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Human Computer Interaction

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Human Computer Interaction (CS408)
VU
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
LECTURE 1.
INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION ­ PART I ....... 7
LEARNING GOALS ................................................................................................................................ 7
1.1
RIDDLES FOR THE INFORMATION AGE.................................................................................... 9
1.2
ROLE OF HCI ....................................................................................................................... 13
LECTURE 2.
INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION ­ PART II.... 14
LEARNING GOALS .............................................................................................................................. 14
2.1
DEFINITION OF HCI.............................................................................................................. 14
2.2
REASONS OF NON-BRIGHT ASPECTS ..................................................................................... 14
2.3
HUMAN VERSES COMPUTER ................................................................................................. 17
2.4
SOFTWARE APARTHEID ........................................................................................................ 18
LECTURE 3.
INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION ­ PART III .. 21
LEARNING GOALS .............................................................................................................................. 21
3.1
AN INDUSTRY IN DENIAL ..................................................................................................... 22
3.2
TECHNO-RAGE ..................................................................................................................... 23
3.3
SUCCESS CRITERIA IN THE NEW ECONOMY.......................................................................... 25
3.4
COMPUTER + INFORMATION................................................................................................. 28
REFERENCES....................................................................................................................................... 28
LECTURE 4.
GOALS & EVOLUTION OF HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION ........... 29
LEARNING GOALS .............................................................................................................................. 29
4.1
GOALS OF HCI ..................................................................................................................... 29
EVOLUTION OF HCI ............................................................................................................. 33
4.2
LECTURE 5.
DISCIPLINE OF HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION................................ 39
LEARNING GOALS .............................................................................................................................. 39
5.1
QUALITY .............................................................................................................................. 39
5.2
INTERDISCIPLINARY NATURE OF HCI ................................................................................... 40
REFERENCE: ....................................................................................................................................... 45
LECTURE 6.
COGNITIVE FRAMEWORKS ............................................................................. 46
LEARNING GOALS............................................................................................................................ 46
6.1
INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................... 46
6.2
MODES OF COGNITION ......................................................................................................... 48
6.3
HUMAN PROCESSOR MODEL ................................................................................................. 50
6.4
GOMS ................................................................................................................................. 50
6.5
RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY ........................................................... 51
EXTERNAL COGNITION......................................................................................................... 52
6.6
6.7
DISTRIBUTED COGNITION ..................................................................................................... 53
LECTURE 7.
HUMAN INPUT-OUTPUT CHANNELS ­ PART I ............................................ 54
LEARNING GOALS .............................................................................................................................. 54
7.1
INPUT OUTPUT CHANNELS.................................................................................................... 54
7.2
VISION ................................................................................................................................. 55
7.3
VISUAL PERCEPTION............................................................................................................. 57
LECTURE 8.
HUMAN INPUT-OUTPUT CHANNELS PART II.............................................. 62
LEARNING GOALS .............................................................................................................................. 62
8.1
COLOR THEORY ................................................................................................................... 62
8.2
STEREOPSIS .......................................................................................................................... 67
8.3
READING .............................................................................................................................. 70
8.4
HEARING .............................................................................................................................. 70
8.5
TOUCH ................................................................................................................................. 72
8.6
MOVEMENT.......................................................................................................................... 73
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Human Computer Interaction (CS408)
VU
LECTURE 9.
COGNITIVE PROCESS - PART I ........................................................................ 77
LEARNING GOALS .............................................................................................................................. 77
9.1
ATTENTION .......................................................................................................................... 77
9.2
MEMORY.............................................................................................................................. 80
9.3
REVISED MEMORY MODEL .................................................................................................. 85
LECTURE 10.
COGNITIVE PROCESSES - PART II ............................................................. 86
LEARNING GOALS .............................................................................................................................. 86
10.1
LEARNING ............................................................................................................................ 86
10.2
READING, SPEAKING AND LISTENING................................................................................... 88
10.3
PROBLEM SOLVING, PLANNING, REASONING AND DECISION-MAKING ................................. 89
LECTURE 11.
