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Introduction to Sociology

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Introduction to Sociology ­ SOC101
VU
Lesson 17
THE SOCIAL FOUNDATIONS OF DEVIANCE
In the sociological perspective all behavior ­ deviance as well as conformity ­ is shaped by society.
Therefore the society lays the foundation of deviance and that is how the title of this discussion. The social
foundations of deviance may be looked at from three dimensions:
1. Cultural relativity of deviance
No thought or action is inherently deviant; it becomes deviant only in relation to particular norms.
Sociologists use the term deviance to refer to a violation of norms of culture. One may look at three basic
principles: (1) It is not the action itself, but the reactions to the act that makes something deviant. In other words
people's behavior must be viewed from the framework of the culture in which it takes place. (2) Different
groups are likely to have different norms therefore what is deviant to some is not deviant to others. (3) This
principle holds within a society as well as across cultures. Thus acts perfectly acceptable in one culture ­ or
in one group within a society ­ may be considered deviant in another culture, or in another group within the
same society.
Sociologists use the term deviance non-judgmentally, to refer to any act to which people respond negatively.
When sociologists use this term, it does not mean that they agree that the act is bad, just because others
judge it negatively. If we have to understand a particular behavior, we must understand the meanings
people give to that event. Consequently we must consider deviance from within a group's own framework,
for it is their meanings that underlie their behavior.
2. Who defines deviance?
People become deviant as others define them that way. If deviance does not lie in the act, but in definition
of the act, where do these definitions come from? The simple answer is that the definitions come from
people. May be through trial and error process people determine the appropriate patterns of behavior for
the smooth functioning of their society. They themselves decide what is desirable and what is undesirable
for having social order in their society. These are actually the social norms of the people. These norms are
incorporated in the mechanics of social control. The process may be a little different in a simple and small
society than in a complex and large society having ethnic variations.
3. Both rule making and rule breaking involve social power.
Each society is dominated by a group of elite, powerful people, who make the decisions for making rules,
which become part of the social control system in the society. The powerful group of people makes sure
that their interests are protected. The machinery of social control usually represents the interests of people
with social power.
A law amounts a little more than a means by which powerful people protect their interests. For example
the owners of an unprofitable factory have the legal right to shut down their business, even if doing so puts
thousands of workers out of work. But if a worker commits an act of vandalism that closes the same
factory for a single day is subject to criminal prosecution.
IS DEVIANCE FUNCTIONAL?
When we think of deviance, its dysfunctions are likely to come to mind. Most of us are upset by deviance,
especially crime, and assume that society would be better off without it. Surprisingly for Durkheim there is
nothing abnormal about deviance; in fact it contributes to the functioning of the society in four ways:
1. Deviance affirms cultural values and norms.
Living demands that we make moral choices. To prevent our culture from dissolving into chaos, people
must show preference for some attitudes and behaviors over others. But any conception of virtue rests
upon an opposing notion of vice. And just as there can be no good without evil, there can be no justice
without crime. Deviance is indispensable to creating and sustaining morality.
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Introduction to Sociology ­ SOC101
VU
2. Deviance clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms.
A group's ideas about how people should act and think mark its moral boundaries. Deviance challenges those
boundaries. To call a deviant member to explain, say in effect, " you broke a valuable rule, and we cannot
tolerate that," affirms the group's norms and clarifies the distinction between conforming and deviating
behavior. To deal with deviants is to assert what it means to a member of the group. For example there is
a line between academic honesty and cheating by punishing students who do so.
3. Deviance promotes social unity.
To affirm the group's moral boundaries by reacting to deviants, deviance develops a "we" feeling among
the group's members. In saying "you can't get by with that," the group collectively affirms the rightness of
its own ways.
4. Deviance promotes social change.
Deviant people push a society's moral boundaries, pointing out alternatives to the status quo and
encouraging change. Groups always do not agree on what to do with people who push beyond their
acceptable ways of doing things.  Some group members even approve the rule-breaking behavior.
