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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
At the end of the lecture student will be able to:
Understand the selection process
Understand training and development in organization.
In the last lecture we introduced the concept of selection in HRM. Today we will see the process of
Steps in the Selection Process
The standard hiring sequence is the seven-step procedure described below:
Completed job Application: It is the first and important step as without completed job
application which contains all information about the applicant the selection process cannot
be initiated.
Initial screening interview: After the application is completed initial interviews are held to
screen out those candidates that do not meet the job specification requirement.
Testing: The selected candidates in the initial screening interview are given test by some
Background investigation: In case the candidates clear the test, then the organization would
like to know about the back ground of the candidate. In organizations that deal with sensitive
services like military and intelligence require background investigation.
In-depth selection interview: After the clearance of background investigations, then in depth
final interview is held.
Medical examination: The selected candidates are then required medical examination.
Job offer: And finally the job offer is made.
It may be mentioned that all organizations do not strictly adhere to the above selection process.
The process varies from organization to organization.
Levels at Which Selection takes Place
Selection of employees in an organization can take place at any level, both horizontally and
vertically. But the most common level where selection takes place is:
Non managerial level
Managerial level
Non-managerial level is that of support staff, like clerical staff, superintendent, supervisors,
personal staff, maintenance staff etc.
Managerial level is that who provide guidelines for the non-managerial staff. It is also called white collar
In government the managerial level starts at BS -17. All levels above BS-17 and above are
managerial positions and all position below BS-17 and below are non-managerial.
Generally, speaking organizations select managers at the entry level for the managerial position. But
organization may select managers at any level. The advantage of selection at entry level is that managers are
trained according to the requirements of the organization, and also managers can look, ahead in the
organization to their future prospects of promotion.
Selection of Manager
Organizations may seek to hire experienced managers for a variety of reasons. A newly created
post may require a manager with experience not available within the organization; the talent to fill an
established post may not be available within the organization; a key position may suddenly open up before
there is time to train a replacement; or a top performer in a competing organization may be sought to
improve the organization's own competitive position.
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
An experienced manager who is up for selection usually goes through several interviews before
being hired. The interviewers are almost always higher-level mangers who attempt to assess the candidate's
suitability and past performance.
Interviewers try to determine how well the candidate fits their idea of what a good manager should
be and how compatible the candidate's personality, past experience, personal values, and operating style are
with the organization and its culture. In other words organizations are looking for people who have
personal qualities and knowledge for working in that position.
Orientation or Socialization
The next step in the process of HRM is orientation or socialization. Orientation or socialization is
designed to provide new employees with the information needed to function comfortably and effectively in
the organization. Typically, socialization conveys three types of information:
General information about the daily work routine of the organization;
A review of the organization's history, purpose, operations, and products or services, as
well as a sense of how the employee's job contributes to the organization's needs; and
A detailed presentation (perhaps in a brochure form) of the organization's policies, work
rules, and employee benefits etc.
Orientation helps employees to become familiar with the organizations working and start feeling at
Training and Development
After the employee is selected finally and is provided orientation, the next essential step is training.
Training means that employees should be informed and provided skills to be able to perform well in the
job. Usually training focus on three areas. These are:
Training in skills.
Training in knowledge and
Training in attitudes
All jobs in organization required training in these broad areas for specific jobs.
Training programs are also directed toward maintaining and improving current job performance.
On the other hand developmental programs seek to develop skills for future jobs. Both managers and non-
managers may receive help from training and development programs, but the mix of experiences is likely to
vary from organization to organization
Non-managers are much more likely to be trained in the technical skills required for their current
jobs; whereas managers frequently receive assistance in developing the skills required in future jobs ­
particularly conceptual and human relations skills.
Training programs
New employees have to learn new skills, and since their motivation is likely to be high, they can be
acquainted relatively easily with the skills and behaviour expected in their new position. On the other hand,
training experienced employees can be problematic because for them it is not easy to leave their old
working habits and adopt new one. The training needs of such employees are not always easy to determine,
and when they can be individuals resent being asked to change their established ways of doing their jobs.
Assessing Training Needs
The question arises how training need requirement of employees are determined. Usually
organizations have following 4 methods to assess whether employees need training.
1. Performance appraisal.  Each employee's work is measured against the performance standards or
objectives established for his or her job. If employee is not performing as per standard then it may be
inferred that the employee requires training.
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
2. Analysis of job requirements. The skills or knowledge specified in the appropriate job description are
examined, and those employees without necessary skills or knowledge become candidates for a training
3. Organizational analysis. The effectiveness of the organization and its success in meeting its goals are
analyzed to determine where differences exist. The performance record might require additional
4. Employee Survey. Managers as well as non-managers are asked to describe what problems they are
experiencing in their work and what actions they believe are necessary to solve them.
Approaches to Training
There are a variety of training approaches. The most common of these are:
On-the-job training methods. This includes job rotation, in which the employee, over a period
of time, works on a series of jobs, thereby learning a broad variety of skills;
Internship is another method of on the job training. In this job training is combined with
related classroom instruction; and apprenticeship, in which the employee is trained under the
guidance of a highly skilled co-worker. So the purpose of on-the-job training is that while
employees work they receive training.
On­the­Job Methods
Following are the methods of on-the-job training:
Coaching: the training of an employee by his or her immediate is by far the most effective
management development technique. Unfortunately, many managers are either unable or
unwilling to coach those they supervise.
Job rotation involves shifting managers from position to position so they can broaden their
experience and familiarize themselves with various aspects of the organizations operations.
Training positions are a third method of developing managers. Trainees are given staff posts
immediately under a manager, often with the title of "assistant to". Such assignments give
trainees a chance to work with and model themselves after outstanding managers who might
otherwise have little contact with them.
Management development programs
Management development is designed to improve the overall effectiveness of managers in their
present positions and to prepare them for greater responsibility when they are promoted. Management
development programs have become more prevalent in recent years because of the increasingly complex
demands on managers.
Off­the­job methods
Off-the-job development techniques remove individuals from the stresses and ongoing demands of
the workplace, enabling them to focus fully on the learning experience.  In addition, they provide
opportunities for meeting people from other departments or organizations.
Thus, employees are exposed to useful new ideas and experiences while they make potentially
useful contacts. The most common off-the-job development methods are in-house classroom instruction
and management development programs sponsored by universities and organizations.
Non-managerial position:
is also called "blue collar jobs". This comprises support staff
like clerks, superintendents.
these are positions which provide guidance to non-
managerial positions is middle-level managers and senior
level managers.
familiarize the new employees with organizations rules, work
procedure, policy etc.
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
it is to provide necessary skills, knowledge and attitudes to
perform a job in organization.
On-the-job training:
on ­the-job training is a training which is provided while the
employees work; they receive training.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management