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ACTIONS ............................................................... 94
LEARNING GOALS .............................................................................................................................. 94
11.1
MENTAL MODEL................................................................................................................... 94
11.2
ERRORS .............................................................................................................................. 100
LECTURE 12.
DESIGN PRINCIPLES .................................................................................... 102
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 102
DESIGN PRINCIPLES ........................................................................................................... 104
12.1
LECTURE 13.
THE COMPUTER ............................................................................................ 111
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 111
13.1
INPUT DEVICES ................................................................................................................... 111
13.2
TEXT ENTRY DEVICES......................................................................................................... 112
13.3
POSITIONING, POINTING AND DRAWING ............................................................................ 117
13.4
DISPLAY DEVICES............................................................................................................... 121
13.5
TOUCH, FEEL AND SMELL ................................................................................................... 122
PHYSICAL CONTROLS ......................................................................................................... 122
13.6
13.7
ENVIRONMENT AND BIO SENSING ....................................................................................... 122
LECTURE 14.
INTERACTION ................................................................................................ 123
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 123
14.1
THE TERMS OF INTERACTION ............................................................................................. 123
DONALD NORMAN'S MODEL ............................................................................................. 124
14.2
14.3
THE INTERACTION FRAMEWORK......................................................................................... 125
14.4
FRAMEWORKS AND HCI..................................................................................................... 125
14.5
INTERACTION STYLES......................................................................................................... 129
LECTURE 15.
INTERACTION PARADIGMS....................................................................... 132
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 132
15.1
THE WIMP INTERFACES .................................................................................................... 132
15.2
INTERACTION PARADIGMS ................................................................................................. 136
LECTURE 16.
HCI PROCESS AND MODELS...................................................................... 143
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 143
LECTURE 17.
HCI PROCESS AND METHODOLOGIES................................................... 150
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 150
17.1
LIFECYCLE MODELS ........................................................................................................... 151
17.2
LIFECYCLE MODELS IN HCI................................................................................................ 154
LECTURE 18.
GOAL-DIRECTED DESIGN METHODOLOGIES ..................................... 159
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 159
18.1
GOAL-DIRECTED DESIGN MODEL ...................................................................................... 159
18.2
A PROCESS OVERVIEW........................................................................................................ 160
18.3
TYPES OF USERS ................................................................................................................. 166
LECTURE 19.
USER RESEARCH PART-I ............................................................................ 169
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Human Computer Interaction (CS408)
VU
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 169
19.1
TYPES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH .................................................................................... 170
19.2
ETHNOGRAPHIC INTERVIEWS ............................................................................................. 174
LECTURE 20.
USER RESEARCH PART-II........................................................................... 176
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 176
20.1
USER-CENTERED APPROACH ............................................................................................. 176
20.2
ETHNOGRAPHY FRAMEWORK ............................................................................................. 178
20.3
PREPARING FOR ETHNOGRAPHIC INTERVIEWS .................................................................... 182
20.4
PUTTING A PLAN TOGETHER ............................................................................................... 184
LECTURE 21.
USER RESEARCH PART-III ......................................................................... 185
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 185
LECTURE 22.
USER MODELING .......................................................................................... 197
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 197
22.1
WHY MODEL? .................................................................................................................... 197
22.2
PERSONAS .......................................................................................................................... 198
22.3
GOALS................................................................................................................................ 204
22.4
TYPES OF GOALS ................................................................................................................ 204
22.5
CONSTRUCTING PERSONAS................................................................................................. 206
LECTURE 23.
REQUIREMENTS............................................................................................ 211
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 211
23.1
NARRATIVE AS A DESIGN TOOL .......................................................................................... 211
23.2
ENVISIONING SOLUTIONS WITH PERSONA-BASED DESIGN................................................... 213
LECTURE 24.
FRAMEWORK AND REFINEMENTS ......................................................... 219
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 219
24.1
DEFINING THE INTERACTION FRAMEWORK......................................................................... 219
PROTOTYPING .................................................................................................................... 223
24.2
LECTURE 25.
