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Principles of Management

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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
Lesson 13.39
STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP MODELS
CUTTING-EDGE APPROACHES TO Strategic LEADERSHIP
The most current approaches to looking at leadership are discussed.
The research we've discussed has described transactional leader. What is the difference between
transactional and transformational leaders?
1.
Transactional leaders are leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of
established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.
2.
Transformational leaders are leaders who provide individualized consideration and intellectual
stimulation and possess charisma.
3.
Transformational leadership is built on top of transactional leadership.
4.
The evidence supporting the superiority of transformational leadership over the transactional
variety is overwhelmingly impressive.
a.
Transformational leaders motivate subordinates to perform at expected levels by helping them
recognize task responsibilities, identify goals, acquire confidence about meeting desired
performance levels, and understand how their needs and the rewards that they desire are linked to
goal achievement.
b.
Transformational leaders motivate individuals to perform beyond normal expectations by
inspiring subordinates to focus on broader missions that transcend their own immediate self-
interests, to concentrate on intrinsic higher-level goals (such as safety and d security), and to have
confidence in their abilities to achieve the extraordinary missions articulated by the leadership.
c.
Transformational leadership is not a substitute for transactional leadership; it is an enhancement.
d.
Charisma is the leader's ability to inspire pride, faith, and respect; to recognize what is really
important, and to articulate effectively a sense of mission, or vision, that inspires followers.
1)
Charisma was once thought to be an inborn personality trait.
Recent research attempts to identify behaviors which cause people to view a person as charismatic.
Charismatic-Visionary
Leadership
Charismatic leadership theory is an extension of attribution theory and suggests that followers make
attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors.
1.
Five personal characteristics of charismatic leaders have been identified.
a.
Have a vision
b.
Are able to articulate that vision
c.
Are willing to take risks to achieve that vision
d.
Are sensitive to both environmental constraints and follower needs
e.
Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary
2.
An increasing amount of research shows impressive correlations between charismatic leadership
and high performance and satisfaction among followers.
3.
Most experts think that individuals can be trained to exhibit charismatic behaviors
4.
Charismatic leadership may not always be needed to achieve high levels of employee performance.
It may be most appropriate when an employee's job has a lot of ideological content.
Visionary leadership is described as going beyond charisma with the ability to create and articulate a
realistic, credible, attractive vision of the future for an organization or organizational unit that grows out of
and improves on the present.
1.
If the vision is properly selected and implemented, it can be so energizing that it incites individuals
to use their skills, talents, and resources to make it happen.
2.
A vision differs from other forms of organizational direction in that it uses compelling imagery,
taps into people's emotions and energy, and creates the enthusiasm that people need to bring
energy and commitment to the workplace.
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
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3.
The key properties of a vision are that it has inspirational possibilities that are value centered, are
realizable, have superior imagery, and are well articulated.
4.
What skills do visionary leaders have?
a.
The ability to explain the vision to others.
b.
The ability to express the vision not just verbally but through behavior.
c.
The ability to extend or apply the vision to different leadership contexts.
Another important contemporary issue for leaders is creating a culture of trust and credibility.
1.
Credibility is the degree to which followers perceive someone as honest, competent, and able to
inspire.
2.
Trust is the belief in the integrity, character, and ability of a leader.
3.
Research has identified five dimensions that make up the concept of trust.
a.
Integrity (honesty and truthfulness)
b.
Competence (technical and interpersonal knowledge and skills)
c.
Consistency (reliability, predictability, and good judgment in handling situations)
d.
Loyalty (willingness to protect a person, physically and emotionally)
e.
Openness (willingness to share ideas and information freely)
4.
Given the fact that many organizations have moved to self-managed work teams, trust is extremely
important because many of the traditional control mechanisms have been removed.
5.
How should leaders build trust? Here are eight suggestions.
a.
Practice openness.
b.
Be fair.
c.
Speak your feelings.
d.
Tell the truth.
e.
Show consistency.
f.
Fulfill your promises.
g.
Maintain confidences.
h.
Demonstrate competence.
Team Leadership
As the usage of work teams grows, the role of team leader becomes increasingly important.
1.
The challenge for most managers is learning how to become an effective team leader.
2.
Effective team leaders have mastered the difficult balancing act of knowing when to leave their
teams alone and when to get involved.
3.
There are two priorities for a team leader.
a.
Managing the team's external boundaries
b.
