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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
VU
LESSON 36
TEAM ­ II
At the end of lecture the students will be able to understand:
-  What are team norms;
-  Understand team cohesiveness;
-  Methods to increase team cohesiveness
-
Meaning and concept of communication
Team Norms
When group members work together they form expectations about how they and the other
members will behave. Some of these norms are carried over from society in general, such as dressing
"properly'" for work or showing up on time. Others are particular to the group and its special goals, such as
questioning "conventional ideas".
When an individual breaks with team norms, the other members will probably pressure that
individual to conform. Team norms are therefore important to adhere to by the team/group members.
Without the understanding of norms and adherence to norms groups cannot function.
Team Cohesiveness
The solidarity, or cohesiveness, or togetherness of team member is an important indicator of how
much influence the group has over its individual members. The more cohesive the group-the more strongly
members feel about belonging to it and the greater its influence. If the members of a group feel strongly
attached to it, they are not likely to violate its norms.
Team cohesiveness plays a role in small as well as large organization in better performance. Team
cohesiveness is critical in helping the individual feel good about his or her contribution to the effort as well.
Highly cohesive teams often have less tension and hostility and fewer misunderstanding than less cohesive
groups.
Four ways to Cohesiveness
Cohesiveness or solidarity in teams can be achieved by adopting certain measures. Some of the
methods are:
1.
Introduce competition;
2.
Increase interpersonal attraction;
3.
Increase interaction; and
4.
Create common goals and common fates for employees
1. Introduce Competition: When the competition with outside individuals or other teams is
increased, the group becomes cohesiveness. When the group feels outside threat or competition
from outside the rational response of members is to develop cohesiveness.
2. Increase Interpersonal Attraction: Sometimes people join teams whose members they identify
with or admire. Thus, an organization may want to begin by trying to attract employees who share
certain key values or who have common goals.
3. Increase Interaction: In work situation it is not often possible for people to like everyone they
work with. However, it has been observed that when people interact frequently with each other,
there is gradual likeness that people develop.  Increased interaction and communication can
improve camaraderie.
4. Create Common Goals And Common Fates: A group's effectiveness is a function of three
variables:
i. Task interdependence,
ii. Potency, and
iii. Outcome interdependence.
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
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i. Task interdependence relates to the dependence of workers on one group
member on the work of another member. E.g. one group member's task is to
straighten wire while the other group member has to cut the wire, so once the wire
is cut the first worker has to round the head of wire. This is task interdependence.
ii. Group's sense of potency means, shared belief of a group that it can be effective.
The group potency also keeps the group together.
ii. Outcome interdependence is the degree to which the consequences of the
group's work are felt by all the group's members. In other words the group
members have a feeling that the outcome of group efforts is not possible without
each one contributing. And that the success of group is every member's success.
All the three factors that create common goals and fate are shown in Figure 1.
Determinants of Work-Group Effectiveness
Figure 1
Outcome
Task
Potency
Interdependence
Interdependence
(Effectiveness)
Identifying factors
Identifying factors
Identifying factors
Include organizational
Include organizational
Include technology,
Strategic plan,
Reward, recognition,
Work rules, proximity of
History, culture
members
Group Task
Effectiveness
= Effect
Identifying factors include
= Feedback
Organizational criteria
For effectiveness
Making Teams Effective
Many managers' joke or complaint about committees and meetings of teams being big time-
wasters. In reality, a committee or task force or a group is often the best way to pool the expertise
of different members of the organization and channel their efforts towards effective problem
solving and decision making. This is done by coordinating the efforts of group in effective manner.
Guidelines for Making Committees and Meeting Effective
Committees differ greatly in their functions and activities, therefore set of broad guidelines will
appropriate for all cases are recommended. The following suggestions apply to committees, and group
meetings, if the skills of members are to be used most effectively:
1.
The agenda and all supporting material for the meeting should be distributed to members
before the meeting to give them time to prepare in advance.
2.
Meetings should start and end on time. The time when they will end should be announced
at the outset.
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
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3.
The committee's authority should be known i.e., Is the committee to advise, recommend
or implement
4.
Chairperson should be selected on his/her ability to run meetings efficiently
5.
Optimum size of committee should be determined. If the members are too few members
i.e. fewer than five the advantage of committee may be diminished. Similarly if the size is
too large even then best of the group may not be utilized. However, size may vary
according to the task assigned to group.
Communication
Another important area of organization and for manager's effectiveness is Communication.
Communication is the back bone of organization's survival and growth. Organizations must be able to pass
on their mission goals and Objectives effectively to all members of organization. The communication is
also important because all managerial activities and functions like motivation, leadership, teamwork etc., are
dependent on communication. Without communication it is not possible to run the organization effectively
and efficiently
What is communication
Communication is defined as the transmission of information/ message (written or verbal) from
one person to another or from one place to other.
The Importance of Effective Communication
Effective communication is important for following reasons:
1. Communication provides a common thread for the management processes of planning, organizing,
leading, and controlling, team work, etc.
2. Effective communications skills can enable managers to draw on the vast array of talents available
in organization.
3. Managers do spend a great deal of time communicating. Rarely are managers alone at their desks
thinking, planning, or contemplating alternatives. In fact, managerial time is spent largely in face-to-
face, electronic, or telephonic communication with employees, supervisors, suppliers or customers
etc.
Interpersonal Communication
Communication is defined as the process by which people seek to share meaning via the
transmission of symbolic messages. The definition of communication has three essential points. These are:
(1)
Communication involves people, and communication involves trying to understand how
people relate to each other;
(2)
Communication involves shared meaning, which suggests that in order for people to
communicate, they must agree on the definitions of the terms they are using; and
(3)
Communication involves symbols, gestures, sounds, letters, numbers, words etc. And
language can only represent or approximate the ideas that they are meant to communicate.
Concepts
Team cohesiveness:
Solidarity, together of members of group.
Task interdependence:
The tasks assigned to members in group are interdependence.
Outcome interdependence:
The outcome or result of group activity is the result of effort of
all members and all members share the reward or take pride in
the result.
Potency effectiveness:
Every member in a group contributes effectively to achieve
results.
Communication:
Transmission of information/message (written and verbal)
from one person to other.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  8. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION II
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  20. PLANNING COMMISSION AND PLANNING DEVELOPMENT:Functions, Approval Authority
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  25. SELECTION AND TRAINING AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS:Performance Evaluation,
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  44. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA I
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management