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Human Resource Development

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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
VU
Lesson 28
THE PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ADULT EDUCATION
Adult Education is fraught with problems and difficulties but before discussing them, it will be worthwhile to
note the current status of Adult Education in the world.
Current Status of Adult Education
 There are 950 million illiterate adults in the world
 Out of these 600 million are women
 Over a third of world's illiterate are in South Asia and another large number in sub-Saharan Africa
 According to UNESCO 75% of the world's illiterate live in only 9 countries including India, China,
Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Indonesia, Iran and Brazil
We now turn to the problems inherent in the issue of Adult Education.
Problems of Adult Literacy
 The major problem has been in motivating the learners to learn.
 The poor and the hungry are more interested in food and shelter rather than on becoming literate.
 It can at best be a leisure time activity if it provides entertainment.
 Community pressure and incentives can help in developing a serious attitude in the illiterate towards
literacy.
 Governments of developing countries cannot provide any incentive apart from offering free education
facilities and that too with the use of some volunteers, mostly from the local areas.
 Providing education that is perceived as having immediate use is another incentive.
Adult Education Issues in Industrialized Countries
 Institute for International Cooperation of the German Adult Education Association, suggests that
adult education in Europe will have to prepare people to face dilemmas associated with European
integration.
 Demand for adult education in these countries is increasing, in Canada 1 adult in 5 followed adult
education program in 1983 as opposed to 1 in 14 in 1969.
 In Sweden, 1 in every 2 adults is taking part in adult education programs.
 Demand for work-related adult education seems to be widespread.
 Countries like UK, Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Holland and Germany and USA have
acknowledged that a significant percentage of adult population is unable to read and write sufficiently
well to communicate or participate in retraining activities.
Following are some of the methods used to approach Adult Education.
Methods and Approaches to Educating Adults
Four strategies are generally used
1. The Fundamental Education Approach or general literacy approach
2. The Selective Intensive Functional approach or functional literacy
3. The Conscientisation Approach
4. The Mass Campaign Approach
We will consider each approach in some detail.
The Fundamental Education Approach
 Promoted by UNESCO and was largely followed in the 1950s and 1960s
 It emphasized teaching, reading and writing in the mother tongue of the learner
 The target groups were unspecified
 The program aimed at people with low motivation and follow-up literacy was neglected
 This strategy failed to reduce illiteracy in any evident manner
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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
VU
The Selective Intensive Approach
 UNESCO and UNDP used this approach in 11 countries (Algeria, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Guinea, India,
Iran, Madagascar, Mali, Sudan, Syria and Tanzania).
 Objectives were to test and demonstrate the economic and social returns of literacy and the
relationship between literacy and training.
 Under this approach, target groups of illiterate people working within a specific economic activity in a
specific region were selected.
 Improved vocational skills and work-oriented literacy were also provided.
 The approach however had limited impact; major drawback was that literacy was viewed as a technical
exercise without regard to social, cultural and political factors.
­  It is useless to teach a farmer to increase productivity if the greater part of the fruit of this
labor goes to landlord.
The Conscientisation Approach
 This approach aims at making it possible for the oppressed illiterate to become aware that they can
change their own situation.
 This is done through a process of critical reflection that leads to action and change.
 Education is seen as an element in the necessary process of human liberation.
 Dialogue and participation are the key elements in liberating education.
 The culture, the living conditions, the awareness, the language and vocabulary used all are understood
and incorporated in this approach.
 Many NGOs all over the world are using this approach to adult education.
The Mass Campaign Approach
 Articulation of the national political will
 Development of a comprehensive policy making and legal organ
 Study and diagnosis of preconditions
 General mobilization of the public
 Establishment of structures of mass participation
 Development of inter ministerial and inter agency structures
 Implementation of developmental and instructional plan
 Evaluation of context, process and results
 Design and establishment of post literacy programs
Strategies for Educating Adults for the Future
1. A well articulated strategy based on the country's philosophy and approach to adult education is the
first step.
2. Encourage a variety of methodologies and initiatives at local level.
3. Use NGOs to build on the strengths achieved due to literacy programs.
4. Greater integration of all development activities into adult education programs.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  2. FOUNDATIONS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR:Attitudes, Personality, Emotional Intelligence
  3. PERCEPTION:Attribution Theory, Shortcuts Frequently Used in Judging Others
  4. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION:Why Choose Big Five Framework?, THE OUTCOME OF FIVE FACTOR MODEL
  5. FIVE FACTOR MODEL:The Basis of Intrinsically Motivated Behavior, Intrinsic Motivation and Values
  6. MOTIVATION:EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION, Designing Motivating Jobs
  7. The Motivation Process:HOW TO MOTIVATE A DIVERSE WORKFORCE?,
  8. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION:PRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
  9. THE WORLD BEYOND WORDS:DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION, MINDFUL LISTENING
  10. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS:EGO STATES, Parent Ego State, Child Ego State
  11. TYPES OF TRANSACTIONS:Complementary Transactions, Crossed Transactions, Ulterior Transactions
  12. NEURO-LINGUISTIC-PROGRAMMING
  13. CREATE YOUR OWN BLUEPRINT
  14. LEADERSHIP:ORGANIZATIONAL DEMOCRACY
  15. LEADERSHIP:Environment and Strategic Leadership Link, Concluding Remarks
  16. UNDERSTANDING GROUP BEHAVIOR:Stages of Group Development, Advantages of Group Decision Making
  17. UNDERSTANDING TEAM BEHAVIOR:TYPES OF TEAMS, Characteristics of Effective Teams,
  18. EMOTIONAL FACET:PHYSICAL FACET
  19. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT & THE ROLE OF GOVERNACE:Rule of Law, Transparency,
  20. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and Its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  21. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI):Methodology,
  22. REPORTS:Criticisms of Freedom House Methodology, GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS
  23. SECTORS OF A SOCIETY: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS:PUBLIC SECTOR, PRIVATE SECTOR
  24. NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS):Types, Methods, Management, Citizen organization
  25. HEALTH SECTOR:Health Impact of the Lebanon Crisis, Main Challenges,
  26. A STUDY ON QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE
  27. ADULT EDUCATION:Lifelong learning
  28. THE PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ADULT EDUCATION:Problems of Adult Literacy, Strategies for Educating Adults for the Future
  29. TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION:VET Internationally, Technical Schools
  30. ASSESSING THE LINK BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL FORMATION AND PERFORMANCE OF A UNIVERSITY
  31. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION:Social responsibility, Curriculum content
  32. ENVIRONMENT:Dark Greens and Light Greens, Environmental policy instruments
  33. HDI AND GENDER SENSITIVITY:Gender Empowerment Measure
  34. THE PLIGHT OF INDIAN WOMEN:
  35. ENTREPRENEURSHIP:Characteristics of entrepreneurship, Advantages of Entrepreneurship
  36. A REVISIT OF MODULE I & II
  37. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT & ECONOMIC GROWTH (1975 TO 2003):
  38. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP:Origins, The Desired Outcomes of PPPs
  39. PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP):Situation in Pakistan,
  40. DEVOLUTION REFORMS A NEW SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT:
  41. GOOD GOVERNANCE:Participation, Rule of law, Accountability
  42. MACROECONOMIC PROFILE OF A COUNTRY: EXAMPLE ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN
  43. COORDINATION IN GOVERNANCE: AN EXAMPLE OF EU, The OMC in Social Inclusion
  44. MOBILIZING REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: THE ASEAN UNIVERSITY NETWORK, A CASE STUDY
  45. GOVERNMENT PRIORITIES AND POLICIES:Role of Government, Socio Cultural Factors in Implementing HRD Programs