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Introduction to Computing

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Introduction to Computing ­ CS101
VU
LESSON 42
THE COMPUTING PROFESSION
Focus of the last Lesson was on Social Implications of Computing
We discussed the impact of computing on:
­  Business
­  Work
­  Living
­  Health
­  Education
Why should we, as computing professionals, be interested in studying the social implications of
our creations?
·
Computing technology has changed our way of life like no other technology
·
We need to study how it has done it to highlight the mistakes and success stories of the past
·
We need to do it so that we can learn from them and select our future direction accordingly
Dilemma of Computing
·
Are we heading towards a future where the role of the masters and the slaves will be switched?
·
Should we slow down or even reverse some of the technology advances to avoid that dark
scenario?
Powerful Global Corporations
·
Internet-based communication is allowing business entities to coordinate the activities of their
globally-spread units with greater accuracy
·
All this has made these business entities very powerful, even more powerful than many nation-
states
The Network Organization
·
The network paradigm (all connected to many others) is becoming the preferred organizational
structure of more and more organizations as time goes by
·
This new organization is replacing the old-style layered, tree-structured organizational model
Working from Home
·
Computing has made it possible for some to avoid going the office for their work
·
They can do their work from home and communicate their ideas, questions, answers to their
colleagues through the Internet
·
This gives them more time to spend with their families due to the time they save on commuting to
their place of work
From Mass- to Personalized-Marketing
·
The Web has changed marketing forever, redirecting it from a mass focus to a single-person focus
The Political Process
·
Through computer discussion forums, newsgroups and mailing-lists, public and politicians may
engage
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in a free, open exchange of ideas without leaving the comfort of their not-so-comfortable and very
comfortable homes, respectively
Distances Have Contracted
·
Because of the ever-decreasing costs of verbal, text, video communications, it is becoming easier to
stay in touch with anyone, regardless of their physical location
Distances Are Increasing
·
Solitude is the order of the day as many children & adults spend their free time surfing, chatting,
playing computer games, instead of spending it on interacting with friends or family
Virtual Communities
·
Interest-based, instead of geography-based
A Society Under Surveillance
·
While surfing, we are being watched, constantly
The Changing Face of Education
·
Distance learning has received a boost due to the low-price of Internet communication and the
availability of Web-based interactive content
The Changing Face of Education
·
The fact, however, remains that the best mode of education is the conventional one, which has
become more effective with the augmentation of computer-based learning aids
Info Gathering
·
The time and effort spent on gathering info can now be spent on using it
Telemedicine
·
An audio/video/text connection combined with a few remote medical instruments and an on-site
trained assistant can enable a doctor to examine and prescribe medicine to a patient far, far away
Closure
·
I command you to "go and invent the future," it is your duty and you may not desist from it, but,
please, do think about the social implications and consequences of what you are doing before
actually doing it
Today's Goals:
(The Computing Profession)
·
To discuss several roles and associated responsibilities of modern computer professionals
·
To discuss a few tricky situations where a knowledge of professional ethics would help
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42.1 IT: Information Technology
The group of technologies concerned with the capture, processing and transmission of information in
the digital-electronic form
INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY
Telecom
Engineering
Software
Engineering
Computer
Computer
Engineering
Science
Who is a computing professional?
