ZeePedia buy college essays online


Introduction to Sociology

<<< Previous THE FAMILY: GLOBAL VARIETY, Marriage Patterns, Patterns of Descent Next >>>
 
img
Introduction to Sociology ­ SOC101
VU
Lesson 27
THE FAMILY: GLOBAL VARIETY
The family is a social institution that unites individuals into cooperative groups that oversees the bearing
and rearing of children. Marriage may be one of the important rituals that are instrumental in uniting
individuals. Whereas the marriage and family appear to be universal there is a global variety in this
institution. Let us look at some of the basic concepts related to family and marriage and see some global
diversity in each.
Family: A social group of two or more people, related by blood, marriage, or adoption who usually live
together. In other words it is a group of persons directly linked by kin connections, the adult members of
which assume the responsibility for caring for children.
This is a conventional definition of family. In the technologically advanced societies, today, some people
object to defining only married couples and children as "families" because it implies that everyone should
accept a single standard of moral conduct. More and more organizations are coming to recognize families of
affinity, that is people with or without legal or blood ties who feel they belong together and wish to define
themselves as a family.
Household: It consists of all people who occupy the same housing unit ­ a house, an apartment, or other
living arrangement.
Kinship: A social bond, based on blood, marriage, or adoption that joins individuals into families.
Connections between individuals established either through marriage or through lines of descent that
connect blood relatives (parents, siblings, children, cousins, in-laws).
Nuclear family: Two married adults living together in a household without their children. This is also called a
conjugal family.
Extended family: When close relatives other than a married couple and children live either in the same
household or in a close and continuous relationship with one another. It may include grandparents, brothers
and their wives, unmarried sisters, aunts, uncles, nephews, and cousins. It is also called a consanguine family.
Family of orientation: A family in which an individual grows up, usually born in it as well. This family is central
to a child's socialization and orientation.
Family of procreation: Family formation by the individuals themselves. It is the family that you create through
marriage or remarriage and then procreate as well. This family is formed when a couple has their first child.
Marriage Patterns
Marriage: A legally sanctioned relationship of two or more people, usually involving economic cooperation
as well as normative sexual activity and child-bearing that people expect to be enduring. Marriage is the
appropriate context for procreation that is how the concept of illegitimacy comes in. It is a socially
approved mating arrangement ­ usually marked out by a ritual of some sort (wedding) indicating the
couple's new public status.
Cultural norms, as well as laws, identify people as suitable or unsuitable marriage partners. Incest taboos prohibit
marriage between certain close relatives. Who is a close relative may vary from society to society. For
example in Pakistan the marriage between first cousins is allowed but in most of the industrialized societies
it has prohibited by law.
Endogamy: The practice of mate selection from the same social category. It limits marriage prospects to
others of the same age, race, religion, or social class.
Exogamy: The practice that mandates marriage between different social categories. It could imply an incest
taboo, which could also be transformed into written law.
Monogamy: A form of marriage joining two partners. At a time the two partners are only in "one union". The
two partners may divorce and enter into a new union at a time, which may be referred to as serial monogamy.
This practice is mostly followed in technologically advanced societies.
66
img
Introduction to Sociology ­ SOC101
VU
Polygamy: A form of marriage uniting three or more people. It could take different forms of many unions.
Polygamy exist in three specific forms, including
Polygyny: A form of marriage uniting one male and two or more females. Islamic nations permit men up to
four wives, though they have to fulfill certain conditions.
Polyandry: A form of marriage uniting one female with two or more males. This pattern appears only rarely
(often quoted example of Tibet).
Group marriage: A group of men marrying a group of women. It is an odd situation.
Residential Patterns
Just as societies regulate mate selection, so they designate where a couple resides after marriage. In pre-
industrial societies, most newly weds live with one set of parents, gaining economic assistance and economic
security in the process.