DESIGN SYNTHESIS ...................................................................................... 226
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 226
25.1
INTERACTION DESIGN PRINCIPLES ..................................................................................... 226
25.2
INTERACTION DESIGN PATTERNS ....................................................................................... 230
INTERACTION DESIGN IMPERATIVES .................................................................................. 232
25.3
LECTURE 26.
BEHAVIOR & FORM PART I ....................................................................... 234
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 234
26.1
SOFTWARE POSTURE .......................................................................................................... 234
POSTURES FOR THE DESKTOP ............................................................................................. 234
26.2
LECTURE 27.
BEHAVIOR & FORM PART II...................................................................... 244
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 244
27.1
POSTURES FOR THE WEB .................................................................................................... 244
27.2
WEB PORTALS .................................................................................................................... 245
27.3
POSTURES FOR OTHER PLATFORMS.................................................................................... 246
27.4
FLOW AND TRANSPARENCY ............................................................................................... 248
27.5
ORCHESTRATION................................................................................................................ 251
LECTURE 28.
BEHAVIOR & FORM PART III .................................................................... 260
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 260
28.1
ELIMINATING EXCISE ......................................................................................................... 260
28.2
NAVIGATION AND INFLECTION........................................................................................... 263
LECTURE 29.
EVALUATION ­ PART I ................................................................................ 271
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 271
29.1
EVALUATION PARADIGMS AND TECHNIQUES...................................................................... 273
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Human Computer Interaction (CS408)
VU
LECTURE 30.
EVALUATION ­ PART II............................................................................... 279
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 279
30.1
DECIDE: A FRAMEWORK TO GUIDE EVALUATION ............................................................. 279
LECTURE 31.
EVALUATION ­ PART VII............................................................................ 285
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 285
LECTURE 32.
EVALUATION IV ............................................................................................ 294
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 294
32.1
SCENE FROM A MALL ............................................................................................................... 294
32.2
WEB NAVIGATION ............................................................................................................. 296
LECTURE 33.
EVALUATION V.............................................................................................. 310
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 310
33.1
TRY THE TRUNK TEST ......................................................................................................... 312
LECTURE 34.
EVALUATION ­ PART VI ............................................................................. 317
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 317
LECTURE 35.
EVALUATION ­ PART VII............................................................................ 321
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 321
35.1
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EVALUATION AND USABILITY? ............................................ 321
LECTURE 36.
BEHAVIOR & FORM ­ PART IV ................................................................. 327
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 327
UNDERSTANDING UNDO ..................................................................................................... 327
36.1
36.2
TYPES AND VARIANTS OF................................................................................................... 329
36.3
INCREMENTAL AND PROCEDURAL ACTIONS........................................................................ 329
SINGLE AND MULTIPLE UNDO ............................................................................................. 330
36.4
36.5
OTHER MODELS FOR UNDO-LIKE BEHAVIOR ..................................................................... 333
36.6
RETHINKING FILES AND SAVE............................................................................................ 337
ARCHIVING ........................................................................................................................ 339
36.7
36.8
IMPLEMENTATION MODEL VERSUS MENTAL MODEL ......................................................... 340
DISPENSING WITH THE IMPLEMENTATION MODEL OF THE FILE SYSTEM ............................ 341
36.9
36.10  DESIGNING A UNIFIED FILE PRESENTATION MODEL .......................................................... 341
LECTURE 37.
BEHAVIOR & FORM - PART V ................................................................... 343
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 343
37.1
UNIFIED DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT.................................................................................. 343
CREATING A MILESTONE COPY OF THE DOCUMENT ............................................................ 346
37.2
37.3
ARE DISKS AND FILES SYSTEMS A FEATURE? .................................................................... 347
37.4
TIME FOR CHANGE ............................................................................................................. 348
37.5
MAKING SOFTWARE CONSIDERATE ................................................................................... 348
37.6
CONSIDERATE SOFTWARE IS POSSIBLE............................................................................... 354
37.7
MAKING SOFTWARE SMARTS:............................................................................................ 355
37.8
PUTTING THE IDLE CYCLES TO WORK................................................................................ 355
37.9
GIVING SOFTWARE A MEMORY.......................................................................................... 356
37.10  TASK COHERENCE.............................................................................................................. 357
37.11  ACTIONS TO REMEMBER .................................................................................................... 358
37.12  APPLYING MEMORY TO YOUR APPLICATIONS ................................................................... 359
37.13  MEMORY MAKES A DIFFERENCE ....................................................................................... 361
LECTURE 38.