·
Professionals involved in the development and/or maintenance of SW and/or computer HW
·
Computer scientists, software engineers, computer engineers, and some of the telecom engineers
are generally classified as computing professionals
Today's Focus Group
·
Due to the limitation on time, today we will be focusing only on a subset of computing
professionals: those involved in the development of SW
·
Let us further restrict discussion to the computing professionals belonging to an organization
focused solely on custom, SW development
·
They work in a 100-person organization ­ pretty big on a local scale, but quite insignificant on an
international one
42.2 Organization: A Collection of Teams
Executive Team
CEO, COO, CMSO
Business
Technology
Architecture
Development Team
Transfer
Team
Team
Configuration
Proces
Quality
Suppor
Management Team
s
Assurance Team
t
Team
Team
Development
Development
Development
Development
Team A
Team B
Team C
Team D
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Development Team
·
The number of development teams has varied between 3-7 at this organization
·
Team-size has varied between 3-35
·
Large teams are organized as a collection of sub-teams
·
Lowest-level team: No more than 7 members
·
Responsible for a project from after the specifications stage till the very end
Project Manager
·
Responsibilities:
­  Planning and tracking of the project
­  Arranging of the appropriate resources
­  lient relationship management
·
Profile:
­  5+ years of team-lead experience
­  Professional development course(s) in SW project management
­  Technical MS and/or Technical BS + MBA
Architect
·
Responsibilities:
­
Technology selection
­
High-level design
­
Makes certain that the implementation remains true to the design
·
Profile:
­
10-15 years of development experience
­
In-depth experience in several technologies
­
MS or PhD in a technical discipline
SMALL
PROJECT
Clients's Project
Executive Team
Manager
Architect
Team Leader
(Part-Time)
Team Leader
Developer
Developer
Developer
Developer
Developer
A
B
C
D
E
Team Lead
·
Responsibilities:
­  Planning and tracking of the project
­  Detailed design
­  Professional development of team members
­  In case of small teams, development activities
·
Profile:
­  5+ years of development experience
­  Excellent interpersonal skills
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­  Good planning skills
­  Good design skills
Developer
·
Responsibilities:
­  Module-level design
­  Coding
­  Unit-testing
·
Profile:
­  Technical BS
Executive Team
·
CEO ­ Chief Executive Officer
­  Developer of the vision of the organization
­  Great PR skills
­  Great knack for spotting talent
·
COO ­ Chief Operating Officer
­  Responsible for the day-to-day operations
­  Great organizational & interpersonal skills
·
CMSO ­ Chief Marketing & Sales Officer
­  Responsible for bringing in work
­  Innovative
Bigger
Executive
Client's
Project
Team
Project Manager
Project
Project
Manager
Architect
Sub-team 1
Lead
A
B
C
D
F
G
E
Sub-team 2
Lead
A
A
B
C
D
Sub-team 3
B
Lead
C
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Business Development Team
·
1-2 members
·
Responsible for the development of detailed proposals for projects
·
Profile of Members:
­
Combination of technical and business expertise
­
Good oral & written communication skills
­
Combination of technical & business degrees
Architecture Team
·
2-3 members
·
Consists of the sharpest technical minds in the company
Configuration Management Team
·
2-3 members
·
Keeps a vigilant eye on the process that keeps an extensive record of all versions of everything that
is ever developed for a particular project: from proposals to specifications to plans to design to code
Process Team
·
1-2 members
·
Team's goal: To continuously improve the SW development process to achieve improvements in
cost, schedule, and quality
·
Continuously monitors how SW is developed in the organization
·
Encourages and assists all teams and team-members in improving their part in the SW development
process
Quality Assurance Team
·
Around 20 members
·
Responsible for assuring the quality of all SW (i.e. making sure that it does what it is supposed to)
that is produced at the organization
·
Nothing goes to the customer without the approval of the QA team
Technology Transfer Team
·
The size of this team varies with the amount of work at the organization ­ when the times are good,
this team is quite small
·
This team is responsible for:
­  Evaluating new technologies, products, processes
­  Selecting the ones that are right for the organization
­  Developing an expertise in their use
­  Introducing them in various ongoing/future projects
Support Team
·
2-3 members
·
Members possess expertise in both HW & SW
·
Responsible for the maintenance, expansion, improvement of the infrastructure consisting of:
­
Workstations, servers, printers
­
Networking equipment (router, switch, hub)
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­  SW (OS, development SW, productivity SW, etc.)
­  Network security
That brings us to the end of our discussion on various roles and the associated responsibilities in the
computing profession. Now we move on to another topic related to our profession, Ethics!
Ethics
·
Ethics is a collection of heuristics that, when followed, improves our way of life
·
I find them wonderful as they simplify my life
·
For example, if you believe in the heuristic always tell the truth, your life becomes much simpler
·
Now, you don't have to think before you make every statement that you make "Shall I tell the
truth, or lie?"
Professional Ethics
·
Professional ethics are a category of ethics, and here we discus the professional ethics relevant to
computing
·
Awareness of professional ethics is gaining importance with time as the decision-making process in
the work place keeps on increasing in complexity
·
The professional ethics provide a way of simplifying that decision making process
Let us now discuss a few situations where I will request you for your ethical opinions
Situation 1: Illegal Use
·
A person is using a piece of SW without the author's permission and says: "I'm not really using it,
I'm just evaluating it before I make a firm decision on buying"
·
That person is "evaluating" that piece of SW for 13 months now!
