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Human Resource Development

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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
VU
Lesson 31
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION
Science, technology, society and environment (STSE) education, originates from the science technology
and society (STS) movement in science education. This is an outlook on science education that emphasizes the
teaching of scientific and hello technological developments in their cultural, economic, social and political
contexts. In this view of science education, students are encouraged to engage in issues pertaining to the impact
of science on everyday life and make responsible decisions about how to address such issues (Solomon, 1993
and Aikenhead, 1994).
Science technology and society (STS)
The STS movement has a long history in science education reform, and
embraces a wide range of theories about the intersection between
science, technology and society (Solomon and Aikenhead, 1994; Pedretti
1997). Over the last twenty years, the work of Peter Fensham, the noted
Australian science educator, is considered to have heavily contributed to
reforms in science education. Fensham's efforts included giving greater
prominence to STS in the school science curriculum (Aikenhead, 2003).
The key aim behind these efforts was to ensure the development of a
broad-based science curriculum, embedded in the socio-political and cultural contexts in which it was
formulated. From Fensham's point of view, this meant that students would engage with different viewpoints
on issues concerning the impact of science and technology on everyday life. They would also understand the
relevance of scientific discoveries, rather than just concentrate on learning scientific facts and theories that
seemed distant from their realities (Fensham, 1985 & 1988).
However, although the wheels of change in science education had been set
in motion during the late 1970s, it was not until the 1980s that STS
perspectives began to gain a serious footing in science curricula, in largely
Western contexts (Gaskell, 1982). This occurred at a time when issues
such as, animal testing, environmental pollution and the growing impact of
technological innovation on social infrastructure, were beginning to raise
ethical, moral, economic and political dilemmas (Fensham, 1988 and
Osborne, 2000). There were also concerns among communities of
researchers, educators and governments pertaining to the general public's
lack of understanding about the interface between science and society
(Bodmer, 1985; Durant et al. 1989 and Millar 1996). In addition, alarmed
by the poor state of scientific literacy among school students, science
educators began to grapple with the quandary of how to prepare students
to be informed and active citizens, as well as the scientists, medics and
engineers of the future (e.g. Osborne, 2000 and Aikenhead, 2003). Hence,
STS advocates called for reforms in science education that would equip students to understand scientific
developments in their cultural, economic, political and social contexts. This was considered important in
making science accessible and meaningful to all students -- and, most significantly, engaging them in real world
issues (Fensham, 1985; Solomon, 1993; Aikenhead, 1994 and Hodson 1998).
Goals of STS
The key goals of STS are:
An interdisciplinary approach to science education, where there is a seamless
integration of economic, ethical, social and political aspects of scientific and
technological developments in the science curriculum.
Engaging students in examining a variety of real world issues and grounding
scientific knowledge in such realities. In today's world, such issues might
include the impact on society of: global warming, genetic engineering, animal
testing, deforestation practices, nuclear testing and environmental legislations,
such as the EU Waste Legislation or the Kyoto Protocol.
Enabling students to formulate a critical understanding of the interface between science, society and
technology.
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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
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Developing students' capacities and confidence to make informed decisions, and to take responsible action to
address issues arising from the impact of science on their daily lives.
Scope and emphasis
Over the last two decades, STS curricula have taken a variety of forms. These emphasize a particular aspect of
STS according to the socio-political environment in which they are formulated, as well as the particular views
of curriculum developers on STS education and what is considered valid knowledge in a science curriculum
(Solomon & Aikenhead 1994 and Aikenhead, 2003). For example, in Canada and Israel, STS goals directed
towards understanding environmental issues were given greater emphasis. Hence, the addition of "E" to STS,
producing STSE and STES respectively. Whereas, in Belgium, goals focusing on ethics were given greater
prominence in STS education, and resulted in the publication of the journal Science Technologies Ethique Societ,
(Aikenhead, 2003). However, for the most part, STS curricula are bound by an overarching curriculum
framework. This reflects the three curriculum content areas for STS education described by Hodson (1998):
Learning science and technology: acquiring and developing
conceptual and theoretical knowledge in science and technology, and
gaining a familiarity with a range of technologies.
Learning  about  science  and  technology:  developing  an
understanding of the nature and methods of science and technology,
an awareness of the complex interactions among science, technology,
society and environment, and a sensitivity to the personal, social and
ethical implications of particular technologies.
Doing science and technology: engaging in and developing expertise
in scientific inquiry and problem solving; developing confidence and
competence in tackling a wide range of "real world" technological
tasks.