BEHAVIOR & FORM ­ PART VI ................................................................. 362
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 362
38.1
DESIGNING LOOK AND FEEL .............................................................................................. 362
38.2
PRINCIPLES OF VISUAL INTERFACE DESIGN ....................................................................... 364
LECTURE 39.
BEHAVIOR & FORM ­ PART VII................................................................ 367
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 367
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Human Computer Interaction (CS408)
VU
39.1
PROVIDE VISUAL STRUCTURE AND FLOW AT EACH LEVEL OFORGANIZATION...................... 367
39.2
PRINCIPLES OF VISUAL INFORMATION DESIGN .................................................................. 374
39.3
USE OF TEXT AND COLOR IN VISUAL INTERFACES............................................................. 376
39.4
CONSISTENCY AND STANDARDS ........................................................................................ 378
LECTURE 40.
OBSERVING USER ......................................................................................... 381
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 381
40.1
WHAT AND WHEN TO OBSERVE .......................................................................................... 381
40.2
HOW TO OBSERVE ............................................................................................................ 381
40.3
DATA COLLECTION ............................................................................................................ 385
40.4
INDIRECT OBSERVATION: TRACKING USERS' ACTIVITIES..................................................... 386
40.5
ANALYZING, INTERPRETING, AND PRESENTING THE DATA .............................................. 387
LECTURE 41.
ASKING USERS ............................................................................................... 390
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 390
41.1
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................. 390
41.2
ASKING USERS: INTERVIEWS .............................................................................................. 390
41.3
ASKING USERS: QUESTIONNAIRES ................................................................................... 394
41.4
ASKING EXPERTS: WALKTHROUGHS ............................................................................. 399
LECTURE 42.
COMMUNICATING USERS .......................................................................... 402
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 402
ELIMINATING ERRORS........................................................................................................ 402
42.1
42.2
POSITIVE FEEDBACK........................................................................................................... 407
42.3
NOTIFYING AND CONFIRMING ............................................................................................ 408
42.4
ALERTS AND CONFIRMATIONS ........................................................................................... 408
ELIMINATING CONFIRMATIONS ............................................................................... 412
42.5
42.6
REPLACING DIALOGS: RICH MODELESS FEEDBACK ........................................................... 413
42.7
RICH VISUAL MODELESS FEEDBACK ................................................................................... 413
LECTURE 43...................................................................................................................................... 415
LECTURE 43.
INFORMATION RETRIEVAL ...................................................................... 415
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 415
43.1
AUDIBLE FEEDBACK........................................................................................................... 415
43.2
OTHER COMMUNICATION WITHUSERS.................................................................................... 417
43.3
IMPROVING DATA RETRIEVAL ........................................................................................... 424
LECTURE 44.
EMERGING PARADIGMS............................................................................. 429
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 429
44.1
ACCESSIBILITY................................................................................................................... 431
LECTURE 45.
