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Software Project Management

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Software Project Management (CS615)
LECTURE # 6
1. Introduction & Fundamentals
1.17
Team leader
Most definitions of leadership involve three components: influence group and
goal. First, leaders are individuals who influence the behavior of others. These
others are usually referred to as sub ordinates or followers. Second, leadership is
usually examined in the context of a group, especially work groups such as
managers and their teams or foremen and their subordinates. Third, research on
leadership stresses a group goal that has to be accomplished. So a definition is:
Leadership is the process in which an individual influences the group
members towards the attainment of group or organization goals.
Note that the influence can be exercised in a: variety of ways. It may be the
'bridge to engine room' approach, where the leader commands and controls. Or
the influence can be exercised by guiding and facilitating the group's behavior so
that the goal is accomplished. The notion of reciprocity is also part of man
definitions. Influencing is often two ways. Leaders may influence followers, but
followers influence leaders to lead in one way rather than another. An influencing
style appropriate for checkout assistant in a supermarket may be different from
that appropriate for rock scientists. The choice is open to the leader of how to
influence is one of the key aspects investigated by leadership researchers.
Another aspect of leadership is that the right to lead is often voluntarily conferred
on the leader by some or all members of the group. A group of friends may
recognize one, of their group as the leader, in the sense that she influences the
group more than any of the other members. There also may be informal leader.
While the nominal head of a department may have the formal leadership position,
the real leadership may be exercised by someone lower down the hierarchy who
influences the group towards goals that may not be those that the organization
whishes to be pursue.
Finally, leadership implies that a leader motivates the group to spend energy
in attaining the goals of the group. Influence without change or movement isn't
influence. Leaders make change happen, a difficult but vitally important task.
1.18
Leaders and Managers
Although it is common to use the terms 'leader' and 'manager' interchangeably,
nowadays many writers point to a difference between the two.
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Software Project Management (CS615)
The difference is that to function as a leader, a person must exercise influence
over another person in the attainment of organizational goals, as described in the
definition above. Managerial ' functions of organizing, planning, scheduling,
processing information, communicating, and so on, do not necessarily involve
leadership. Some managers perform both types of function and can be described
as leaders, but others do not. There is no automatic link between the two concepts.
Note, too, that leaders are not necessarily just at the top of organizations.
Influence can be exerted in most job functions and at levels of seniority or
hierarchy. The distinction between managers and leaders was, developed by
Bennis and Nanus (1985) in their influential book Leaders. In it they put forward
the view that:
Leadership is path finding
Management is path following
Management is about doing things right
Leadership is about doing the right things
What they meant by this is that leadership is about having a vision. It involves
having a strategy or thinking strategically; it means having a view of where the
organization should go or be or do; it means deciding what is important for the
success of the organization; it involves envisaging the future, A leader's
responsibility is to think what are the key criteria for success of his or her part of
the business and not just now but for the future.
Managers, on the other hand, are more concerned with implementing others
strategies and plans, They are concerned with running their part of the
organization, making sure that the accounts get prepared, that invoices are sent
out, that the service is sold, that the traffic is directed, that the research paper is
written, or whatever the task that needs to be done.
A very similar view is put forward by Kotter (1990). He argues that management
is concerned with activities which are designed to produce 'consistency and order',
whereas leadership is concerned with, 'constructive or adaptive change'. Kotter
says there are four major ways that management and leadership differ:
1. Planning and budgeting versus establishing direction. Management
involves making detailed steps and timetables for achieving results, then
marshalling resources to make it happen. Leadership means developing a
vision of the future and strategies for achieving that vision.
2. Organizing and staffing versus aligning people. Management comprises the
allocation of tasks in line with plans, staffing them appropriately, delegating
responsibility and monitoring implementation. Leadership involves
communicating the vision so that others understand and agree with it.
3. Controlling and problem-solving versus motivating and inspiring.
Management involves monitoring results of a plan, identifying problems with
the plan and then solving them. Leadership involves 'energizing people'
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Software Project Management (CS615)
towards the vision. It means appealing to their needs and values so that they
overcome barriers to change.
4. Outcomes: predictability and order, or change. Management produces
predictability and order so that others, such as customers or shareholders can
rely on consistent results. Leadership produces change that is often a quantum
leap, such as new products or new approaches to managing people, that makes
the organization more competitive.
Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) suggest that the following traits distinguish
leaders from non-leaders:
·
Drive (achievement. ambition, energy, tenacity, initiative);
·
Leadership motivation (personalized or socialized); .honesty and
integrity;
·
Self-confidence (including emotional stability);
·
Cognitive ability (the ability to marshal and interpret a wide variety
of information);
·
Knowledge of the business
They point out, though, that there is much more to being an effective leader than
merely possessing a list of traits. While the traits may provide people with the
potential for leadership, it is the capacity to create a vision and implement it that
turns the potential into reality.
Strong leadership motivation may sound an obvious trait for a leader. After all,
only those who want the weighty responsibilities and grueling pressures of
leadership are likely to strive for it. McClelland (1985) distinguishes between two
types of power motivation. On the one hand, leaders may be interested in
personalized power, which describes the motivation of leaders who "seek power
for its own sake, who wish to dominate others and are often concerned with the
status and trappings of power. The late Robert Maxwell, former owner of the
Mirror Group allegedly displayed such traits. On the other hand, leaders who
show socialized power motivation are more interested in cooperating with others
to achieve desired goals. They work with others rather than attempting to
dominate or control them. From the point of view of subordinates and the
organization as a whole, the leader motivated by socialized power is obviously
preferable. On the question of cognitive ability; leaders must be able to gather,
integrate and interpret large amounts of information. Many
Many researchers have pointed out that it is not necessary to be brilliant, though;
leadership effectiveness is helped by above average intelligence, not genius. Of
Kirkpatrick and Locke's six characteristics, some would argue that drive and
persistence are much more important than intelligence.
In conclusion, the trait approach has undergone a revival. Recent research
suggests that traits do matter. Yet the research shows that there are only a handful
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Software Project Management (CS615)
of traits which distinguish leaders from others, and a clear distinction between
effective and ineffective leaders has not yet emerged.
In an excellent book of technical leadership, Jerry Weinberg suggests a MOI
model of leadership:
Motivation: The ability to encourage (by "push or pull") technical people to
produce to their best ability.
Organization: The ability to mold existing processes (or invent new ones) that
will enable the initial concept to be translated into a final product.
Ideas or innovation: The ability to encourage people to create and feel creative
even when they must work within bounds established for a particular soft- ware
product or application.
Weinberg suggests that successful project leaders apply a problem solving
management style. That is, a software project manager should concentrate on
understanding the problem to be solved, managing the flow of ideas, and at the
same time, letting everyone on the team know (by words and, far more important,
by actions) that quality counts and that it will not be compromised.
Another view [EDG95] of the characteristics that define an effective project
manager emphasizes four key traits:
Problem solving An effective software project manager can diagnose the
technical and organizational issues that are most relevant, systematically structure
a solution or properly motivate other practitioners to develop the solution, apply
lessons learned from past projects to new situations, and remain flexible enough
to change direction if initial attempts at problem solution are fruitless.
Managerial identity
A good project manager must take charge of the project. She must have the
confidence to assume control when necessary and the assurance to allow good
technical people to follow their instincts.
Achievement
To optimize the productivity of a project team, a manager must reward initiative
and accomplishment and demonstrate through his own actions that controlled risk
taking will not be punished.
Influence and team building
An effective project manager must be able to "read" people; she must be able to
understand verbal and nonverbal signals and react to the needs of the people
sending these signals. The manager must remain under control in high-stress
situations.
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Software Project Management (CS615)
1.19
Project Organization
People are managed through an organizational structure. This hierarchical
structure is based on the four cornerstones of management: delegation,
authority, responsibility and supervision (see Fig.1). Delegation bestows
authority, and authority produces (and requires) responsibility. Both
authority and responsibility require supervision, and effective supervision
requires a suitable organizational structure:
Most projects are organized as teams, with each team assigned specific
functions within the project, Different types of project require different
types of team structure, as for example a team of junior programmers
requires a technical team leader while a team of experts may require only
an administrative team leader. It is the project manager's responsibility to
select the structure best suited for the project.
Basically an organization is a group of people intentionally organized to
accomplish an overall, common goal or set of goals. Business
organizations can range in size from two people to tens of thousands.
Delegation
1
Supervision
2
Authority
Responsibility
3
4
Figure 1: The four cornerstones of management
There are many ways to organize a software project. The larger the project
the more critical the organizational structure becomes. Badly organized
projects breed confusion, and confusion leads to project failure. Figure 2
describes the basic structure of a project in which below the project
manager are just two general functions: development and support. This
very basic software project structure was not uncommon in the 1950s and
1960s. It is still a valid project structure for very small projects (up to five
developers), though occasionally it can still be found today in larger
projects.
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Software Project Management (CS615)
Project
Project
Project
development
support
Figure 2: Basic structure of a development project
Project
manager
Deputy
Secretary
project
manager
System
Independent
Quality
Configuration
Development
Development
Development
engineer
test group
assurance
control
team 1
team 2
team 3
Figure 3: Software project organizational chart
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Software Project Management (CS615)
Project
manager
Deputy project
Secretary
manager
Integration
Independent
Quality
Configuration
SW sub-project
SW sub-project
SW sub-project
Manager 2
Group
Group
assurance
control
Manager 1
Manager 3
Team 1
Team 1
Team 1
Team 2
Team 2
Team 2
Team 3
Team 3
Figure 4: Large hardware/software project organizational chart
Project managers are just two general functions: development and support. This very
basic software project structure was not uncommon in the 1950s and 1960s. It is a project
structure for very small projects (up to five developers). Though occasionally, it can still
be found today in larger projects.
Figure 3 describes a detailed organizational chart including all major support functions.
This organizational structure is suitable for large projects (with a staff exceeding 20).
Smaller projects may not require a deputy project manager or separate configuration
control and quality assurance groups.
Very large projects (exceeding a staff of 40) can often be managed more easily by
dividing the project into sub-projects. Figure 4 presents the organizational chart for a
large project. This chart includes both software and hardware development teams, and an
integration group that is responsible for hardware/software integration as well as
integration within each group.
As an example, consider the organization of a large satellite project. The project manager
is in fact responsible for a number of projects: the ground control station, the rocket and
the satellite itself. The software for all of these sub-projects is managed within a single
project office. Each sub-project is then managed by a sub-project manager. An
organizational chart similar to the one described in Fig. 4 can be applied to the satellite
project; the resulting chart is described in Fig. 5.
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Software Project Management (CS615)
Satellite
PM
Sub-project
Secretary
Coordinator
Scientific
Integration
Ground control
Rocket
Satellite
Quality assurance
Development
Engineer
Team
Station sub-project
Sub-project
Sub-project
Team 1
Team
Team
Quality
1
1
Assurance
Team 2
Team
Team
Independent
2
2
Group
Team 3
Team
3
Configuration
Control
Figure 5: Satellite project organizational chart
Clearly the project's organizational structure is dependent on the type of project being
developed. Some of the issues that must be considered are:
­ Project size: the larger the project, the more important the organization. Large
projects have significant human communications and coordination overhead, and
therefore require more support functions.
­ Hardware/software development projects. The simultaneous development of
hardware and software is not easy. Planning, integration and testing are much
more complicated, and require dedicated support groups.
­ High reliability systems. Any system that is sensitive to issues of reliability (such
as military or life-saving systems) requires a major effort in quality assurance.
Quality is also an important consideration in many marketable software products
(e.g. communications packages). These types of project require a separate quality
assurance organization.
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Software Project Management (CS615)
The Organizational structure
The organization's structure, or design, is the overall arrangement of the
organization's various roles, processes and their relationships in the organization.
The design of an organization is a means to accomplishing the organization's
overall goal -- the structure is not an end in itself. In systems theory terms, the
design ensures that the appropriate inputs go through the necessary processes to
produce the required outputs to produce the intended outcomes.
The structure of the performing organization often constrains the availability of or
terms under which resources become available to the project. Organizational
structures can be characterized as spanning a spectrum from functional to
projectized, with a variety of matrix structures in between.
Corporate structure: The project's organization is largely dependent on the overall
structure of the company within which the project is being developed. Many of the
project support functions can be provided by centralized groups within the company.
In fact, basic services, such as financial, secretarial and legal services, are commonly
provided by the parent or corporate organization.
Corporate structure usually dictates one of two basic types of project organization:
matrix or pyramid. Figure 5 describes the structure of a matrix organization (compare
this to the pyramid structure in Fig. 4). Within a corporate matrix organization, the
project manager manages the technical activities of the project staff, while his or her
involvement in non-technical personnel issues (e.g. salary reviews, promotion, and
training) is minimal.
Matrix Structure
Think of the functional structure. Imagine if you took someone from each of the
major functions in the functional structure (the boxes along the bottom of the
organization chart), e.g., people from sales, engineering, etc., and organized them into
a separate group intended to produce and sell one certain kind of product or service.
