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Change Management

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Change Management ­MGMT625
VU
LESSON # 9
TELEOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE
Teleological theories of Change
According to this theory, human actions are purposive; goal is the final cause for guiding
movement of an entity. This underlies other organization theories like functionalism, decision-
making, adaptive learning & model of strategic planning and goal setting. By this theory
development of an organizational entity proceeds toward a goal or end state. The entity is
purposeful and adaptive by itself or interaction with others. The entity constructs an envisioned
state, takes action to reach it, and monitors the progress. Therefore development process entails the
repetitive sequence of goal formulation, implementation, evaluation and modification of goals.
Individuals or organisations who are sufficiently like-minded strive to act as a single collective
entity. Therefore, the question is why to have organisation in the first case? Its answers lie in the
fact that it is the commonality and convergence of purpose which binds individuals and
organizations. Hence task oriented-ness pre-dominates (technocratization). This is perhaps one such
structural difference between managers in developed and developing countries. But unlike life-
cycle theory, teleology doesn't prescribe necessary sequence of events.
Some teleological models incorporate the systems theory assumption of equi-finality (multiple
effective ways to achieve a goal). In this theory there is no prefigured rule, logically necessary
direction or set sequence of stages. Teleology stresses the purposive ness of the actor and within
organisation's environment and resources constraints
Unit of change
Change processes go on at many organizational levels, including the individual, group,
organisation, industry and on other population as well
Mode of Change
Teleological and dialectical motors incorporate a constructive mode of change and development
(2nd order change). By this very nature teleological processes tend to diverge from the current
order. Because goals can be changed at the will of an entity and can be attained in many ways,
therefore this may result in unpredictability and discontinuity
Application:
New management system like MBO, ISO certification, introduction of new software, quality drives
in organisations are all considered part of teleological approach to change management. Focus in
this approach is on goals or objective setting process or phenomenon in an entity. So the case in
point is how do we set goals? How do we arrive at our decisions? What our objectives or ends are?
Are these in continuity or in discontinuity with the past objectives of an entity?  All these
dimensions relate with ends and means debate. Good and quality objectives with legitimate and
effective means for an entity are always difficult to arrive at. Another issue with objective setting is
whether goals are rationally formulated? Rationality, of course is bound by time and space, the
concept of bounded rationality earlier propounded by Herbert Simon. Visionary is the one who can
see things at distant, that is, he can give stretch to time and space. So when we say vision ought to
be shared by members of the organization For example whether this vision is shared by senior
executives and the managers in succession (change of CEO). Hence change of managers or CEO is
meaningless if there is no meaningful qualitative change in objectives of organization. One can
apply the same for developing nations like Pakistan. For instance take the context of history of
Pakistan. A Pre-1947 objectives of colonisers was to extract revenue and control us through the
design of strong bureaucratic institutions. After independence this objective ought to have been
revised and replaced by the objectives of growth & development (Constitution is a written objective
of a nation). This never happened as bureaucratic institutions remain oriented towards control and
revenue like the objective of colonisers. Similarly objectives of governing elite whether or not get
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Change Management ­MGMT625
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changed by the change in personalities, law, system or party change. Similarly in case of
organisation we have to see mission, vision, objectives, plans, target, what is known as hierarchy on
intent truly reflects organization performance or just a rhetoric. Therefore the need to have an
organization is "to attain our goals" and for the attainment of goals organizations at time becomes
autocratic in behaviour. For that matter, the very first goal being survival or "Self-preservation" all
factor of generation-growth-maturity in organisms are considered to be in line with self-preserving.
Therefore, behaviour in organisation becomes purposive.
Limitations:
Though the tautological theory has good explanatory power yet it is not without its limitations. Two
such stand very obvious. One is that the element of subjectivity is ignored in this kind of
explanation. Human behaviour is not as subjective as explains for all and sundry behaviour. Second
this is considered too much mechanistic, ignoring the organic dynamism of nature.
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Table of Contents:
  1. COURSE ORIENTATION:Course objectives, Reading material, Scope of the subject
  2. BENEFITS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT:Traditional management domain
  3. KURT LEWIN MODEL: ASSUMPTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Change Movement, Refreeze
  4. IMPLICATIONS OF KURT LEWIN MODEL:Sequence of event also matters, A Critical Look
  5. SOME BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS:Strategic change, Logical incrementalism
  6. TRANSACTIONAL VS. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Micro-changes, Organisation Development
  7. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  8. LIFE CYCLE THEORY:Unit of Change, Mode of change, Organisation death
  9. TELEOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of change, Mode of Change, Limitations
  10. DIALECTICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of Change, Strategic planning
  11. A DIALECTICAL APPROACH TO ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY AND PLANNING:
  12. LIMITATION OF DIALECTICS; DA AND DI:Overview of application of dialectics
  13. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  14. APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY:Managerial focus
  15. FURTHER APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES:Criticism
  16. GREINER’S MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL– EVOLUTION AND REVOLUTION
  17. GROWTH RATE OF THE INDUSTRY:CREATIVITY, DIRECTION, DELEGATION
  18. COORDINATION:COLLABORATION, The Crisis
  19. ORGANISATION ECOLOGY:Structural Inertia, Internal Structural Arrangements, External Factors
  20. CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL SPECIES:Extent of Environmental Selection, Determinants of Vital Rates,
  21. FOOTNOTES TO ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE:Stable Processes of Change, Rule Following, Conflict
  22. SOME COMPLEXITIES OF CHANGE:Superstitious Learning, Solution Driven Problems
  23. ORGANIZATIONAL ADAPTATION:The Entrepreneurial problem, The Administrative Problem
  24. PROSPECTORS:Analyzer, Reactors, Adaptation and Strategic Management
  25. SKELETAL MODEL OF ADAPTATION:Determinants of Adaptive ability, The Process of Adaptation
  26. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Nature of Change, The Importance of Context, Force field Analysis
  27. Management Styles and Roles:Change Agent Roles, Levers for managing strategic Change
  28. SYMBOLIC PROCESSES:Political Processes, COMMUNICATING CHANGE, Change Tactics
  29. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Pettigrew & Whipp’s Typology, Context on X-axis (Why of change)
  30. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Attributes of SOC Model, Implications for Management
  31. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Flow of Information, Recruitment, SOC Process
  32. Determinants of a Successful Change Management:Environmental, Management Orientation, Management Orientation
  33. Higgins 08 S Model – An Adaptation from Waterman’s Seven S model:Strategy, Systems and Processes, Resources
  34. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  35. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  36. WHY IMPLEMENTING STRATEGIC CHANGE IS SO DIFFICULT?:Change Typology, Technical Change
  37. IMPLEMENTATION APPROACHES:Attributes of incremental change,
  38. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  39. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Definition of Leadership, Follower Work Facilitation
  40. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Recognize the challenge
  41. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  42. IMPLEMENTATION: PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM MODEL:Features of Radical Change, Theory of P-E model
  43. CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION: OD MODELS:The Transactional Factors
  44. CULTURE, VALUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Significance and Role of Values, Values Compete
  45. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES, CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Issues in Change Management