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Human Relations

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Human Relations­ MGMT611
VU
Lesson 44
REVIEW-II
1.
Self Confidence and Self-Efficacy
2.
Leadership: Difference between Leadership and Managerial ship
3.
Theories of Leadership
4.
Culture and Globalization
5.
Major Dimensions of Cultural Differences
6.
Developing a Good Relationship with your Manager or Team Leader, Co-Workers, Customers
7.
Career and Steps for Choosing a Career
8.
Targeting Job Search
9.
What is a Resume?
10.
Major Types of Resumes
11.
Job interview
12.
Developing Good Work Habits
13.
Procrastination and Reasons of Procrastination
14.
Time-Management Techniques
1. Self Confidence and Self-Efficacy
Self Confidence:
Self-confidence is the ability and belief in our self to do those tasks that are given to us by our self or by
other people in our family or from our employers. It is a kind of mental and physical force to do the job we
are assigned to do.
Self-Efficacy
Self-efficacy is the belief in one's capability to perform a task.
Steps to build self-confidence:
These are certain steps which can be followed to build up self-confidence
Write down Personal Assets and Achievements:
ˇ  Develop a Solid Knowledge Base:
ˇ  Use positive self talk:
ˇ  Avoid Negative Self-Talk:
ˇ  Use Positive Visual Imagery:
ˇ  Strive for Peak Performance:
ˇ  Bounce Back from Setbacks and Embarrassments:
ˇ  Get Past the Emotional Turmoil:
ˇ  Find a Creative Solution to Your Problem:
2. Leadership: Difference between leadership and managerial ship
Leadership
It is the process of bringing about positive changes and influencing others to achieve organizational goals.
Character Attributes of Leaders:
People must have these attributes to be a leader. If these attributes are not found in a person, he/she can be
a manager but not a leader.
1. Integrity
2. Honesty
3. Loyalty
4. Selflessness
5. Compassion
6. Competency
7. Respectfulness
8. Fairness
9. Responsibility
10. Decisiveness
11. Spiritual appreciation
12. Cooperativeness
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Difference between leadership and managerial ship:
The manager plays the role of caretaker or system stabilizer responsible for day-to-day routine
maintenance, supervision and administration of the existing system of operation.
Leaders, however, play the role of change agents responsible for effectively bringing about changes or
transformations in the existing system and its members.
3. Theories of leadership
1. Big man theory:
This kind of theory is about the leaders who are called leaders by birth or born leaders.
2. Contingency theory:
In this category fall those individuals who become leaders out of circumstances.
3. Trait theory:
In this type of theory behavioural traits or characteristics are taught and learnt through training.
4. Culture and Globalization
Culture
Culture is a learned and shared system of knowledge, beliefs, values, attitudes, and norms.
Globalization
Globalization and cross-cultural diversity clearly opens up opportunities for development. Globalization is
introducing and instilling cross cultural values in people. Globalization refers to the spread of new forms of
non­territorial social activity (Ruggie, 1993; Scholte, 2000). Human relations have become diverse due to
the increasing personal and workplace complexities.
5. Major Dimensions of Cultural Differences:
Seven dimensions (or facets) of cultural values that help explain how cultures differ from each other are
described here.
1. Individualism vs. collectivism:
2. Acceptance of power and authority:
4. Materialism vs. concern for others:
4. Formality vs. informality:
5. Urgent time orientation vs. casual time orientation:
6. Work orientation vs. leisure orientation:
7. High context vs. low-context cultures:
Barriers to cross-cultural relations:
There are several factors that create problems in developing smooth cross-cultural relations, including
communication problems. In this lesson we will focus on those barriers or handicaps which become
hindrance in the way of developing better interpersonal cross-cultural relationships.
ˇ  Perceptuel Expectations
ˇ  Ethnocentrism
ˇ  Intergroup Rather than Interpersonal Relationships
ˇ  Stereotypes in Intergroup Relations
ˇ  Different Norms and Codes of Conduct
ˇ  Unintentional Micro-Inequities (use of thumb for OK)
Strategies to improve cross-cultural relations:
Here we take a systematic look at approaches people can use on their own along with training programs
designed to improve cross-cultural relations.
