of Adult Literacy, Strategies for Educating Adults for the Future
  29. TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION:VET Internationally, Technical Schools
  30. ASSESSING THE LINK BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL FORMATION AND PERFORMANCE OF A UNIVERSITY
  31. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION:Social responsibility, Curriculum content
  32. ENVIRONMENT:Dark Greens and Light Greens, Environmental policy instruments
  33. HDI AND GENDER SENSITIVITY:Gender Empowerment Measure
  34. THE PLIGHT OF INDIAN WOMEN:
  35. ENTREPRENEURSHIP:Characteristics of entrepreneurship, Advantages of Entrepreneurship
  36. A REVISIT OF MODULE I & II
  37. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT & ECONOMIC GROWTH (1975 TO 2003):
  38. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP:Origins, The Desired Outcomes of PPPs
  39. PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP):Situation in Pakistan,
  40. DEVOLUTION REFORMS A NEW SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT:
  41. GOOD GOVERNANCE:Participation, Rule of law, Accountability
  42. MACROECONOMIC PROFILE OF A COUNTRY: EXAMPLE ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN
  43. COORDINATION IN GOVERNANCE: AN EXAMPLE OF EU, The OMC in Social Inclusion
  44. MOBILIZING REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: THE ASEAN UNIVERSITY NETWORK, A CASE STUDY
  45. GOVERNMENT PRIORITIES AND POLICIES:Role of Government, Socio Cultural Factors in Implementing HRD Programs