ZeePedia Add to Favourites   |   Contact us


Forensic Psychology

<<< Previous SUBSTANCE MISUSE TREATMENT PROGRAM:Marijuana, Unconventional drugs Next >>>
 
img
Forensic Psychology (PSY - 513)
VU
Lesson 41
SUBSTANCE MISUSE TREATMENT PROGRAM
Objectives:
To learn the differential diagnosis of drug addict and ASPD
To know about the controversial and few other important drugs
As a result addicts exhibits many anti-social traits like:
Lying
Stealing
Conning, Manipulation/ Cheating
Irresponsibility
Violence and aggression
Lack of victim empathy
Bad company
Differential diagnosis
For making differential diagnosis, we need to understand that stealing, lying, irresponsibility and
aggression is different because addicts do lie but addicts' lying is not compulsive and pathological
they lie in order to get money for drugs and so are purposeful. Like wise manipulation, stealing and
bad company is also to get drugs. Addicts can exhibit violence and aggression under the influence
and effect of drugs. People with ASPD have flat emotional experience so lack victim empathy;
addicts also show lack of victim empathy but usually they do this because of withdrawal
symptoms or under the influence of drug, an emotional numbness have empowered them and they
are unable to feel empathy for victim.
But differential diagnosis is not that much easy as it appears to be because one of main
characteristics of ASPD is the drug addiction and they use poly drugs for thrill seeking. Here one
delicate concept to remember that all ASPD are drug addicts but it is not necessary that all addicts
have ASPD.
The education about the effects of different drugs is very important in order to understand the
treatment programs. Because few drugs are highly addictive, having devastating bodily effects and
are strongly linked with crimes rate and other drugs are rarely linked with crimes like people using
"Ganja" you will never find him committing any crime.
Drugs are widely divided into two categories:
1. Uppers or stimulants (like tea, coffee)
2. Downers or depressants (use of such drugs slows down the bodily functions and person
feels happy and cheerful)
Use of many drugs like heroin becomes life style so change is requiring a crucial medical and
psychological treatment. And lot of will, behavioral and emotional power along with community
support is essential. So role of psychologists is vital in helping an addict to live a normal life.
Few of important drugs are listed below:
1. Marijuana
2. Heroin
3. Cocaine
4. Unconventional drugs
5. LSD and other Pills
6. Alcohol
141
img
Forensic Psychology (PSY - 513)
VU
Marijuana
Marijuana: the controversial drug
Many studies insist it is harmful
Many others reject such claims
Legal drug in many countries and many states in the United States
Less harmful than alcohol
Medicinal use such as in cancer patients
This drug provides a gateway to all other more lethal drugs, the belief a lower classed drug can lead to
the use subsequent abuse of "harder", more dangerous drugs. Some believe tobacco, alcohol, and
marijuana are gateway drugs.
Heroin and cocaine
Highly addictive
Tolerance increases exponentially
Distort the perceptual system
Impair conscious control
Could lead to dangerous behavior
Many crimes like stealing, manipulation, lying, violence and aggression are done because of the
withdrawal symptoms or under the influence of drug.
Unconventional drugs
These substances are not usually prepared for addiction purposes but their mis use can be also addictive
and can have devastating effects on nervous system like:
Glue sniffing ( common in street children)
Solvent abuse
Spirit, petrol, cleaning agents etc
Highly poisonous
Impact nervous system
LSD and other Pills
Many legal and illegal pills
Legal pills such as tranquilizers are addictive
Illegal pills such as Ecstasy
People have died as a result
Many pills that are legal and use under the care of doctor is for a certain period of time is acceptable but
people misuse them as addiction agents and even such drugs can have extremely lethal effects.
SEX OFFENDER TREATMENT PROGRAM
(Additional material about an important and sensitive area on forensic psychology)
Objectives
To understand the Sex offender treatment program
To know about the Risk assessment of sex offenders
To learn about the different types of sex offenders
This is a very sensitive but very important topic in forensic psychology Sex offending, in all its
varieties, is a topic where it is important to remain emotionally detached and open minded. As for as,
violence related crimes are concerned, many people adopt criminal life due to many personal/situational
factors. And psychological treatment is only offered to those who have developed the criminal life style
142
img
Forensic Psychology (PSY - 513)
VU
and are dangerous but more hazardous types of criminals are sex offenders and seriously need
psychological treatment.
Types of Sexual Offences
In our Pakistani frame work sex is only acceptable in the realm of marriage and any other kind is illegal.
But from where we are getting the forensic psychology is west and adultery is not considered illegal
there but in Pakistan adultery is also illegal but as being forensic psychologist we need to know that
people involve in this practice do not need any psychological treatment.