ˇ  Develop Cultural Sensitivity
ˇ  Focus on Individuals Rather than Groups
ˇ  Respect all Workers and Cultures
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ˇ  Value Cultural Differences
ˇ  Minimize Cultural Bloopers/embarrassments
ˇ  Participate in Cultural Training
ˇ  Foreign language training
ˇ  Diversity training
6. Developing a good relationship with your manager or team leader, Co-workers, Customers
Developing a good relationship with your manager or team leader
The approaches are grouped into two categories:
1. Creating a favorable impression on your manager or team leader
2. Coping with an intolerable manager
1. Impressing your manager
ˇ  Achieve Good Job Performance
ˇ  Display a Strong Work Ethic
ˇ  Demonstrate Good Emotional Intelligence
ˇ  Be Dependable and Honest
ˇ  Be a Good Organizational Citizen
ˇ  Create a Strong Presence
ˇ  Find Out What Your Manager Expects of You
ˇ  Minimize Complaints
ˇ  Avoid Bypassing Your Manager
ˇ  Use Discretion in Socializing With Your Manager
ˇ  Engage in Favorable Interaction with Your Manager
2. Coping with a problem manager
ˇ  Reevaluate Your Manager
ˇ  Confront Your Manager about the Problem
ˇ  Learn from Your Manager's Mistakes
Building Good Relations with Co-workers
ˇ  Develop Allies through Being Civil
ˇ  Make Co-workers feel important
ˇ  Maintain Honest and Open Relationships
ˇ  Be a Team Player
ˇ  Avoid backstabbing
ˇ  Follow Groups Standards of Conduct
ˇ  Express an Interest in the Work and Personal Life of Others
ˇ  Use Appropriate Compliments
ˇ  Deal Effectively with Difficult People
Building good relationships with customers
Success on the job also requires good relationships with both external and internal customers. An employee
whose thoughts and actions are geared toward helping customers has a customer service orientation.
Good service is the primary factor that keeps customers coming back. Profits jump considerably as the
customer is retained over time. Suggestions for achieving high-level customer service are as follows:
1. Establish customer satisfaction goals.
2. Understand your customer's needs and place them first.
3. Show care and concern.
4. Communicate a positive attitude.
5. Make the buyer feel good.
6. Display strong business ethics.
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7. Be helpful rather than defensive when a customer complains.
8. Invite the customer back.
9. Avoid rudeness.
In short, good customer service stems naturally from practicing good human relations.
7. Career and steps for choosing a career
Career
A career is a series of related job experiences that fit into a meaningful pattern. A general strategy for
making a sound career choice is to understand first the inner you, including what you have to offer, and
then match that information with information in the outside world.
Ten steps for choosing a career
We can identify a career following these ten steps which is more compatible with our interest
1. Begin with your values
2. Identify your skills and talents
3. Identify your preferences
4. Experiment
5. Become broadly literate
6. In your first job, opt for experience first and money second
7. Aim for a job in which you can be committed
8. Build your life style around your income, not your expectations
9. Invest five percent of your income, energy, and money into furthering your career
10. Be willing to change and adapt
8. Targeting job search
There are certain points which we should keep in mind while looking for a job.
ˇ  Would I feel more comfortable working in an office with hundreds of other people? Or would
I prefer just a handful of coworkers?
ˇ  Would I prefer working in a place where people went out of their way to dress in a stylish
manner? Or would I prefer an informal place where not so much emphasis was placed on
appearance?
ˇ  Would I prefer to work in a small town or in a busy metropolitan area?
ˇ  How important is access to stores and restaurants?
ˇ  Would it be best for me to work where I could rely on public transportation
ˇ  Would I really prefer an easygoing atmosphere or a highly competitive environment?
ˇ  How important are the social aspects of work to me?
9. What is a Resume?
Resume is the first meeting between an employee and a prospective employer. Resumes introduce the
applicant with the prospective employer. It is the document which encloses the educational qualification,
relevant work experience, and personal detail of a person submitted to an employer or some other authority
for securing a job.
Forms of contact
We can communicate in a number of ways, which are as follows:
Written
Spoken
CV (curriculum vitae)
Letter
10. Major types of resumes
Writing a resume is an art. It is written in various types and forms. Some of its popular forms are:
The chronological résumé presents facts in reverse chronological order.
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The functional résumé organizes skills and accomplishments into the function performed.
The targeted résumé focuses on a specific job target and only presents information relevant to
that target.
The creative resume presents skills in a creative form
The gimmickry resume is also to get the attention of the prospective employer.
11. Job Interview
Interview is a technique to assess the interviewee by the interviewer whether he/she is fit for that
particular job for which he/she is being interviewed. The process of recruiting of suitable persons
through interview is essential to run the organizational affairs.
Successful interview
You can learn to be prepared for the interview. Some suggestions for having a successful interview follow as
under:
1. Prepare in advance (including memorizing basic facts about you).
2. Dress appropriately (match the type of employer).
3. Focus on important job factors (not benefits and vacations).
4. Be prepared for a frank discussion of your strengths and areas for improvement.
5. Do not knock former employers. Avoid talking negatively about your previous employers.
6. Ask a few good questions.
7. Let the interviewer introduce the topic of compensation.
8. Smile and exhibit a positive attitude. Don't show dejected or depressed.
9. Emphasize how your skills can benefit the employer.
10. Avoid appearing desperate.
11. Ask for the job and follow through (with a thank you letter).
12. Developing Good Work Habits
Work habits
Work habits refer to a person's characteristic approach to work, including such things as organization,
priority setting, and handling of paper work and e-mail.
Good work habits
Good work habits means, being organized and prioritizing tasks according to their importance. Good work
habits and time management are extremely important because of the current emphasis on enhancing
productivity.
