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Research Methods

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Research Methods ­STA630
VU
Lesson 10
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
A theoretical framework is conceptual model of how one theorizes or makes logical sense of the
relationships among several factors that have been identified as important to the problem under study.
These factors which may also be called as variables may have been identified through such processes as
interviews with informants, observations, and literature survey. The theoretical framework discusses the
interrelationships among the variables that are considered to be integral to the dynamics of the situation
being investigated. Developing such a conceptual framework helps us to postulate or hypothesize and
test certain relationships and thus improve our understanding of the dynamics of situation.
From the theoretical framework, then, testable hypotheses can be developed to examine whether theory
formulated is valid or not. The hypothesized relationships can thereafter be tested through appropriate
statistical analysis.
Hence the entire research rests on the basis of the theoretical framework.  Even if the testable
hypotheses not necessarily generated, developing a good theoretical framework is central to examining
the problem under investigation.
There is a relationship between the literature survey and the theoretical framework whereby the former
provides a solid foundation for developing the latter. Literature survey helps in the identification of the
relevant variables, as determined by the previous researches.  This in addition to other logical
connections that can be conceptualized forms the basis for the theoretical model. The theoretical
framework elaborates the relationships among the variables, explains the theory underlying these
relations, and describes the nature and direction of the relationships. Just as the literature survey sets the
stage for a good theoretical framework, this in turn provides the logical base for developing useable
hypotheses.
From the preceding discussion it can be concluded that a theoretical framework is none other than
identifying the network of relationships among the variables considered important to the study of any
given problem situation. Therefore, the theoretical framework offers the conceptual foundation for
constructing the edifice of research that is to taken in hand.
Specifically a theoretical framework:
Elaborates the relationship among the variables.
Explains the logic underlying these relationships.
Describes the nature, and direction of the relationships.
In the review of literature it is possible that you may come across a number of theories readily available
for adoption as theoretical framework for the study under consideration. Theories are supposed to be
generic whereby they could be applicable to different situations. Some concepts borrowed from such
theories may have to be replaced with arguments, logic explicated, and the framework may be readily
available. It is also possible that the researcher may combine more than one existing theory and come
up with an entirely new framework, and in the process may develop new concepts as well.
However, in the absence of the ready made conceptual framework the researcher may venture to
develop his/her own framework. Though, the researcher has to depend a lot on the existing body of
literature for the identification of variables as well as for developing a rigorous logical argumentation
for the interrelationships among different variables.
Whether the researcher uses a ready-made theoretical framework or explicates an entirely new one,
there are some essential features that have to be taken into consideration. These features may be called
as components of a theoretical framework.
The Components of the Theoretical Framework
A good theoretical framework identifies and labels the important variables in the situation that are
relevant to the problem identified. It logically describes the interconnections among these variables.
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Research Methods ­STA630
VU
The relationships among the independent variables, the dependent variable(s), and if applicable, the
moderating and intervening variables are elaborated.
The elaboration of the variables in the theoretical framework addresses the issues of why or how we
expect certain relationships to exist, and the nature and direction of the relationships among the
variables of interest. At the end, the whole discussion can be portrayed in a schematic diagram. There
are six basic features that should be incorporated in any theoretical framework. These features are:
1. Make an inventory of variables: For developing a framework it appears essential to identify
the factors relevant to the problem under study. These factors are the empirical realities which
can be named at some abstract level called concepts. The concepts taking more than one value
are the variables. In other words the researcher makes an inventory of relevant variables. The
variables considered relevant to the study should be clearly identified and labeled in the
discussion.
2. Specify the direction of relationship: If the nature and direction of relationship can be
theorized on the basis of the findings of previous research, then there should be an indication in
the discussion as to whether the relationship should be positive or negative.
3. Give a clear explanation of why we should expect the proposed relationships to exist.
There should be clear explanation of why we would expect these relationships to exist. The
arguments could be drawn from the previous research findings. The discussions should state
how two or more variables are related to one another. This should be done for the important
relationships that are theorized to exist among the variables. It is essential to theorize logical
relationship between different variables.
4. Make an inventory of propositions: Stipulation of logical relationship between any two
variables means the formulation of a proposition. If such relationships have been proposed
between different variables, it will result in the formulation of a number of propositions. Let us
call such a collection of propositions as an inventory of propositions. Each proposition is
backed up by strong theoretical argumentation.
5. Arrange these propositions in a sequential order: one proposition generates the next
proposition, which generates the next following proposition, which in turn generates the next
following proposition, and so on. This is an axiomatic way of the derivation of propositions.
Resultantly it will provide us a sequentially arranged set of propositions which are interlinked
and interlocked with each other. Theory, if you remember, is an interrelated set of propositions.
Therefore, the present interrelated set of propositions relevant to a particular problem is in fact a
theoretical framework explaining the pathways of logical relationships between different
variables.
6. Schematic diagram of the theoretical model be given:  A schematic diagram of the
theoretical framework should be given so that the reader can see and easily comprehend the
theorized relationships.
Example:
Research Question: Why middle class families decline in their size?
By following the guidelines discussed earlier let us develop a theoretical framework.