CONCLUSION.................................................................................................. 437
LEARNING GOALS ............................................................................................................................ 437
45.1
WEARABLE COMPUTING .................................................................................................... 438
45.2
TANGIBLE BITS .................................................................................................................. 440
45.3
ATTENTIVE ENVIRONMENTS .............................................................................................. 442
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Table of Contents:
  1. RIDDLES FOR THE INFORMATION AGE, ROLE OF HCI
  2. DEFINITION OF HCI, REASONS OF NON-BRIGHT ASPECTS, SOFTWARE APARTHEID
  3. AN INDUSTRY IN DENIAL, SUCCESS CRITERIA IN THE NEW ECONOMY
  4. GOALS & EVOLUTION OF HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION
  5. DISCIPLINE OF HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION
  6. COGNITIVE FRAMEWORKS: MODES OF COGNITION, HUMAN PROCESSOR MODEL, GOMS
  7. HUMAN INPUT-OUTPUT CHANNELS, VISUAL PERCEPTION
  8. COLOR THEORY, STEREOPSIS, READING, HEARING, TOUCH, MOVEMENT
  9. COGNITIVE PROCESS: ATTENTION, MEMORY, REVISED MEMORY MODEL
  10. COGNITIVE PROCESSES: LEARNING, READING, SPEAKING, LISTENING, PROBLEM SOLVING, PLANNING, REASONING, DECISION-MAKING
  11. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ACTIONS: MENTAL MODEL, ERRORS
  12. DESIGN PRINCIPLES:
  13. THE COMPUTER: INPUT DEVICES, TEXT ENTRY DEVICES, POSITIONING, POINTING AND DRAWING
  14. INTERACTION: THE TERMS OF INTERACTION, DONALD NORMAN’S MODEL
  15. INTERACTION PARADIGMS: THE WIMP INTERFACES, INTERACTION PARADIGMS
  16. HCI PROCESS AND MODELS
  17. HCI PROCESS AND METHODOLOGIES: LIFECYCLE MODELS IN HCI
  18. GOAL-DIRECTED DESIGN METHODOLOGIES: A PROCESS OVERVIEW, TYPES OF USERS
  19. USER RESEARCH: TYPES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH, ETHNOGRAPHIC INTERVIEWS
  20. USER-CENTERED APPROACH, ETHNOGRAPHY FRAMEWORK
  21. USER RESEARCH IN DEPTH
  22. USER MODELING: PERSONAS, GOALS, CONSTRUCTING PERSONAS
  23. REQUIREMENTS: NARRATIVE AS A DESIGN TOOL, ENVISIONING SOLUTIONS WITH PERSONA-BASED DESIGN
  24. FRAMEWORK AND REFINEMENTS: DEFINING THE INTERACTION FRAMEWORK, PROTOTYPING
  25. DESIGN SYNTHESIS: INTERACTION DESIGN PRINCIPLES, PATTERNS, IMPERATIVES
  26. BEHAVIOR & FORM: SOFTWARE POSTURE, POSTURES FOR THE DESKTOP
  27. POSTURES FOR THE WEB, WEB PORTALS, POSTURES FOR OTHER PLATFORMS, FLOW AND TRANSPARENCY, ORCHESTRATION
  28. BEHAVIOR & FORM: ELIMINATING EXCISE, NAVIGATION AND INFLECTION
  29. EVALUATION PARADIGMS AND TECHNIQUES
  30. DECIDE: A FRAMEWORK TO GUIDE EVALUATION
  31. EVALUATION
  32. EVALUATION: SCENE FROM A MALL, WEB NAVIGATION
  33. EVALUATION: TRY THE TRUNK TEST
  34. EVALUATION – PART VI
  35. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EVALUATION AND USABILITY
  36. BEHAVIOR & FORM: UNDERSTANDING UNDO, TYPES AND VARIANTS, INCREMENTAL AND PROCEDURAL ACTIONS
  37. UNIFIED DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT, CREATING A MILESTONE COPY OF THE DOCUMENT
  38. DESIGNING LOOK AND FEEL, PRINCIPLES OF VISUAL INTERFACE DESIGN
  39. PRINCIPLES OF VISUAL INFORMATION DESIGN, USE OF TEXT AND COLOR IN VISUAL INTERFACES
  40. OBSERVING USER: WHAT AND WHEN HOW TO OBSERVE, DATA COLLECTION
  41. ASKING USERS: INTERVIEWS, QUESTIONNAIRES, WALKTHROUGHS
  42. COMMUNICATING USERS: ELIMINATING ERRORS, POSITIVE FEEDBACK, NOTIFYING AND CONFIRMING
  43. INFORMATION RETRIEVAL: AUDIBLE FEEDBACK, OTHER COMMUNICATION WITH USERS, IMPROVING DATA RETRIEVAL
  44. EMERGING PARADIGMS, ACCESSIBILITY
  45. WEARABLE COMPUTING, TANGIBLE BITS, ATTENTIVE ENVIRONMENTS