STSE Education
There is no uniform definition for STSE education. As mentioned before, STSE
is a form of STS education, but places greater emphasis on the environmental
consequences of scientific and technological developments. In STSE curricula,
scientific developments are explored from a variety of economic, environmental,
ethical, moral, social and political (Kumar and Chubin, 2000 & Pedretti, 2005)
perspectives.
At best, STSE education can be loosely defined as a movement that attempts to
bring about an understanding of the interface between science, society,
technology and the environment. A key goal of STSE is to help students realize
the significance of scientific developments in their daily lives and foster a voice of
active citizenship (Pedretti & Forbes, 2000).
Improving scientific literacy
Over the last two decades, STSE education has taken a prominent position in the
science curricula of different parts of the world, such as Australia, Europe, the UK and USA (Kumar &
Chubin, 2000). In Canada, the inclusion of STSE perspectives in science education has largely come about as a
consequence of the Common Framework of science learning outcomes, Pan Canadian Protocol for collaboration on School
Curriculum (1997)[1]. This document highlights a need to develop scientific literacy in conjunction with
understanding the interrelationships between science, technology, and environment. According to Osborne
(2000) & Hodson (2003), scientific literacy can be perceived in four different ways:
Cultural: Developing the capacity to read about and understand issues pertaining to science and technology in
the media.
Utilitarian: Having the knowledge, skills and attitudes that are essential for a career as scientist, engineer or
technician.
Democratic: Broadening knowledge and understanding of science to include the interface between science,
technology and society.
Economic: Formulating knowledge and skills that are essential to the economic growth and effective
competition within the global market place.
Rationale and goals
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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
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In the context of STSE education, the goals of teaching and learning are largely directed towards engendering
cultural and democratic notions of scientific literacy. Here, advocates of STSE education argue that in order to
broaden students understanding of science, and better prepare them for active and responsible citizenship in
the future, the scope of science education needs to go beyond learning about scientific theories, facts and
technical skills. Therefore, the fundamental aim of STSE education is to equip students to understand and
situate scientific and technological developments in their cultural, environmental, economic, political and social
contexts (Solomon & Aikenhead, 1994; Bingle & Gaskell, 1994; Pedretti 1997 & 2005). For example, rather
than learning about the facts and theories of weather patterns, students can explore them in the context of
issues such as global warming. They can also debate the environmental, social, enconomic and political
consequences of relevant legislation, such as the Kyoto Protocol. This is thought to provide a richer, more
meaningful and relevant canvas against which scientific theories and phenomena relating to weather patterns
can be explored (Pedretti et al. 2005).
In essence, STSE education aims to develop the following skills and perspectives (Aikenhead, 1994; Pedretti,
1996; Alsop & Hicks, 2001):
Social responsibility
Critical thinking and decision making skills
The ability to formulate sound ethical and moral decisions about issues arising from the impact of science on
our daily lives
Knowledge, skills and confidence, to express opinions and take responsible action to address real world issues
in science
Curriculum content
Since STSE education has multiple facets, there are a variety of ways in which it can be approached in the
classroom. This offers teachers a degree of flexibility, not only in the incorporation of STSE perspectives into
their science teaching, but in integrating other curricular areas such as history, geography, social studies and
language arts (Richardson & Blades, 2001). The table below summarizes the different approaches to STSE
education described in the literature (Ziman, 1994 & Pedretti, 2005):
Summary table: Curriculum content
Approach
Description
Example
Learning about inventions or scientific theories
through the lives and worlds of famous
scientist. Students can research their areas of
interest and present them through various
A way of humanizing science. This approach
activities: e.g. drama-role play, debates or
examines the history of science through
documentaries.  Through  this  kind  of
concrete examples, and is viewed as way of
Historical
exploration, students examine the values,
demonstrating the fallibility of science and
beliefs and attitudes that influenced the work
scientists.
of scientists, their outlook on the world, and
how their work has impacted our present
circumstances and understanding of science
today.
Using historical narratives or stories of
scientific discoveries to concretely examine
Helps students formulate an understanding of
philosophical questions and views about
the different outlooks on the nature of
science. For example, "The Double Helix" by
science, and how differing viewpoints on the
James D. Watson is an account of the
Philosophical nature and validity of scientific knowledge
discovery of DNA. This historical narrative can
influence  the  work  of  scientists  --
be used to explore questions such as: "What is
demonstrating how society directs and reacts
science? What kind of research was done to
to scientific innovation.
make this discovery? How did this scientific
development influence our lives? Can science
help us understand everything about our
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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
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world?" Such an exploration reveals the social
and historical context of philosophical debates
about the nature of science -- making this kind
of inquiry concrete, meaningful and applicable
to students' realities.