1. Inventory of variables: Education levels of the couples, age at marriage, working women,
rationalism, exposure to mass media of communication, accessibility to health services,
practicing of family planning practices, aspirations about the education of children, shift to
nuclear families, mobility orientation.
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Research Methods ­STA630
VU
2. Specify the direction of relationship: Higher the education higher the age at marriage. Higher
the education of women greater the chances of their being career women. Higher the education
more the rationalism. Higher the education more selective the exposure to mass media of
communication. Higher the education more the accessibility to health services. Higher the
education more the practicing of family planning practices. Higher the education of the parents
the higher their aspirations about the education of their children. Higher the education of the
couple greater thee chances of shifting to nuclear families. Higher the education of the couples
the higher their mobility orientation.
3. Give a clear explanation of why we should expect the proposed relationships to exist. For
example higher the education higher the age at marriage. One could build up the argument like
this: For purposes of getting high levels of education the youngsters spend about 16 years of
their life in educational institutions. Let us say they complete their education at the age of 22
years. After completing education they spend 2-3 years for establishing themselves in their
careers. During this period continue deferring their marriage. By the time they decide about
their marriage they are about 25 years. Compare this age at marriage with the age at marriage
of 16 years. Obviously with this higher age at marriage there is a reduction in the reproductive
period of women. Similarly we can develop logic in support of other proposed relationships.
4. Make an inventory of propositions. The proposed relationships under item 2 about could be
the examples of propositions.
5. Arrange these propositions in a sequential order. These propositions can be arranged
sequentionally.
6. Schematic diagram of the theoretical model be given
Voluntary Job Turnover:
Inventory of variables:
Equity of pay, job complexity, participation of decision making, job satisfaction, job
performance, labor market conditions, number of organization, personal characteristics,
expectation of finding an alternatives, intentions to quit, job turnover.
Apply all the components of theoretical framework
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION, DEFINITION & VALUE OF RESEARCH
  2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF RESEARCH & ITS SPECIAL FEATURES
  3. CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH:Goals of Exploratory Research
  4. THEORY AND RESEARCH:Concepts, Propositions, Role of Theory
  5. CONCEPTS:Concepts are an Abstraction of Reality, Sources of Concepts
  6. VARIABLES AND TYPES OF VARIABLES:Moderating Variables
  7. HYPOTHESIS TESTING & CHARACTERISTICS:Correlational hypotheses
  8. REVIEW OF LITERATURE:Where to find the Research Literature
  9. CONDUCTING A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW:Write the Review
  10. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK:Make an inventory of variables
  11. PROBLEM DEFINITION AND RESEARCH PROPOSAL:Problem Definition
  12. THE RESEARCH PROCESS:Broad Problem Area, Theoretical Framework
  13. ETHICAL ISSUES IN RESEARCH:Ethical Treatment of Participants
  14. ETHICAL ISSUES IN RESEARCH (Cont):Debriefing, Rights to Privacy
  15. MEASUREMENT OF CONCEPTS:Conceptualization
  16. MEASUREMENT OF CONCEPTS (CONTINUED):Operationalization
  17. MEASUREMENT OF CONCEPTS (CONTINUED):Scales and Indexes
  18. CRITERIA FOR GOOD MEASUREMENT:Convergent Validity
  19. RESEARCH DESIGN:Purpose of the Study, Steps in Conducting a Survey
  20. SURVEY RESEARCH:CHOOSING A COMMUNICATION MEDIA
  21. INTERCEPT INTERVIEWS IN MALLS AND OTHER HIGH-TRAFFIC AREAS
  22. SELF ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRES (CONTINUED):Interesting Questions
  23. TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION:Guidelines for Questionnaire Design
  24. PILOT TESTING OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE:Discovering errors in the instrument
  25. INTERVIEWING:The Role of the Interviewer, Terminating the Interview
  26. SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TERMINOLOGY:Saves Cost, Labor, and Time
  27. PROBABILITY AND NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING:Convenience Sampling
  28. TYPES OF PROBABILITY SAMPLING:Systematic Random Sample
  29. DATA ANALYSIS:Information, Editing, Editing for Consistency
  30. DATA TRANSFROMATION:Indexes and Scales, Scoring and Score Index
  31. DATA PRESENTATION:Bivariate Tables, Constructing Percentage Tables
  32. THE PARTS OF THE TABLE:Reading a percentage Table
  33. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH:The Language of Experiments
  34. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (Cont.):True Experimental Designs
  35. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (Cont.):Validity in Experiments
  36. NON-REACTIVE RESEARCH:Recording and Documentation
  37. USE OF SECONDARY DATA:Advantages, Disadvantages, Secondary Survey Data
  38. OBSERVATION STUDIES/FIELD RESEARCH:Logic of Field Research
  39. OBSERVATION STUDIES (Contd.):Ethical Dilemmas of Field research
  40. HISTORICAL COMPARATIVE RESEARCH:Similarities to Field Research
  41. HISTORICAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH (Contd.):Locating Evidence
  42. FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION:The Purpose of FGD, Formal Focus Groups
  43. FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION (Contd.):Uses of Focus Group Discussions
  44. REPORT WRITING:Conclusions and recommendations, Appended Parts
  45. REFERENCING:Book by a single author, Edited book, Doctoral Dissertation