Patrilocal: A residential pattern in which a married couple lives with or near the husband's family.
Matrilocal: A residential pattern in which a married couple lives with or near the wife's family.
Neolocal: A residential pattern in which a married couple lives apart from the parents of both the spouses.
Patterns of Descent
Descent refers to the system by which the members of a society trace kinship over generations. Most pre-
industrial societies trace kinship through only one side of the family ­ the father or the mother. It is also an
orderly way of passing property and other rights to the next generation.
Patrilineal: A system tracing kinship through males. Children are related to one another only through their
fathers and fathers typically pass their property on to their sons. It is mostly found in agrarian societies.
Matrilineal: A system tracing kinship through women.
Bilateral: (two sided descent) A system tracing descent through both men and women. One may come across
this system in industrial societies portraying gender equality.
Patterns of Authority
Patriarchy: A system in which authority is vested in males; male control of a society or a group. This is the
most prevalent system all over the world.
Matriarchy: Authority vested in females; female control of a society or group. True matriarchy rarely found in
history.
Egalitarian: Authority more or less equally divided between people or groups (husband and wife). In reality
patriarchy continues ­ typical bride takes the groom's last name; children are given the father's last name.
67
Table of Contents:
  1. THE ORIGINS OF SOCIOLOGY:Auguste Comte, The Fields of Sociology
  2. THE SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE:Society affects what we do
  3. THEORETICAL PARADIGMS:Salient Paradigms, Critical Evaluation
  4. SOCIOLOGY AS SCIENCE:Empirical, Verifiable, Cumulative, Self-Correcting
  5. STEPS IN SOCIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION:Exploration/Consultation
  6. SOCIAL INTERACTION:Social Status, ROLE, The Social Construction of Reality
  7. SOCIAL GROUPS:Primary and Secondary Groups, Reference Group, Networks
  8. ORGANIZATIONS:Utilitarian Organizations, Coercive Organizations
  9. CULTURE:Universality, Components of Culture, Symbols, Language
  10. CULTURE (continued):Beliefs, Norms, Cultural Diversity
  11. CULTURE (continued):Culture by social class, Multiculturalism, Cultural Lag
  12. SOCIALIZATION: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, NATURE, Social Isolation
  13. UNDERSTANDING THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS
  14. AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION:The Family, The School, Peer Groups, The Mass Media
  15. SOCIALIZATION AND THE LIFE COURSE:CHILDHOOD, ADOLESCENCE
  16. SOCIAL CONTROL AND DEVIANCE:Crime, Deviants, Stigma, Labeling
  17. THE SOCIAL FOUNDATIONS OF DEVIANCE:Cultural relativity of deviance
  18. EXPLANATIONS OF CRIME:Sociological explanations
  19. EXPLANATIONS OF CRIME -- CONTINUED:White-Collar Crime, Conflict Theory
  20. SOCIAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRIME: EXPLANATIONS, Gender and Crime
  21. SOCIAL STRATIFICATION: INTRODUCTION AND SIGNIFICANCE
  22. THEORIES OF CLASS AND STRATIFICATION I:Critical evaluation
  23. THEORIES OF SOCIAL CLASS AND STRATIFICATION II
  24. THEORIES OF CLASS AND SOCIAL STRATIFICATION III
  25. SOCIAL CLASS AS SUBCULTURE
  26. SOCIAL MOBILITY:Structural factors, Individual factors, Costs
  27. THE FAMILY: GLOBAL VARIETY, Marriage Patterns, Patterns of Descent
  28. FUNCTIONS OF FAMILY:Reproduction, Social placement
  29. FAMILY AND MARRIAGE IN TRANSITION:Family is losing functions
  30. GENDER: A SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION, Gender socialization
  31. GENDER SOCIALIZATION:Role of family, Gender Stratification
  32. EXPLANATIONS OF GENDER INEQUALITY:Conflict Explanations, Feminism
  33. FUNCTIONS OF SCHOOLING:Cultural Innovation, School Tracking
  34. ISSUES IN EDUCATION:Low Enrollment, High Dropout, Gender Disparity
  35. POPULATION STUDY AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE:Crude Birth Rate
  36. THEORY OF POPULATION GROWTH:Theory of Demographic Transition
  37. POPULATION PROFILE OF PAKISTAN:World Population Growth
  38. POPULATION PROFILE OF PAKISTAN (Continued):Age Distribution, Sex Composition
  39. IMPLICAIONS OF POPULATION GOWTH:Additional GDP needed per year
  40. POPULATION POLICY:Goals of Population Policy, Objectives, Strategies
  41. ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY:Global Dimension, Historical Dimension
  42. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES:Preserving Clean Water, Clearing the Air
  43. SOCIAL CHANGE:Social change is controversial.
  44. CAUSES OF SOCIAL CHANGE:Culture and Change, Conflict and Change, Modernization
  45. MODERNITY AND POST MODERNITY:Cultural Patterns, Post-modernity