Real life events within the community, at the
This is the most widely applied approach to
national or international level, can be examined
STSE
education.
It
stimulates
an
from political, economic, ethical and social
understanding of the science behind issues,
perspectives through presentations, debates,
and the consequences to society and the
role-play, documentaries and narratives. Real
Issues-based environment. A multi-faceted approach to
life events might include: the impact of
examining issues highlights the complexities
environmental legislations, industrial accidents
of real-life debates. Students also become
and the influence of particular scientific or
aware of the various motives for decisions that
technological innovations on society and the
address environmental issues.
environment.
Opportunities and challenges of STSE education
Although advocates of STSE education keenly emphasize its merits in science education, they also recognize
inherent difficulties in its implementation. The opportunities and challenges of STSE education have been
articulated by Hughes (2000) and Pedretti & Forbes, (2000), at five different levels, as described below:
Values & beliefs: The goals of STSE education may challenge the values and beliefs of students and teachers -
- as well as conventional, culturally entrenched views on scientific and technological developments. Students
gain opportunities to engage with, and deeply examine the impact of scientific development on their lives from
a critical and informed perspective. This helps to develop students' analytical and problem solving capacities, as
well as their ability to make informed choices in their everyday lives.
As they plan and implement STSE education lessons, teachers need to provide a balanced view of the issues
being explored. This enables students to formulate their own thoughts, independently explore other opinions
and have the confidence to voice their personal viewpoints. Teachers also need to cultivate safe, non-
judgmental classroom environments, and must also be careful not to impose their own values and beliefs on
students.
Knowledge & understanding: The interdisciplinary nature of STSE
education requires teachers to research and gather information from a
variety of sources. At the same time, teachers need to develop a sound
understanding of issues from various disciplines -- philosophy, history,
geography, social studies, politics, economics, environment and science.
This is so that students' knowledge base can be appropriately scaffolded
to enable them to effectively engage in discussions, debates and decision-
making processes.
This ideal raises difficulties. Most science teachers are specialized in a particular field of science. Lack of time
and resources may effect how deeply teachers and students can examine issues from multiple perspectives.
Nevertheless, a multi-disciplinary approach to science education enables students to gain a more rounded
perspective on the dilemmas, as well as the opportunities, that science presents in our daily lives.
Pedagogic approach: Depending on teacher experience and comfort levels, a variety of pedagogic approaches
based on constructivism can be used to stimulate STSE education in the classroom. As illustrated in the table
below, the pedagogies used in STSE classrooms need to take students through different levels of understanding
to develop their abilities and confidence to critically examine issues and take responsible action.
Teachers are often faced with the challenge of transforming classroom practices from task-oriented approaches
to those which focus on developing students' understanding and transferring agency for learning to students
(Hughes, 2000). The table below is a compilation of pedagogic approaches for STSE education described in the
literature (e.g. Hodson, 1998; Pedretti & Forbes 2000; Richardson & Blades, 2001):
Summary table: Classroom practice
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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
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Level Description
Examples of Pedagogies
Students work in groups to research information on
various aspects of an event or innovation to illustrate its
Appreciating the societal impact of scientific
impact on society e.g. biotechnology, nuclear testing.
and technological change and recognizing
1
Students can use role-play, concept mapping, posters,
that, to some extent, science and technology
gallery exhibitions, presentations or documentaries to
are culturally determined.
display  research  findings  and  express  their  own
viewpoints.
Recognizing that decisions about scientific
Debates or Town Hall-style meetings, role-play interviews,
and technological development are taken in
case-studies, seminars, multi-media or documentary style
pursuit of particular interests. Weighing out
presentations, can all be used to present the political,
2
the pros and cons of scientific and
social, scientific and economic factors that led to decisions
technological developments and their links
about the impact of a particular scientific or technological
with wealth and power.
development.
Students can present their opinions on issues through:
Developing one's views and establishing presentations,  debates,  group  discussions,  poster
3
personal value positions on the effect of a presentations and writing. Through such activities,
scientific or technological development.
students can also be encouraged to express their hopes,
concerns and decisions as informed citizens.
This is a fundamental aspect of STSE education and could
Preparing  for  taking  action.  Having
involve: letter writing campaigns, writing a letter to the
examined
the
complexity
of
the
4
editor of a newspaper, developing a Webpage, presenting
development, students explore and plan
debates or holding meetings for the local community,
ways of addressing the issues.
developing personal action plans.