Facilitating the team process
4.
These priorities can be broken down into four specific leadership roles.
a.
Liaisons with external constituencies
b.
Troubleshooters
c.
Conflict managers
d.
Coaches
Gender and Leadership
The next contemporary leadership issue we want to discuss is gender and leadership. This topic is one that
still creates controversy! What, if any, differences exist between male and female leaders and what
implications would these differences have?
1.
The evidence generally has found that males and females do use different leadership styles.
a.
Women tend to adopt a more democratic or participative style and a less autocratic or directive
style than men do.
b.
Women are more likely to encourage participation, share power and information, and attempt to
enhance followers' self-worth.
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
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c.
Men are more likely to use a directive, command-and-control style.
d.
Men rely on the formal authority of their position for their influence base.
e.
Men use transactional leadership, handing out rewards for good work and punishment for bad.
2.
Is different better? The best managers (leaders) listen, motivate, and provide support to their
people. They inspire and influence rather than control. Generally speaking, women seem to do
these things better than men.
3.
However, gender doesn't imply destiny. Which leadership style is effective depends on the
situation. Gender simply provides a behavioral tendency in leadership style.
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Table of Contents:
  1. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT:The Egyptian Pyramid, Great China Wall
  2. MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS:Why Study Management?
  3. MANAGERIAL ROLES IN ORGANIZATIONS:Informational roles, Decisional roles
  4. MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS I.E. POLCA:Management Process, Mistakes Managers Make
  5. MANAGERIAL LEVELS AND SKILLS:Middle-level managers, Top managers
  6. MANAGEMENT IDEAS: YESTERDAY AND TODAY, Anthropology, Economics
  7. CLASSICAL VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Scientific management
  8. ADMINISTRATIVE VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Division of work, Authority
  9. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT:The Hawthorne Studies
  10. QUANTITATIVE, CONTEMPORARY AND EMERGING VIEWS OF MANAGEMENT
  11. SYSTEMíS VIEW OF MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION:Managing Systems
  12. ANALYZING ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
  13. 21ST CENTURY MANAGEMENT TRENDS:Organizational social Responsibility
  14. UNDERSTANDING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT WTO AND SAARC
  15. DECISION MAKING AND DECISION TAKING
  16. RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Models of Decision Making
  17. NATURE AND TYPES OF MANAGERIAL DECISIONS:Decision-Making Styles
  18. NON RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Group Decision making
  19. GROUP DECISION MAKING AND CREATIVITY:Delphi Method, Scenario Analysis
  20. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-I:Methods of Forecasting, Benchmarking
  21. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-II:Budgeting, Scheduling, Project Management
  22. PLANNING: FUNCTIONS & BENEFITS:HOW DO MANAGERS PLAN?
  23. PLANNING PROCESS AND GOAL LEVELS:Types of Plans
  24. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE (MBO):Developing Plans
  25. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT -1:THE IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
  26. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT - 2:THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
  27. LEVELS OF STRATEGIES, PORTERíS MODEL AND STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT (BCG) AND IMPLEMENTATION
  28. ENTREPRENEURSHIP MANAGEMENT:Why Is Entrepreneurship Important?
  29. ORGANIZING
  30. JOB DESIGN/SPECIALIZATION AND DEPARTMENTALIZATION
  31. SPAN OF COMMAND, CENTRALIZATION VS DE-CENTRALIZATION AND LINE VS STAFF AUTHORITY
  32. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND ORGANIC VS MECHANISTIC VS VIRTUAL STRUCTURES
  33. LEADING AND LEADERSHIP MOTIVATING SELF AND OTHERS
  34. MASLOWíS NEEDS THEORY AND ITS ANALYSIS
  35. OTHER NEED AND COGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  36. EXPECTANCY, GOAL SETTING AND RE-ENFORCEMENT THEORIES
  37. MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE PROFESSIONALS LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORIES
  38. BEHAVIORAL AND SITUATIONAL MODELS OF LEADERSHIP
  39. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP MODELS
  40. UNDERSTANDING GROUP DYNAMICS IN ORGANIZATIONS
  41. GROUP CONCEPTS, STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT AND TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
  42. UNDERSTANDING MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  43. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND CHANNELS EFFECT OF ICT ON MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  44. CONTROLLING AS A MANAGEMENT FUNCTION:The control process
  45. CONTROLLING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY