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Leadership and Team Management

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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
Lesson 12
THE LEADER AS AN INDIVIDUAL
We tried to explain during last couple of sessions the theoretically background and approaches to
understand this process of leadership. In this lecture we will shift our focus to leader as an individual
and try to understand the personality and person part of that individual known as "a leader". To
understand this let's try to start from basic personality part.
Personality:
Personality is the pattern of relatively enduring ways in which a person feels, thinks, and behaves.
Personality is determined by nature (biological heritage) and nurture (situational factors).
Organizational outcomes that have been shown to be predicted by personality include job satisfaction,
work stress, and leadership effectiveness.  Personality is not a useful predictor of organizational
outcomes when there are strong situational constraints. Because personality tends to be stable over
time, managers should not expect to change personality in the short run. Leaders should accept
employees' personalities as they are and develop effective ways to deal with people. To understand
leader we need to understand him/her as individual. For this understanding personality indicator is very
important.
The Nature of Personality: People's personalities can be described in a variety of ways: 1).
Personality is the pattern of relatively enduring ways in which a person feels, thinks, and behaves. 2).
Personality is an important factor in accounting for why employees act the way they do in organizations
and why they have favorable or unfavorable attitudes toward their jobs and organizations.
Some Major Forces Influencing Personality:
Personality Determinants: An early argument centered on whether or not personality was the result of
heredity or of environment. Personality appears to be a result of both influences. Today, we recognize a
third factor--the situation.
Situation
Influences the effects of heredity and environment on personality
The different demands of different situations call forth different aspects of one's personality.
There is no classification scheme that tells the impact of various types of situations.
Situations seem to differ substantially in the constraints they impose on behavior.
Heredity
Heredity refers to those factors that were determined at conception.
The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual's personality is the
molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes.
Three different streams of research lend some credibility to the heredity argument:
 The genetic underpinnings of human behavior and temperament among young children.
Evidence demonstrates that traits such as shyness, fear, and distress are most likely caused by
inherited genetic characteristics.
 One hundred sets of identical twins that were separated at birth were studied. Genetics accounts
for about 50 percent of the variation in personality differences and over 30 percent of
occupational and leisure interest variation.
 Individual job satisfaction is remarkably stable over time. This indicates that satisfaction is
determined by something inherent in the person rather than by external environmental factors.
 Personality characteristics are not completely dictated by heredity. If they were, they would be
fixed at birth and no amount of experience could alter them.
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
Environment
Factors that exert pressures on our personality formation:
The culture in which we are raised
Early conditioning
Norms among our family
Friends and social groups
The environment we are exposed to plays a substantial role in shaping our personalities.
Culture establishes the norms, attitudes, and values passed from one generation to the next and
create consistencies over time.
The arguments for heredity or environment as the primary determinant of personality are both
important.
Heredity sets the parameters or outer limits, but an individual's full potential will be determined by
how well he or she adjusts to the demands and requirements of the environment.
Variables Influencing Individual Behavior
Personality is the function of "The Person" and "The Environment. In other words it is a Person-
Situation Interaction.
Relationship of different components in behaviour is show in the following slide.
Types of work-related behaviour:
Values:
Values Represent Basic Convictions
A specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to
an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.
They have both content and intensity attributes.
An individual's set of values ranked in terms of intensity is considered the person's value
system.
Values have the tendency to be stable.
Many of our values were established in our early years from parents, teachers, friends, and
others.
Importance of Values
Values lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation.
Values generally influence attitudes and behaviors. We can predict reaction based on
understanding values.
Attitudes:
Attitudes are evaluative statements that are either favorable or unfavorable concerning
objects, people, or events. Attitudes are not the same as values, but the two are interrelated.
Main Components of Attitudes: There are three components of an attitude
 Cognitive component
The employee thought he deserved the promotion (cognitive)
 Affective component
The employee strongly dislikes his supervisor (affective)
 Behavioral component
The employee is looking for another job (behavioral). In organizations, attitudes are
important because of the behavioral component
How Consistent Are Attitudes?
People sometimes change what they say so it does not contradict what they do.
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
Research has generally concluded that people seek consistency among their attitudes and
between their attitudes and their behavior.
Individuals seek to reconcile divergent attitudes and align their attitudes and behavior so
they appear rational and consistent.
When there is an inconsistency, forces are initiated to return the individual to an
equilibrium state where attitudes and behavior are again consistent, by altering either the
attitudes or the behavior, or by developing a rationalization for the discrepancy.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Leon Festinger, in the late 1950s, proposed the theory of cognitive dissonance, seeking to
explain the linkage between attitudes and behavior. He argued that any form of
inconsistency is uncomfortable and that individuals will attempt to reduce the dissonance.
Dissonance means "an inconsistency."
Cognitive dissonance refers to "any incompatibility that an individual might perceive
between two or more of his/her attitudes, or between his/her behavior and attitudes. "
No individual can completely avoid dissonance.
The desire to reduce dissonance would be determined by:
The importance of the elements creating the dissonance. Importance: If the elements
creating the dissonance are relatively unimportant, the pressure to correct this
imbalance will be low.
