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Leadership and Team Management

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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
Lecture 33
Training and Learning of Team
The HRM view of training: Training refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the
skills they need to perform their jobs. Training today plays a key role in the performance management
process, which is a key process for employers to ensure that employees are working toward
organizational goals.  Overall, training has a fairly impressive record of influencing organizational
effectiveness, scoring higher than appraisal and feedback, and just below goal setting in its effect on
o  Employees recruited for a flexible working role rather than a `job' and for their ability to learn
rather than for pre-existing skills
o  Employees expected to re-train periodically
o  Training seen as an investment not a cost
o  Learning is an ongoing process in the organisation, which is integrated with working
o  Performance, appraisal and development are seen as part of a single process
Purpose of Training:
Effective training can raise performance, improve morale, and increase an organization's potential.
Poor, inappropriate, or inadequate training can be a source of frustration for everyone involved. To
maximize the benefits of training, managers must closely monitor the training process. Training ensures
that Team/Organization meets current and future performance objectives set by top management.
Training also helps in continuous improvement of performance of individuals and teams, and
maximizing people's potential for growth (and promotion).
o  Ensure Team/Organization meets current and future performance objectives by...
o  Continuous improvement of performance of individuals and teams, and...
o  Maximizing people's potential for growth (and promotion)
Training and Development Trends:
Although training is often used with development, the terms are not synonymous. Training typically
focuses on providing employees with specific skills or helping them to correct deficiencies in their
performance. In contrast, development is an effort to provide employees with the abilities that the
organization will need in the future. Preparing them for future.
o  Skill requirements will continue to increase
o  Workforce will become significantly better educated & more diverse
o  Corporate restructuring reshapes businesses
o  Technology will revolutionize certain training delivery methods
o  The role of training departments will change
o  More flexible courses aimed specifically at performance improvement
o  More organizations will strive to become learning-organizations
o  Emphasis on human performance management will accelerate
Investing in people:
"We must transform the perception of training expenditure so that it is no longer seen simply as a cost,
but is regarded as an investment, to be evaluated alongside investments in capital equipment."
"Sir Dennis Rooke, Chairman British Gas, 1987.
Training Methods:
There are different training methods, which are given below;
On-the-Job Training (OJT) ­ means having a person learn a job by actually doing
it, and involves the following:
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
o  Preparing the learner; presenting the operation; doing a tryout; and follow-
Apprenticeship Training ­ is a structured process by which people become skilled
workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training.
Informal Learning ­ involves learning through day-to-day unplanned interactions
between the new worker and his/her colleagues.
Job Instruction Training ­ refers to teaching a new employee the logical sequence
of steps in a job step-by-step.
Lectures ­ quick and simple way to provide knowledge to large groups.
Programmed Learning ­ is a step-by-step self-learning method: 1) presenting
questions, facts, or problems to the learner; 2) allowing the person to respond; and
3) providing feedback on the accuracy of the answers.
Literacy Training Techniques ­ Companies are responding the functional illiteracy
by testing job candidates' basic skills, and setting up basic skills and literacy
Audiovisual Based Training ­ Tools include: films, PowerPoint presentations,
video conferencing, audiotapes, and videotapes.
Simulated Training ­ is a method in which trainees learn on the actual or simulated equipment they
will use on the job, but are actually trained off-the job.
Computer-Based Training ­ is where the trainee uses computer-based and/or DVD
systems to increase his/her knowledge or skills.
CBT programs have real
advantages including reducing learning time, cost effectiveness once designed
and produced, instructional consistency, mastery of learning, increased retention, and
increased trainee motivation.
Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) ­ are sets of computerized tools and
displays that effectively automate and integrate training, documentation, and phone
support, thus enabling individuals to provide support that's faster, cheaper, and more
effective than the traditional methods.
Distance and Internet-Based Training ­ Distance learning methods include traditional
paper-and-pencil correspondence courses, as well as Tele-training, videoconferencing,
and Internet-based classes.
o  Tele-training ­ where a trainer in a central location teaches groups of
employees at remote locations via television hookups.
o  Videoconferencing ­ allows people in one location to communicate live
via a combination of audio and visual equipment with people in different
locations­another city or country or with groups in several cities.
o  Training via the Internet ­ Internet based learning programs are
increasingly popular. Some companies simply let their employees take
online courses offered by online course providers while others use their
intranets to facilitate computer-based training.