Time & resources: The multi-faceted approach of STSE education requires
teachers to move beyond conventional curriculum materials, and explore resources
in other disciplines -- social geography, history, social studies and politics. A
teacher's time and effort are needed to collect such resources, develop background
knowledge, and integrate them for successful and effective STSE lesson planning.
Assessment & evaluation: The broad, inquiry-based approach to STSE education
requires tools that assess students understanding of issues and skills-development
(e.g. problem solving, analysis, communication, presentation), rather than their
decisions or opinions. Hence, STSE education calls for the use of qualitative rather
than quantitative assessment methods.
It is difficult to develop assessment or evaluation criteria for such a personalized,
objective, view of science. Teachers need to clarify for students that it is their efforts
and skill development that are being assessed, rather than opinions. Examples of
assessment tools might include quizzes, questionnaires, journal writing, development of portfolios,
observations and one-on-one exit interviews.
Source: wikipedia
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  2. FOUNDATIONS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR:Attitudes, Personality, Emotional Intelligence
  3. PERCEPTION:Attribution Theory, Shortcuts Frequently Used in Judging Others
  4. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION:Why Choose Big Five Framework?, THE OUTCOME OF FIVE FACTOR MODEL
  5. FIVE FACTOR MODEL:The Basis of Intrinsically Motivated Behavior, Intrinsic Motivation and Values
  6. MOTIVATION:EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION, Designing Motivating Jobs
  7. The Motivation Process:HOW TO MOTIVATE A DIVERSE WORKFORCE?,
  8. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION:PRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
  9. THE WORLD BEYOND WORDS:DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION, MINDFUL LISTENING
  10. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS:EGO STATES, Parent Ego State, Child Ego State
  11. TYPES OF TRANSACTIONS:Complementary Transactions, Crossed Transactions, Ulterior Transactions
  12. NEURO-LINGUISTIC-PROGRAMMING
  13. CREATE YOUR OWN BLUEPRINT
  14. LEADERSHIP:ORGANIZATIONAL DEMOCRACY
  15. LEADERSHIP:Environment and Strategic Leadership Link, Concluding Remarks
  16. UNDERSTANDING GROUP BEHAVIOR:Stages of Group Development, Advantages of Group Decision Making
  17. UNDERSTANDING TEAM BEHAVIOR:TYPES OF TEAMS, Characteristics of Effective Teams,
  18. EMOTIONAL FACET:PHYSICAL FACET
  19. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT & THE ROLE OF GOVERNACE:Rule of Law, Transparency,
  20. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and Its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  21. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI):Methodology,
  22. REPORTS:Criticisms of Freedom House Methodology, GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS
  23. SECTORS OF A SOCIETY: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS:PUBLIC SECTOR, PRIVATE SECTOR
  24. NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS):Types, Methods, Management, Citizen organization
  25. HEALTH SECTOR:Health Impact of the Lebanon Crisis, Main Challenges,
  26. A STUDY ON QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE
  27. ADULT EDUCATION:Lifelong learning
  28. THE PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ADULT EDUCATION:Problems of Adult Literacy, Strategies for Educating Adults for the Future
  29. TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION:VET Internationally, Technical Schools
  30. ASSESSING THE LINK BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL FORMATION AND PERFORMANCE OF A UNIVERSITY
  31. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION:Social responsibility, Curriculum content
  32. ENVIRONMENT:Dark Greens and Light Greens, Environmental policy instruments
  33. HDI AND GENDER SENSITIVITY:Gender Empowerment Measure
  34. THE PLIGHT OF INDIAN WOMEN:
  35. ENTREPRENEURSHIP:Characteristics of entrepreneurship, Advantages of Entrepreneurship
  36. A REVISIT OF MODULE I & II
  37. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT & ECONOMIC GROWTH (1975 TO 2003):
  38. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP:Origins, The Desired Outcomes of PPPs
  39. PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP):Situation in Pakistan,
  40. DEVOLUTION REFORMS A NEW SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT:
  41. GOOD GOVERNANCE:Participation, Rule of law, Accountability
  42. MACROECONOMIC PROFILE OF A COUNTRY: EXAMPLE ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN
  43. COORDINATION IN GOVERNANCE: AN EXAMPLE OF EU, The OMC in Social Inclusion
  44. MOBILIZING REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: THE ASEAN UNIVERSITY NETWORK, A CASE STUDY
  45. GOVERNMENT PRIORITIES AND POLICIES:Role of Government, Socio Cultural Factors in Implementing HRD Programs