The degree of influence the individual believes he/she has over the elements. Influence:
If the dissonance is perceived as an uncontrollable result, they are less likely to be
receptive to attitude change. While dissonance exists, it can be rationalized and
justified.
The rewards that may be involved in dissonance. Rewards: The inherent tension in high
dissonance tends to be reduced with high rewards.
Moderating factors suggest that individuals will not necessarily move to reduce
dissonance.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION, ORGANIZATION THE STAGE FOR LEADERSHIP:Challenges, Value creation
  2. FOCUSING ON PEOPLE: THE KEY TO SUCCESS:People in the Process, Developing and Sustaining A World-class Workforce
  3. LEADERSHIP:Characteristics of Successful Leader, Why Study Leadership?
  4. LEADERSHIP (CONTD.):Characteristics of Leaders Who Fail, Why Leaders Fail?
  5. MANAGERS VS LEADERS:Characteristics, Effective Leadership, Respect for Diversity
  6. FOLLOWER-SHIP:Importance of Followers, Follower-ship Style
  7. LEADERSHIP PROCESS:Strategies for Cultivating Exemplary Followers, Important Traits of Leaders
  8. LEADERSHIP PROCESS (CONTD.):Qualities of Leaders, Self-Confidence, Integrity
  9. LEADERSHIP THEORIES/ APPROACHES:Personal Characteristics of Leaders, Managerial Grid
  10. CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP:The Fiedler Model, Situational Leadership Theory, Path-Goal Theory
  11. TRANSACTIONAL, CHARISMATIC AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Visionary Leadership
  12. THE LEADER AS AN INDIVIDUAL:Personality, Situation, Heredity, Environment
  13. ATTITUDE-PERSONALITY:Job Satisfaction, Work Situation, Self - Monitoring
  14. BIG FIVE MODEL, MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI):Sub-Categories Defined, Information Gathering
  15. SITUATIONAL FACTORS:Social and psychological climate, Culture of the organization
  16. BECOMING A LEADER! WHAT DOES IT MEAN & HOW DO YOU GET IT?:Mission Statement, Leading oneself
  17. BECOMING A LEADER:Elements of Leadership, CONCEPT OF POWER,
  18. UNDERSTANDING POWER:Sources of Power, Responses to the Use of Power, Managing Political Behavior
  19. LEADERSHIP POWER & INFLUENCE:Positional Power, Being an Effective Leader
  20. LEADERSHIP AND EMPOWERMENT:Power sharing and Empowerment, Share Information
  21. MOTIVATION:Guidelines for Delegating, Human Resource Approach
  22. MOTIVATION AT WORK, MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:What Factors Diminish Motivation in the Workplace
  23. LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION:Communication & the Four Management Functions
  24. REVIEW-1:Organizational Performance, That is the Role of Management?, Leaders Vs Managers
  25. GROUP & TEAM CONCEPT:Groups versus Teams, Deciding When to Use a Team
  26. TEAM DYNAMICS:Stages of Group Development, Problem-Solving Teams, Benefits of Teams
  27. BUILDING THE TEAM:Leadership success requires, Strategies for Team Building
  28. A TEAM-BASED ORGANIZATION:Basic Steps, Span of Control, Categories of Decisions
  29. DECISION MAKING:Categories of Decisions, The Decision-Making Process
  30. TEAM DECISION MAKING:Team Problem Solving Techniques, Concept of QC
  31. EFFECTIVE TEAM COMMUNICATION:Team/Group Communications
  32. CONFLICT IN TEAM:Sources of Conflict, Scarcity of Resources, Dysfunctional Outcomes
  33. TRAINING/LEARNING OF TEAM:Training Methods, Phases of Learning Cycles
  34. LEARNING ORGANIZATION:A Litmus Test, Work Relations
  35. REWARDING & RECOGNIZING TEAMWORK:Compensating Teams, Individual or Team Rewards?
  36. MANAGING/LEADING VIRTUAL TEAMS:Communications in Virtual Organizations, Virtual Leadership
  37. EFFECTIVE TEAM MEETINGS:Better Meetings, Meeting Roles, Meeting Room Facilities
  38. LEADING TEAM:Team Leadership Structures, Leadership Demands and Duties, Leadership Direction
  39. REVIEW-II:Types of Teams, Characteristics of High Performance Teams, Sources of Conflict
  40. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP:Strategic Management, Determining Strategic Direction, Developing Human Capital:
  41. LEADING CHANGE:Dynamics of Change, Change Models, Unfreeze
  42. CREATIVE LEADERSHIP:Awaken Your Senses, How Might These Definitions Be Integrated
  43. ETHICS IN LEADERSHIP:Character Traits Reflect Ethics, Manifests Honesty
  44. LOOKING AT THE FUTURE: WHAT COMES NEXT:Benefits of Teams, Ethical Leadership,
  45. TEAMWORK: LEARNING FROM NATURE:Social Behavior, Termites, Learning from Nature