Members of this group stay together until that product is produced or they continue to
sell and service it. This overall structure (made up of a functional structure that also
has groups assigned to products) is a matrix structure. This structure is useful because
it focuses highly skilled people from across the organization to work on a complex
product or service. It can be difficult though, because each person essentially reports
to two supervisors: the supervisor of the functional area (e.g., engineering) and the
product manager, as well. When the organization needs constant coordination of its
functional activities, then lateral relations do not provide sufficient integration.
Consider the matrix structure. To adopt the matrix structure effectively, the
organization should modify many traditional management practices.
Matrix organizations are a blend of functional and projectized characteristics. Weak
matrices maintain many of the characteristics of a functional organization, and the
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Software Project Management (CS615)
project manager role is more that of a coordinator or expediter than that of a manager.
In similar fashion, strong matrices have many of the characteristics of the projectized
organization--full-time project managers with considerable authority and full-time
project administrative staff.
Most modern organizations involve all these structures at various levels. For example,
even a fundamentally functional organization may create a special project team to
handle a critical project. Such a team may have many of the characteristics of a
project in a projectized organization. The team may include full-time staff from
different functional departments, it may develop its own set of operating procedures,
and it may operate outside the standard, formalized reporting structure.
Matrix Organizations are a blend of functional and projectized characteristics. Weak
matrices maintain many of the characteristics of a functional organization, and the
project manager role is more that of a coordinator or expediter than that of a manager.
In similar fashion, strong matrices have many of the characteristics of the projectized
organization--full-time project managers with considerable authority and full-time
project administrative staff.
Most modern organizations involve all these structures at various levels. For example,
even a fundamentally functional organization may create a special project team to
handle a critical project. Such a team may have many of the characteristics of a
project in a projectized organization. The team may include full-time staff from
different functional departments, it may develop its own set of operating procedures,
and it may operate outside the standard, formalized reporting structure.
·
The advantages of a matrix organization are:
­ More expertise: a matrix organization can maintain experts in specific fields
(communications, data bases, graphics etc.) who are then assigned to different
projects. A single project cannot always afford the luxury of maintaining
experts in all fields.
­ Flexibility: it is easier to move people around from one project to another.
This results in better utilization of the available expertise.
­ Emphasis on managing the project: the project manager is freed of many of
the staff management tasks, leaving more time to concentrate on the technical
aspects of the project.
However, matrix organizations also have significant disadvantages:
­ Fewer management measures. One of the primary tools for generating
motivation, promotion, is taken out of the hands of the project manager. The
manager has little influence on the developer's salary and professional role in
the organization.
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Software Project Management (CS615)
­ Lower staff loyalty. All employees like to know exactly who their superior is.
In a matrix organization, an employee has more than one superior. This causes
a division of loyalty, and a weaker bond between employee and manager.
These disadvantages often outweigh the advantages of the corporate matrix
organization.
Motivation is a major factor in the success of a project, and anything that
undermines motivation is usually contrary to the best interests of the project.
Unfortunately, the best interests of the project do not always completely coincide
with the best interests of the company.
Pyramid organizations provide a clear, well-defined hierarchy in which all
individuals know their own position and the positions of those above and below
them. When promotion and status play a major role in generating motivation (and
they often do), then the pyramid organization is most effective. Many other
factors generate motivation; Sense of achievement, praise and peer esteem, are
just a few.
Though promotion and status are not always the most effective motivators, a
project manager should rarely relinquish any effective management tool.
Therefore, from the perspective of a single project, the pyramid organization is
often the best.
Functional Structure
Most business organizations start out with a functional structure, or a small
variation of this structure. This is the basic "building block" for other structures.
In this structure, there is a central office which oversees various departments or
major functions, e.g., human resources, finances, sales, marketing, engineering,
etc. Think of a picture that has a box at the top labeled "Central Office". Think of
a row of boxes underneath the top box. Each box is labeled, e.g., sales,
engineering, human resources, etc. Connect the boxes with lines coming down
from the top box to each of the boxes below. Use functional structures when the
organization is small, geographically centralized, and provides few goods and
services. When the organization experiences bottlenecks in decision making and
difficulties in coordination, it has outgrown its functional structure.