Learning Principles
o  Participation
o  Repetition
o  Relevance
o  Transference
o  Feedback
Maximizing Learning:
Selecting the Stage for Learning
Provide clear task instructions
Model appropriate behavior
Increasing Learning during Training
Provide for active participation
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
o  Match training techniques to trainees self-efficacy
o  Ensure specific, timely, diagnostic, and practical feedback
o  Provide opportunities for trainees to practice new behavior
Maintaining Performance after Training
Develop learning points to assist knowledge retention
Set specific goals
Identify appropriate re-enforcers
Teach trainees self-management skills.
Following up on Training
Evaluate effectiveness
Make revisions as needed.
Models of learning:
o  Associative learning: stimulus/response
o  Cognitive learning: problem solving
o  Social learning: watching others
o  Experiential learning: learning by doing
Phases of Learning Cycles
Understand and frame problem
o  Create a shared understanding
o  What is the problem (or opportunity)?
o  What are we trying to do?
o  How are we going to do it?
o  Starts out being general but becomes more defined as you proceeds
Teams plan actions to produce learning by answering
o  What don't we know that we need to know?
o  What actions can we take between now & our next meeting to find out what we need to
o  How can we verify that what we are assuming is actually true?
Team Learning Record
What we Know?
What we Think We
What we Don't Know?
Know? (Assumption) (Question to be answered)
Key to learning is action!
o  Test assumptions
o  Experiment
o  Gather new information
o  Try out hunches
Only by acting do teams have the opportunity to learn
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
Action Plan for Team Learning
What Needs To Be Done?
BY Whom?
By When?
Reflect and Learn
o  Really when team learning occurs
o  Teams need to slow down, reflect on what has happened and capture lessons learned
o  Must occur
 In a spirit of openness
 Not in a climate of self-protection or criticism
Assessing Team Learning
o  Number of learning cycles should be completed.
o  The more cycles completed, the more learning that takes place.
o  Degree to which teams "reframe" their understanding of the original problem.
Breadth (Impact)
o  The impact of the results produced by the team.
o  Degree to which other projects, functional areas, or the organization as a whole is
To Motivate Followers Leaders Must:
o  Set clear standards and goals so that the employee will take more interest.
o  Expect the best from employee.
o  Pay attention towards employees.
o  Personalize rewards and recognition. It will enhance organization performance.
o  Tell a story about winning organization etc.
o  Celebrate ceremonies together.
o  Be a role model for employee.
Factors Affecting Teamwork
Ability to shape role
o  Common purpose
boundaries when needed
o  Mutual respect
Shared responsibility
o  Good communication
o  Good leadership
Common "language"
o  Understanding own role
Professional culture
o  Understanding role of other
team members
Learning Team Assumptions
o  Every member's participation is essential to the team's success
o  Members' roles are fluid
o  Authority is shared
o  Information is freely shared with the team
o  Every team member has something to learn and something to teach.
o  Members don't know precisely what they will learn or what they will teach
o  Team goals include performance and learning expectations
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
Key Characteristics of Successful Learning Teams
o  Clear (and shared) sense of purpose
o  Good communication
o  Freely shared information
o  Shared leadership
o  Interdependence of team members
o  Utilization of members' strengths
o  Mutual encouragement of risk taking
o  Adaptive ­ able change/modify plans when new information and/or circumstances emerge
o  Pride in team identity
Team Learning
o  Continuous improvement process
o  How team resolves conflict
o  How the team handles diversity
o  Harness team creativity
Table of Contents:
