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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
At the end of the lecture students will be able to understand
Definition of teams and types of teams;
Informal teams and their functions;
Characteristics of teams;
Stages of team development and
Teams are defined as: two or more people who interact with and influence each other toward
achievement of common purpose. In more general sense you might have observed cricket teams, hockey
teams etc. But in the field of administration/management a group of people that manager supervises to
achieve given goals is called a team or group.
Types of Teams
Traditionally, there are two types of teams in organizations: These are formal and informal teams.
In the organizations of today, however, teams exist that have the characteristics of both formal and informal
team. That is the work relationships in teams are both formal and informal.
Formal & Informal teams
Formal teams or groups are created deliberately by managers and are assigned to carry out specific
tasks to help the organization achieve its goals. These are also called work teams. The most common type of
formal group is the command team. In this team, there is a manager and all employees who report to that
Another type of formal team is the committee. A committee is formed to deal with specific and
recurrent problem and to provide solution to it. For instance, your university or college probably has a
committee for student affairs to deal with recurring issues of students. The committees involve students
also to solve a problem.
A quality circle is also a kind of team. Problem Solving, quality circle teams meet for an hour
weekly to discuss work-related problems, investigate the causes of problem, recommend solutions,
and take corrective action. When a team has completed its investigation and identified a solution, it makes
a formal presentation to the management and staff.
Some formal teams are called task forces or project teams. These teams are created to deal with a
specific problem and are usually disbanded when the task is completed or the problem is solved.
It may be mentioned that the concept of team in organization is more prevalent in organization of
developed countries.
Informal teams or groups emerge whenever people come together and interact regularly. Such
groups develop within the formal organizational structure. Members of informal teams tend to subordinate
some of their individual needs to those of the team as a whole.
Functions of Informal Groups
Informal groups serve four major functions. These are as follows:
They maintain and strengthen the norms (expected behavior) and values their members
hold in common. In other words members of team bind together because they abide the
expectations of each other.
They give members feelings of social satisfaction, status, and security. In large
organizations, where many people feel that their employers hardly know them, informal
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
group enable employees to share jokes and complaints, eat together, and socialize after
Informal groups help their members communicate. Members of informal groups learn
about matters that affect them by developing their own informal channels of
communication and information to supplement formal channels.
Informal groups help solve problems. They might aid a sick or tired employee or devise
activities to deal with boredom. Quite often, such groups help organization: when co-
workers tell nonproductive employees to "improve." But these groups can also reduce an
organization's effectiveness, by pressurizing colleague `not to work'.
High Performance Teams
There are other types of teams which are high performance teams and these have characteristics of
both formal and informal teams. These are group of 3 to 30 workers drawn from different areas of an
organization. These are also called "self-managed work teams," "cross-functional teams," or "high-
performance teams". In these teams members are taken from all the departments of organization. The
members of this team are well trained and they know their roles and responsibility very well. These teams
do not require much guidance and supervision.
Self-managed Teams
Super-teams that manage themselves without any formal supervision of a manager are called self-
managed teams. These teams usually have the following characteristics:
The team has responsibility for a "relatively whole task."
Each Team members possess a variety of task-related skills.
The team has the power to determine such things as work methods, scheduling, and
assignment of members to different tasks.
The performance of the group as a whole is the basis for compensation and feedback.
Characteristics of Teams
The first step in learning to manage teams effectively is to become aware of their characteristics-
that is, the way they develop leadership roles, norms, and cohesiveness.
Leadership Roles
The formal leader of a team is usually appointed or elected. Informal leaders, on the other hand,
tend to emerge gradually as group members interact. The man or women who speaks up more than the
others, offers more and better suggestions, or who gives direction to the group's activities usually becomes
the informal leader
Stages of Team Development
It is also important to know the stags of team developed. Small groups move through five stages as
they develop;
1. Forming
This is state when group members meet. This is the initial stage of knowing each other. The group
forms and learns what sort of behavior is acceptable to the group members as a group. By exploring what
does and does not work in group situation, the group sets implicit and explicit ground rules that cover the
completion of specific tasks as well as general group dynamics. By and large, this stage is a period of both
orientation and acclimatization i.e., of knowing.
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
2. Storming
As group members become more comfortable with one another, they may oppose the formation of
a group structure as they begin to assert their individual personalities. Members often become hostile and
even fight ground rules set during the forming stage. This is a crucial stage in the development of team or
group because differences amongst group members emerge.
3. Norming
In this stage the conflicts that arose in the storming stage are addressed and hopefully resolved.
Group unity emerges as members establish common goals, norms, and ground rules. The group as a whole
participates, not merely a few vocal members. Members begin to voice personal opinions and develop close
5. Performing
After the structural issues have been resolved, the group begins to operate as a unit. The structure
of the group now supports and eases group dynamics and performance. Members can now redirect their
efforts from the development of the group to using the group's structure to complete the tasks at hand.
6. Adjourning
There are groups or teams that are constituted for a given period of time. When the time period of
a group ends; the group has to complete its task and then it is disbanded. With disbandment in mind, the
group's focus shifts from high task performance to closure. The attitude of members varies from
excitement to depression.
Group structure:
the roles and relationship within the group.
the expected and accepted pattern of behaviour of individuals in
Group Dynamics:
the changing roles and relationship in group behaviour and
formation and disbandment of group.
Quality circle:
it is a kind of team or group which works together toward
performance/quality of work assigned to the team.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management