The classic functional organization is a hierarchy where each employee has one
clear superior. Staff members are grouped by specialty, such as production,
marketing, engineering, and accounting at the top level, with engineering further
subdivided into functional organizations that support the business of the larger
organization (e.g., mechanical and electrical). Functional organizations still have
projects, but the perceived scope of the project is limited to the boundaries of the
function: the engineering department in a functional organization will do its work
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independent of the manufacturing or marketing departments. For example, when a
new product development is undertaken in a purely functional organization, the
design phase is often called a design project and includes only engineering
department staff. If questions about manufacturing arise, they are passed up the
hierarchy to the department head, who consults with the head of the
manufacturing department. The engineering department head then passes the
answer back down the hierarchy to the engineering project manager.
Project Structure
In this structure, there is a centralized corporate office and under it, are various
divisions each of which is dedicated to producing and / or selling a certain type of
business or product, e.g., product 1, product 2, etc. Each division that is dedicated
to a certain business or product is, in turn, is organized as its own functional
structure. So, for example, the division dedicated to making product 1 has its own
sales department, human resources, etc. Basically, project structure is a bunch of
functional structures each of which reports to one central office. Use a divisional
structure when the organization is relatively large, geographically dispersed,
and/or produces wide range of goods/services.
In a projectized organization, team members are often collocated. Most of the
organization's resources are involved in project work, and project managers have
a great deal of independence and authority. Projectized organizations often have
organizational units called departments, but these groups either report directly to
the project manager or provide support services to the various projects.
Structural dimensions:
Centralization -the extent to which functions are dispersed in the
organization, either in terms of integration with other functions or
geographically
Formalization - regarding the extent of policies and procedures in the
organization
Hierarchy - regarding the extent and configuration of levels in the
structure
Routinization - regarding the extent that organizational processes are
standardized
Specialization - regarding the extent to which activities are refined
Training - regarding the extent of activities to equip organization
members with knowledge and skills to carry out their roles
Contextual Dimensions:
Culture - the values and beliefs shared by all (note that culture is often
discerned by examining norms or observable behaviors in the workplace)
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Environment - the nature of external influences and activities in the
political, technical, social and economic arenas
Goals - unique overall priorities and desired end-states of the organization
Size - number of people and resources and their span in the organization
Technology - the often unique activities needed to reach organizational
goals, including nature of activities, specialization, type of
equipment/facilities needed, etc.
Role and responsibility assignments
Project roles (who do what) and responsibilities (who decide what) must be
assigned to the appropriate project stakeholders. Roles and responsibilities may
vary over time. Most roles and responsibilities will be assigned to stakeholders who
are actively involved in the work of the project, such as the project manager, other
members of the project management team, and the individual contributors. The
roles and responsibilities of the project manager are generally critical on most
projects, but vary significantly by application area. Project roles and responsibilities
should be closely linked to the project scope definition. A Responsibility
Assignment Matrix (RAM) is often used for this purpose. On larger projects, RAMs
may be developed at various levels. For example, a high-level RAM may define
which group or unit is responsible for each component of the work breakdown
structure, while lower-level RAMs are used within the group to assign roles and
responsibilities for specific activities to particular individuals.
Organization chart
An organization chart is any graphic display of project reporting relationships. It
may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of
the project. For example, the organization chart for a three- to four-person internal
service project is unlikely to have the rigor and detail of the organization chart for a
3,000-person disaster response team. An Organizational Breakdown Structure
(OBS) is a specific type of organization chart that shows; which organizational
units are responsible for which work packages.
Project Personnel
The staffing management plan describes when and how human resources will be
brought onto and taken off of the project team. The staffing plan may be formal or
informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. It is a
subsidiary element of the overall project plan.
The staffing management plan often includes resource histograms. Particular
attention should be paid to how project team members (individuals or groups) will
be released when they are no longer needed on the project.
Appropriate reassignment procedures may:
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­ Reduce costs by reducing or eliminating the tendency to "make work" to fill
the time between this assignment and the next.
­ Improve morale by reducing or eliminating uncertainty about future
employment opportunities.
Supporting detail
Supporting detail for organizational planning varies by application area and
project size. Information frequently supplied as supporting detail includes, but is
not limited to:
­ Job descriptions (position descriptions) --written outlines by job title of the
competencies; responsibilities, authority; physical environment, and other
characteristics involved in performing a given job.
­ Training needs--if the staff to be assigned is not expected to have the
competencies
Needed by the project, those competencies will need to be developed as part of
the project.