·
Is the conduct of that person ethical?
Situation 2: Vaporware
·
A small company announces a new SW product
·
A larger, more established competitor hears about that product, and starts a whispering campaign
that she is also working on a similar product that will be released soon
·
Potential customers decide to wait for the product instead of making the more riskier purchase from
the smaller company
·
The new company's sales become sluggish, and it fails to earn back the investment that it has put
into developing that new product. That results in her closure
·
The larger company never releases the promised product
·
Is the conduct of that large company unethical or a reasonable business tactic?
Situation 3: Whistle Blower
·
SW bugs, at times, have catastrophic consequences
·
While Bhola sahib was working for a contractor at NASA, he found such a bug and reported it to
his boss, Murphy sahib, who ordered him to never mention it to any one, or he will get fired
·
Bhola sahib got scared, and did as he was told
·
Did Bhola sahib's behave in an ethical manner? Would you hire him in your company?
Situation 4: Trade Secrets
·
Bhola sahib was working at BholiSoft
·
He leaves it to work for a competitor, SuperSoft
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·
Even before starting at SuperSoft, he already has divulged many of the trade secrets of BholiSoft
during his interviews at SuperSoft, giving them an advantage over BholiSoft
·
Do you agree with Bhola Sahib's ethics? Would you hire him in your company?
Today's Lecture:
(The Computing Profession)
·
We discussed several roles and associated responsibilities of modern computer professionals
·
We also discussed a few tricky situations where a knowledge of professional ethics would have
helped
Next Lecture' Goals:
(The Future of Computing)
·
To visualize the advances in computing that will take place in the future
·
To visualize the impact of computing on our future
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. EVOLUTION OF COMPUTING
  3. World Wide Web, Web’s structure, genesis, its evolution
  4. Types of Computers, Components, Parts of Computers
  5. List of Parts of Computers
  6. Develop your Personal Web Page: HTML
  7. Microprocessor, Bus interface unit, Data & instruction cache memory, ALU
  8. Number systems, binary numbers, NOT, AND, OR and XOR logic operations
  9. structure of HTML tags, types of lists in web development
  10. COMPUTER SOFTWARE: Operating Systems, Device Drivers, Trialware
  11. Operating System: functions, components, types of operating systems
  12. Forms on Web pages, Components of Forms, building interactive Forms
  13. APPLICATION SOFTWARE: Scientific, engineering, graphics, Business, Productivity, Entertainment, Educational Software
  14. WORD PROCESSING: Common functions of word processors, desktop publishing
  15. Interactivity to Forms, JavaScript, server-side scripts
  16. ALGORITHMS
  17. ALGORITHMS: Pseudo code, Flowcharts
  18. JavaScript and client-side scripting, objects in JavaScript
  19. Low, High-Level, interpreted, compiled, structured & object-oriented programming languages
  20. Software Design and Development Methodologies
  21. DATA TYPES & OPERATORS
  22. SPREADSHEETS
  23. FLOW CONTROL & LOOPS
  24. DESIGN HEURISTICS. Rule of thumb learned through trial & error
  25. WEB DESIGN FOR USABILITY
  26. ARRAYS
  27. COMPUTER NETWORKS: types of networks, networking topologies and protocols
  28. THE INTERNET
  29. Variables: Local and Global Variables
  30. Internet Services: FTP, Telnet, Web, eMail, Instant messaging, VoIP
  31. DEVELOPING PRESENTATIONS: Effective Multimedia Presentations
  32. Event Handlers
  33. GRAPHICS & ANIMATION
  34. INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS: techniques for designing Artificial Intelligent Systems
  35. Mathematical Functions in JavaScript
  36. DATA MANAGEMENT
  37. DATABASE SOFTWARE: Data Security, Data Integrity, Integrity, Accessibility, DBMS
  38. String Manipulations:
  39. CYBER CRIME
  40. Social Implications of Computing
  41. IMAGES & ANIMATION
  42. THE COMPUTING PROFESSION
  43. THE FUTURE OF COMPUTING
  44. PROGRAMMING METHODOLOGY
  45. REVIEW & WRAP-UP of Introduction to Computing