  2. FOCUSING ON PEOPLE: THE KEY TO SUCCESS:People in the Process, Developing and Sustaining A World-class Workforce
  3. LEADERSHIP:Characteristics of Successful Leader, Why Study Leadership?
  4. LEADERSHIP (CONTD.):Characteristics of Leaders Who Fail, Why Leaders Fail?
  5. MANAGERS VS LEADERS:Characteristics, Effective Leadership, Respect for Diversity
  6. FOLLOWER-SHIP:Importance of Followers, Follower-ship Style
  7. LEADERSHIP PROCESS:Strategies for Cultivating Exemplary Followers, Important Traits of Leaders
  8. LEADERSHIP PROCESS (CONTD.):Qualities of Leaders, Self-Confidence, Integrity
  9. LEADERSHIP THEORIES/ APPROACHES:Personal Characteristics of Leaders, Managerial Grid
  10. CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP:The Fiedler Model, Situational Leadership Theory, Path-Goal Theory
  12. THE LEADER AS AN INDIVIDUAL:Personality, Situation, Heredity, Environment
  13. ATTITUDE-PERSONALITY:Job Satisfaction, Work Situation, Self - Monitoring
  14. BIG FIVE MODEL, MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI):Sub-Categories Defined, Information Gathering
  15. SITUATIONAL FACTORS:Social and psychological climate, Culture of the organization
  16. BECOMING A LEADER! WHAT DOES IT MEAN & HOW DO YOU GET IT?:Mission Statement, Leading oneself
  17. BECOMING A LEADER:Elements of Leadership, CONCEPT OF POWER,
  18. UNDERSTANDING POWER:Sources of Power, Responses to the Use of Power, Managing Political Behavior
  19. LEADERSHIP POWER & INFLUENCE:Positional Power, Being an Effective Leader
  20. LEADERSHIP AND EMPOWERMENT:Power sharing and Empowerment, Share Information
  21. MOTIVATION:Guidelines for Delegating, Human Resource Approach
  22. MOTIVATION AT WORK, MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:What Factors Diminish Motivation in the Workplace
  23. LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION:Communication & the Four Management Functions
  24. REVIEW-1:Organizational Performance, That is the Role of Management?, Leaders Vs Managers
  25. GROUP & TEAM CONCEPT:Groups versus Teams, Deciding When to Use a Team
  26. TEAM DYNAMICS:Stages of Group Development, Problem-Solving Teams, Benefits of Teams
  27. BUILDING THE TEAM:Leadership success requires, Strategies for Team Building
  28. A TEAM-BASED ORGANIZATION:Basic Steps, Span of Control, Categories of Decisions
  29. DECISION MAKING:Categories of Decisions, The Decision-Making Process
  30. TEAM DECISION MAKING:Team Problem Solving Techniques, Concept of QC
  31. EFFECTIVE TEAM COMMUNICATION:Team/Group Communications
  32. CONFLICT IN TEAM:Sources of Conflict, Scarcity of Resources, Dysfunctional Outcomes
  33. TRAINING/LEARNING OF TEAM:Training Methods, Phases of Learning Cycles
  34. LEARNING ORGANIZATION:A Litmus Test, Work Relations
  35. REWARDING & RECOGNIZING TEAMWORK:Compensating Teams, Individual or Team Rewards?
  36. MANAGING/LEADING VIRTUAL TEAMS:Communications in Virtual Organizations, Virtual Leadership
  37. EFFECTIVE TEAM MEETINGS:Better Meetings, Meeting Roles, Meeting Room Facilities
  38. LEADING TEAM:Team Leadership Structures, Leadership Demands and Duties, Leadership Direction
  39. REVIEW-II:Types of Teams, Characteristics of High Performance Teams, Sources of Conflict
  40. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP:Strategic Management, Determining Strategic Direction, Developing Human Capital:
  41. LEADING CHANGE:Dynamics of Change, Change Models, Unfreeze
  42. CREATIVE LEADERSHIP:Awaken Your Senses, How Might These Definitions Be Integrated
  43. ETHICS IN LEADERSHIP:Character Traits Reflect Ethics, Manifests Honesty
  44. LOOKING AT THE FUTURE: WHAT COMES NEXT:Benefits of Teams, Ethical Leadership,
  45. TEAMWORK: LEARNING FROM NATURE:Social Behavior, Termites, Learning from Nature