Key Concepts in Design of Good Organization
Effective Organizational System provides assessment and training in
communication effectiveness through focus groups, retreats, workshops, and
experiential activities. Coaching addresses such skills as active listening,
constructive differing, conflict resolution, negotiation, mediation, persuasiveness,
and clarity in delivering a message. At the core of the training is the fundamental
premise that the role of communication is to create understanding. When
communication is effective, it promotes understanding and plays a fundamental role
in building interpersonal skills, leadership and strong teams.
An efficient organization is characterized by timely and productive systems and
procedures. At its extreme it has no spare capacity to plan ahead or to respond
easily to market changes.
An effective organization is characterized by the ability to pre-empt competitors,
respond swiftly and efficiently to changing situations, and display agility in its
structure and conduct of operations. It has efficient systems and procedures but has
the capacity to anticipate and plan ahead.
Organizational System provides assessment and training in communication
effectiveness through focus groups, retreats, workshops, and experiential activities.
Coaching addresses such skills as active listening, constructive differing, conflict
resolution, negotiation, mediation, persuasiveness, and clarity in delivering a
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message. At the core of the training is the fundamental premise that the role of
communication is to create understanding. When communication is effective, it
promotes understanding and plays a fundamental role in building interpersonal
skills, leadership and strong teams. Organizations that achieve high levels of
maturity in the people management area have a higher likelihood of implementing
effective software engineering practices.
­ Span of control - the range of employees who to report to a managerial
position
­ Authority - the formally-granted influence of a position to make decisions,
pursue goals and get resources to pursue the goals; authority in a managerial
role may exist only to the extent that subordinates agree to grant this authority
or follow the orders from that position
­ Responsibility - the duty to carry out an assignment or conduct a certain
activity
­ Delegation - process of assigning a task to a subordinate along with the
commensurate responsibility and authority to carry out the task
­ Chain of command - the lines of authority in an organization, who reports to
whom
­ Accountability - responsibility for the outcome of the process
­ Line authority - the type of authority where managers have formal authority
over their subordinates' activities (the subordinates are depicted under the
manager on a solid line in the organization chart); departments directly
involved in producing services or products are sometimes called line
departments
­ Staff departments - the type of authority where managers influence line
managers through staff's specialized advice; departments that support or
advise line departments are called staff departments and include, e.g., human
resources, legal, finance, etc.
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Table of Contents:
  1. Introduction & Fundamentals
  2. Goals of Project management
  3. Project Dimensions, Software Development Lifecycle
  4. Cost Management, Project vs. Program Management, Project Success
  5. Project Management’s nine Knowledge Areas
  6. Team leader, Project Organization, Organizational structure
  7. Project Execution Fundamentals Tracking
  8. Organizational Issues and Project Management
  9. Managing Processes: Project Plan, Managing Quality, Project Execution, Project Initiation
  10. Project Execution: Product Implementation, Project Closedown
  11. Problems in Software Projects, Process- related Problems
  12. Product-related Problems, Technology-related problems
  13. Requirements Management, Requirements analysis
  14. Requirements Elicitation for Software
  15. The Software Requirements Specification
  16. Attributes of Software Design, Key Features of Design
  17. Software Configuration Management Vs Software Maintenance
  18. Quality Assurance Management, Quality Factors
  19. Software Quality Assurance Activities
  20. Software Process, PM Process Groups, Links, PM Phase interactions
  21. Initiating Process: Inputs, Outputs, Tools and Techniques
  22. Planning Process Tasks, Executing Process Tasks, Controlling Process Tasks
  23. Project Planning Objectives, Primary Planning Steps
  24. Tools and Techniques for SDP, Outputs from SDP, SDP Execution
  25. PLANNING: Elements of SDP
  26. Life cycle Models: Spiral Model, Statement of Requirement, Data Item Descriptions
  27. Organizational Systems
  28. ORGANIZATIONAL PLANNING, Organizational Management Tools
  29. Estimation - Concepts
  30. Decomposition Techniques, Estimation – Tools
  31. Estimation – Tools
  32. Work Breakdown Structure
  33. WBS- A Mandatory Management Tool
  34. Characteristics of a High-Quality WBS
  35. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  36. WBS- Major Steps, WBS Implementation, high level WBS tasks
  37. Schedule: Scheduling Fundamentals
  38. Scheduling Tools: GANTT CHARTS, PERT, CPM
  39. Risk and Change Management: Risk Management Concepts
  40. Risk & Change Management Concepts
  41. Risk Management Process
  42. Quality Concept, Producing quality software, Quality Control
  43. Managing Tasks in Microsoft Project 2000
  44. Commissioning & Migration