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Change Management

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Change Management ­MGMT625
VU
LESSON# 5
SOME BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS
Organizational Learning (OL)
This refers to the continuous improvement of existing approaches and processes of adaptation to
change, leading to new goals and/or approaches. In other words OL can be viewed as the
organization's detection and correction of error, where error is mismatch between the organization's
intentions and what really happened (Argyris 1989)
Single loop learning is defined as the organization's ability to perceive deviation from performance
and to "fix" them (refers to diagnostic management control system). This is something pre-
programmed and content specific.
Double loop learning (more sophisticated) emphasises that organization must review the underlying
assumption that created the problem to be "fixed" in the first place, and seek and adapt a better
assumptions for future performance. This entails questioning and adjustment of policies and
objectives, and is process -oriented
Learning Organisation (LO)
Peter Senge, the author of fifth discipline gave the concept which essentially means that just like
individuals Organizations also tend to learn. An organization where people continually expand their
capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are
nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning how to
learn together.
The five disciplines are:
1. Systems thinking
2. Personal mastery - skills, values and competence
3. Mental models - are deeply ingrained assumptions, or even pictures or images that
influence how we understand the world and how we take action
4. Shared vision ­ common aspiration/objective
5. Team Learning ­ dialogue and thinking together
Learning cycle
Includes the following stages; planning, execution of plans, assessment of progress revision of
plans
Un-learn
Schein believes in unlearning for change to occur the organisation must unlearn previous beliefs, be
open to new inputs, and re-learn new assumptions and behaviour.
Strategic change
The concept is broader in its scope; change that is driven by "strategy" and "environmental forces",
and is tied closely to the organization's ability to achieve its goals. For e.g. merger, acquisition,
down-sizing, acquisition, joint venture. Or in other words it is the role and impact of environmental
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Change Management ­MGMT625
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forces like government, societal, technological or political changes is decisive which an
organization has to bear and incorporate in its strategic output.
Process Change
The focus is with in organization changes, narrower in scope, and is confined to a particular unit,
division or function of the organisation. This relates to basically an examination and adjustment of
organizational or managerial processes. Nadler & Tushman identified as "Tuning" meant to
increase efficiency
Adaptive Change
Adaptive changes are incremental and evolutionary in nature, analogous to the concept of "working
in the system" ­ more directed towards changes and management on day-to-day organizational
transactions.
Generative Change
Changes which likely to entail a quantum break through, generates essentially a new ways of doing
things. Revolutionary in nature and Also referred as transformation "Working on the system"
Schein's Typology
1. Natural Evolutionary
Some thing which is all the time going on in organization. This is known as learning process
occurring in organization taking placing knowingly and unknowingly. This refers to environmental
adaptation, synonymous with evolutionary change, may be progressive leading to growth and
development or regressive or degenerating one leading to organization illness or death.
2. Planned & Managed Change
As the name suggests this type of change means one can control the direction of change and
learning. Learning can be controlled. Managers can stabilize the processes that need to be
stabilised, even organization culture can be changed and managed. So one can change and stabilize
some ways of working
3. Unplanned Revolutionary Change
Refers to impact of turbulent and unstable environment which creates disequilibrium and high
uncertainty for organizations' strategy and structure.
Logical incrementalism
A concept which gained wide currency in designing and managing change, articulated by J. B.
Quinn. Change management is complex and time-consuming phenomenon where internal and
external forces exert significant pressures to resist change. Keeping in view this the logical
incrementalism process which focuses on the evolution of the change as broad goals are more
narrowly defined and adapted. The process comprises of the following stages:
1. Change is considered as a general concern ­ a vaguely felt awareness of an issue or opportunity
2. Broadcasting of a general idea without details ­ the idea is floated for reactions pro and con, and
for refinements of change plan or idea.
3. Formal development of a change plan
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Change Management ­MGMT625
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4. Use of a crisis or opportunity to stimulate implementation of the change plan. For example
retirement of a senior manager or a sudden loss of market share can facilitate rapid acceptance and
implementation of the change plan
5. Adaptation of the plan as implementation progresses.
This approach has its advocates and critics. Many top level managers consider it appropriate to
bring successful change in organization by floating an idea early on, a leader can improve the
quality of information generated before decisions are made and can overcome emotional and
political barriers. While the critics of logical incrementalism see this as disjointed, garbage-can
approach, or as managerial muddling. These complaints are valid if change plans are unclear or
poorly formulated
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Table of Contents:
  1. COURSE ORIENTATION:Course objectives, Reading material, Scope of the subject
  2. BENEFITS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT:Traditional management domain
  3. KURT LEWIN MODEL: ASSUMPTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Change Movement, Refreeze
  4. IMPLICATIONS OF KURT LEWIN MODEL:Sequence of event also matters, A Critical Look
  5. SOME BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS:Strategic change, Logical incrementalism
  6. TRANSACTIONAL VS. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Micro-changes, Organisation Development
  7. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  8. LIFE CYCLE THEORY:Unit of Change, Mode of change, Organisation death
  9. TELEOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of change, Mode of Change, Limitations
  10. DIALECTICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of Change, Strategic planning
  11. A DIALECTICAL APPROACH TO ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY AND PLANNING:
  12. LIMITATION OF DIALECTICS; DA AND DI:Overview of application of dialectics
  13. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  14. APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY:Managerial focus
  15. FURTHER APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES:Criticism
  16. GREINER’S MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL– EVOLUTION AND REVOLUTION
  17. GROWTH RATE OF THE INDUSTRY:CREATIVITY, DIRECTION, DELEGATION
  18. COORDINATION:COLLABORATION, The Crisis
  19. ORGANISATION ECOLOGY:Structural Inertia, Internal Structural Arrangements, External Factors
  20. CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL SPECIES:Extent of Environmental Selection, Determinants of Vital Rates,
  21. FOOTNOTES TO ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE:Stable Processes of Change, Rule Following, Conflict
  22. SOME COMPLEXITIES OF CHANGE:Superstitious Learning, Solution Driven Problems
  23. ORGANIZATIONAL ADAPTATION:The Entrepreneurial problem, The Administrative Problem
  24. PROSPECTORS:Analyzer, Reactors, Adaptation and Strategic Management
  25. SKELETAL MODEL OF ADAPTATION:Determinants of Adaptive ability, The Process of Adaptation
  26. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Nature of Change, The Importance of Context, Force field Analysis
  27. Management Styles and Roles:Change Agent Roles, Levers for managing strategic Change
  28. SYMBOLIC PROCESSES:Political Processes, COMMUNICATING CHANGE, Change Tactics
  29. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Pettigrew & Whipp’s Typology, Context on X-axis (Why of change)
  30. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Attributes of SOC Model, Implications for Management
  31. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Flow of Information, Recruitment, SOC Process
  32. Determinants of a Successful Change Management:Environmental, Management Orientation, Management Orientation
  33. Higgins 08 S Model – An Adaptation from Waterman’s Seven S model:Strategy, Systems and Processes, Resources
  34. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  35. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  36. WHY IMPLEMENTING STRATEGIC CHANGE IS SO DIFFICULT?:Change Typology, Technical Change
  37. IMPLEMENTATION APPROACHES:Attributes of incremental change,
  38. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  39. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Definition of Leadership, Follower Work Facilitation
  40. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Recognize the challenge
  41. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  42. IMPLEMENTATION: PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM MODEL:Features of Radical Change, Theory of P-E model
  43. CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION: OD MODELS:The Transactional Factors
  44. CULTURE, VALUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Significance and Role of Values, Values Compete
  45. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES, CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Issues in Change Management