1. Incest
Is that crime in which usually victim is female and perpetrator is male, with whom marriage is not
allowed in Islam like step father, uncle or father e.t.c
2. Rape
Is legally defined in Pakistan as an adult male sexually violating an adult female and in west the same
charges are applied for a male victim and male perpetrator.
3. Sodomy
This offence has come from British law, and sodomy is legally defined as male sexually assaulting
another male. In Forensic psychology we can talk about the treatment of habitual of sodomy.
4. Penetration with a foreign object
Perpetrators, who are not sexually capable, can use foreign object for penetration.
5. Oral Copulation
The perpetrator forces the victim to have oral sex and again it is a punishable offence.
6. Sexual Assault
Why this is different from rape because it can take many forms from hideous crime of rape to
inappropriate touching. Such cases do not come into courts in Pakistan but can have a deep
psychological trauma on victim and in west females are more likely to involve police in these kinds of
issues and police is more likely to arrests that person.
7. Sexual Battery
Some body assaulting other but also violently, in west even many wives can accuse their husbands for
sexual batteries. So on the basis of sexual battery a wife can get divorce on these grounds.
8. Sexually assaulting an animal
A person having sexual preference for animals can seek treatment from psychologists.
9. Sexual Homicide
Sexual homicide is a much more serious crime and a very tricky area because not all homicides are
accompanied by the sexual activity e.g. a women is raped and then murdered and this is called a
homicide but on the other hand is a serial killer who have killed six or seven or even more than this
prostitutes. And clarifying himself by saying that I am purifying and glorifying the world and being a
pious man it is my duty. As we know from our religion that taking state's law in hands in not
permissible. And In our psychological reference if a person is indulged in these kinds of activities, a
psychologist would assume he is sexually motivated and this is another form of sexual proversion and
expression and must be treated. But it is a case of murder that is punishable by death so question of
treatment does not arise.
143
img
Forensic Psychology (PSY - 513)
VU
10. Indecent exposure/ exhibitionism
It is legally defined as if a man indecently exposes himself to a female or to a child is considered a
crime and in west urinating in public place is also considered indecent exposure and a crime but in
Pakistan it is a common practice.
11. Voyeuristic Activity
Peeping other people with out their knowledge when they are in toilet or changing clothes or naked.
12.
Lewd acts with a child are another illegal offence.
13.
Molest Children
14.
Invitation to sexual touching
15.
Unlawful sexual activity with a minor, having relationship with some one who is legally below
age. Here there is a mismatch in shariat and law as in shariat marriage below 18 years of age is
permissible. But again this issue does not come under the category of treatment that a forensic
psychologist has to offer.
16. Attempted sexual offences
17. Crimes related to child pornography
18. Pimping
19. Offering prostitution services
20. Seeking/ hiring prostitutes
21. Consenting sex in public locations
All these types are considered illegal in our country.
Sex Offenders: Assessment and Treatment
Risk Assessment
In terms of future risk of sexual offences, we will discuss :
Static 99, Hanson & Thornton 1999
Penile Plysmathography (PPG)
Risk Assessment
Static 99, Hanson & Thornton 1999
This tool was designed to assess the long-term potential for sexual recidivism among adult male sex
offenders. And it assesses future risk just on the basis of static factors. categories that are incorporated
in this tool and it's scoring is given below:
Prior sex offences charges none = 0
1 to 2 charges = 1
3 ­to 5 charges = 2
6+
=3
Convictions none = 0
1=1
2­3=2
4+ =3
Prior sentencing dates
3 or less = 0
4+
=1
Non-contact sex offences
No
= 0
yes
=1
144
img
Forensic Psychology (PSY - 513)
VU
Index non-sexual violence
No = 0
yes = 1
Prior non-sexual violence
No = 0
yes =1
Unrelated victims
No
=0
yes = 1
Stranger victims
No
=0
yes = 1
Male victims
No
=0
yes = 1
Young offenders
25 + = 0
18 - 24 = 1
Single, ever-married or lived 2 years = 0
No partners = 1
All scores are added up to view the total score of an offender and future risk is determined.
Viewing the items of this scale we come to know that:
Statistically speaking, non contact sexual offenders are more likely to re-offend because they
have deep rooted psychological problems.
Some one who has violent tendency and have committed some sexual offence is at high future
risk, because violence and sexual offences are strongly correlated.
If a person is involved in family and convicted, research supports that there are less chances that
he will re-offend. On the other hand a person is going to other peoples house and then committing
a crime has more hardened criminal personality, difficult to treat and has higher future risk to re-
offend.
If a person is victimizing a stranger there are more chances that he will re-offend.
Sexual preferences for male are difficult to treat
Younger offenders have more chances to re-offend
145
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY:Future of Forensic Psychology
  2. INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC PSYCHOOGY:Way of police investigation
  3. FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY AND POLICE:Violent Criminals
  4. POLICE PSYCHOLOGY:Use of excessive force, Corruption, Personnel Selection
  5. POLICE PSYCHOLOGY:Fitness-for-Duty Evaluation (FFDE), False Confessions
  6. INVESTIGATIVE PSYCHOLOGY:For instance, Empirical and logical approach
  7. INVESTIGATIVE PSYCHOLOGY:Crime Scene Investigation, Staging
  8. PSYCHOLOGY OF VIOLENCE:Law of Conservation of Energy, Super ego
  9. PSYCHOANALYTIC MODEL AND VIOLENCE:Fixation at Oral Stage
  10. PSYCHOANALYTIC MODEL AND VIOLENCE:Defense Mechanism, Rationalization
  11. JUNGIAN PSYCHOLOGY AND VIOLENCE:Freudian Methods, JUNGIAN PSYCHOLOGY
  12. JUNGIAN PSYCHOLOGY AND VIOLENCE:Religion and mental illnesses
  13. BEHAVIORIST PERSPECTIVE AND VIOLENCE:Shadow’s violence, Child’s violence
  14. BEHAVIORIST PERSPECTIVE AND VIOLENCE:Operant Conditioning
  15. BEHAVIORIST PERSPECTIVE AND VIOLENCE:Schedules of Punishment
  16. SOCIAL LEARNING MODEL AND VIOLENCE:Observational learning, Vicarious punishment
  17. MORAL DEVELOPMENT AND VIOLENCE:Symbolic functioning, Formal operational stage
  18. BIO-PSYCHO-SOCIAL MODEL:Mental hospitals are factories of abuse
  19. ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE ABOUT VIOLENCE:Morality is essential
  20. ISLAMIC MODEL:Nafs al-Ammara, Nafs al-Lawwama, Nafs ul Naatiqa
  21. TREATMENTS FOR THE SOUL:Tawba, Sabr o Shukr, Niyyat o Ikhlaas, Taffakkur
  22. CRIMINOGENIC PERSONALITY:Personality Disorders, Common Crimes
  23. CRIMINOGENIC PERSONALITY AND VIOLENCE:Mnemonic, Similarities
  24. CRIMINOGENIC PERSONALITY AND VIOLENCE:Terrorism and Psychopaths
  25. LEARNING DISABILITIES/MENTAL RETARDATION AND VIOLENCE
  26. ASSESSMENT OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS:Reasons for referral, Personality Inventories
  27. ASSESSMENT OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS:Different cutoff scores
  28. RISK ASSESSMENT:Violence reduction scale, Stability of Family upbringing
  29. TREATMENT OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR / PERSONALITY PSYCHODYNAMIC PSYCHOTHERAPY
  30. JUNGINA THERAPEUTIC MODEL:Limits of re-parenting, Personality Typologies
  31. GROUP THERAPY FOR OFFENDERS:Learning in Groups, Humanistic Groups
  32. PSYCHOTHERAPIES IN FORENSIC SETTINGS:Narrative Therapy
  33. PSYCHOTHERAPIES IN FORENSIC SETTINGS:Solution Focused Therapy
  34. PSYCHOTHERAPIES IN FORENSIC SETTINGS:Avoiding reactance, Externalization
  35. PSYCHOTHERAPY IN FORENSIC SETTINGS AND SPECIAL CHALLENGES
  36. FORENSIC PSYCHOTHERAPY:Exploring therapeutic alliance, Music Therapy
  37. VIOLENCE REDUCTION PROGRAM:Target Population, Lack of motivation
  38. VIOLENCE REDUCTION PROGRAM:Criminal attitude, Interpersonal Aggression
  39. VICTIM SUPPORT:Main features of PTSD, Emotional Support
  40. VICTIM SUPPORT:Debriefing, Desensitization, Eidetic Therapy, Narrative Therapy
  41. SUBSTANCE MISUSE TREATMENT PROGRAM:Marijuana, Unconventional drugs
  42. SUBSTANCE MISUSE TREATMENT PROGRAM:Stages of Change, Homosexuality
  43. EXPERT WITNESS:Insanity Pleas, Sexual Offence Risk, Instructions
  44. COUNTER TERRORISM:Misconceptions, Psychologists & Propaganda war
  45. SUMMING UP FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY:Problems with Risk Assessment, Expert Witness