Boundary violations that gain enough support become new, acceptable behavior. Thus deviance may force
a group to rethink and redefine its moral boundaries, helping groups and whole societies, to change their
customary ways. Today's deviance can become tomorrow's morality.
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Table of Contents:
  1. THE ORIGINS OF SOCIOLOGY:Auguste Comte, The Fields of Sociology
  2. THE SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE:Society affects what we do
  3. THEORETICAL PARADIGMS:Salient Paradigms, Critical Evaluation
  4. SOCIOLOGY AS SCIENCE:Empirical, Verifiable, Cumulative, Self-Correcting
  5. STEPS IN SOCIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION:Exploration/Consultation
  6. SOCIAL INTERACTION:Social Status, ROLE, The Social Construction of Reality
  7. SOCIAL GROUPS:Primary and Secondary Groups, Reference Group, Networks
  8. ORGANIZATIONS:Utilitarian Organizations, Coercive Organizations
  9. CULTURE:Universality, Components of Culture, Symbols, Language
  10. CULTURE (continued):Beliefs, Norms, Cultural Diversity
  11. CULTURE (continued):Culture by social class, Multiculturalism, Cultural Lag
  12. SOCIALIZATION: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, NATURE, Social Isolation
  13. UNDERSTANDING THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS
  14. AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION:The Family, The School, Peer Groups, The Mass Media
  15. SOCIALIZATION AND THE LIFE COURSE:CHILDHOOD, ADOLESCENCE
  16. SOCIAL CONTROL AND DEVIANCE:Crime, Deviants, Stigma, Labeling
  17. THE SOCIAL FOUNDATIONS OF DEVIANCE:Cultural relativity of deviance
  18. EXPLANATIONS OF CRIME:Sociological explanations
  19. EXPLANATIONS OF CRIME -- CONTINUED:White-Collar Crime, Conflict Theory
  20. SOCIAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRIME: EXPLANATIONS, Gender and Crime
  21. SOCIAL STRATIFICATION: INTRODUCTION AND SIGNIFICANCE
  22. THEORIES OF CLASS AND STRATIFICATION I:Critical evaluation
  23. THEORIES OF SOCIAL CLASS AND STRATIFICATION II
  24. THEORIES OF CLASS AND SOCIAL STRATIFICATION III
  25. SOCIAL CLASS AS SUBCULTURE
  26. SOCIAL MOBILITY:Structural factors, Individual factors, Costs
  27. THE FAMILY: GLOBAL VARIETY, Marriage Patterns, Patterns of Descent
  28. FUNCTIONS OF FAMILY:Reproduction, Social placement
  29. FAMILY AND MARRIAGE IN TRANSITION:Family is losing functions
  30. GENDER: A SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION, Gender socialization
  31. GENDER SOCIALIZATION:Role of family, Gender Stratification
  32. EXPLANATIONS OF GENDER INEQUALITY:Conflict Explanations, Feminism
  33. FUNCTIONS OF SCHOOLING:Cultural Innovation, School Tracking
  34. ISSUES IN EDUCATION:Low Enrollment, High Dropout, Gender Disparity
  35. POPULATION STUDY AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE:Crude Birth Rate
  36. THEORY OF POPULATION GROWTH:Theory of Demographic Transition
  37. POPULATION PROFILE OF PAKISTAN:World Population Growth
  38. POPULATION PROFILE OF PAKISTAN (Continued):Age Distribution, Sex Composition
  39. IMPLICAIONS OF POPULATION GOWTH:Additional GDP needed per year
  40. POPULATION POLICY:Goals of Population Policy, Objectives, Strategies
  41. ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY:Global Dimension, Historical Dimension
  42. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES:Preserving Clean Water, Clearing the Air
  43. SOCIAL CHANGE:Social change is controversial.
  44. CAUSES OF SOCIAL CHANGE:Culture and Change, Conflict and Change, Modernization
  45. MODERNITY AND POST MODERNITY:Cultural Patterns, Post-modernity