ˇ  Good work habits can be developed by following these certain principles/rules.
ˇ  Develop a Mission, Goals, and a Strong Work Ethic
ˇ  Value Your Time
ˇ  Value Neatness, Orderliness, and Speed
ˇ  Work Smarter, Not Harder
ˇ  Become Self-Employed Psychologically
ˇ  Appreciate the Importance of Rest and Relaxation
13. Procrastination and Reasons of Procrastination
Procrastination
The productivity can be enhanced by improving work habits relating to procrastination. Productivity is the
amount of quality work done with the resources consumed. The leading cause of poor productivity and
career self-sabotage is procrastination, delaying a task for an invalid or weak reason. Even productive
people have problems with procrastination at times.
Key reasons for procrastination include:
Unpleasant tasks
If you do not like the tasks or assignments which you are supposed to do, might be the reason of
delaying them.
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Overwhelming
Sometimes you think that the task given to you is so huge that you can not handle, you keep on
hesitating to initiate it.
Concerns about negative consequences of one's work
Sometimes the fear of negative results of doing a task becomes the reason of postponing it.
Fear of success (worry about assuming too much responsibility)
Lack of a perceived meaningful reward for doing the task
If you feel that you would not be rewarded meaningfully, you would hesitate to do that work.
Enjoyment of the rush derived from scrambling to make a deadline
Some people enjoy doing things at the eleventh hour.
Perfectionism
People also become victim of procrastination due to the habit of perfectionism.
Techniques for Reducing Procrastination
Being aware of the productivity consequences of procrastination is a good start for reducing
procrastination. A few specific techniques are also helpful.
ˇ  Cost of procrastination
ˇ  Counter attack
ˇ  Jump-start
ˇ  Sub-divide the large task
ˇ  Motivate yourself with rewards and punishments
ˇ  WIFO (worst in first out)
ˇ  Commitment to other people
ˇ  Express positively
14. Time-Management Techniques
The appropriate time-management techniques are also necessary to achieve high personal productivity.
ˇ  Clean Up and Get Organized
ˇ  Plan Your Activities
ˇ  Get off to a Good Start
ˇ  Make Good Use of Office Technology
ˇ  Concentrate on One Key Task at a Time
ˇ  Work at a Steady Pace
ˇ  Create Some Quiet, Uninterrupted Time
ˇ  Streamline Your Work and Emphasize Important Tasks
ˇ  Make Use of Bits of Time
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Table of Contents:
  1. HUMAN RELATIONS:Some Guidelines for Effective Human Relations, Communication has 3meanings
  2. CULTURE AND PERSONALITY:Definition of sub culture, Definition of Personality, Types of Persons
  3. PERSONALITY AND STRESS:Personality, PERSONAL TOOLS TO CONTROL STRESS
  4. PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR:Three concepts of personality, Bias in Perception
  5. PERCEPTION AND GROUP BEHAVIOR:Characteristics of Groups, Individual and Group Behavior
  6. ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR:Types of Attitudes, Steps to turn attitude into action
  7. PERSONAL MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT:Needs and Motivation, Self-discipline and motivation
  8. SOLVING PROBLEMS SKILLFULLY:Problem solving and cognition, Ways to solve problems
  9. CREATIVITY IN PROBLEM SOLVING:Barriers to creativity, Tips to solve problems creatively
  10. HANDLING PERSONAL ISSUES:Self-Defeating Behaviour, Positive attitude to tackle personal problems
  11. CONFLICT RESOLUTION:WHY SO MUCH CONFLICT EXISTS, TECHNIQUES FOR RESOLVING CONFLICTS
  12. COMMUNICATION AND HUMAN RELATIONS:Process of communication, Improving gender barriers to communication
  13. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION:To improve listening skills, Types of organizational communication
  14. UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION STYLES:Modeling communication style, Sociability continuum
  15. SELF-ESTEEM:Building process of self-esteem, Self-esteem and public image
  16. BUILDING SELF-CONFIDENCE:The importance of self-confidence and self-efficacy, Balanced Self-Confidence:
  17. BECOMING A LEADER-1:Assessing leadership role, Traits and Characteristics of Effective Leaders
  18. BECOMING A LEADER-II:Theories of leadership, Developing leadership potential
  19. GLOBALIZATION AND CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES:Religious Values and Bicultural Identities
  20. IMPROVING CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCE:Strategies to improve cross-cultural relations, More steps to improve Cultural Relations
  21. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH MANAGERS:Impressing your manager, Coping with a problem manager
  22. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CO-WORKERS:Make Co-workers feel important, Maintain Honest and Open Relationships
  23. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CUSTOMERS:Salesperson Represents the Business, Approaching the Customer, Excuses vs. Objections
  24. CHOOSING A CAREER-1:Ten Myths about Choosing a Career, Attitude toward and Perceptions about Myself
  25. CHOOSING A CAREER-II:Choosing a career and developing a portfolio Career, Suggestions for career Preparation
  26. FINDING A JOB:Targeting your job search, The Internet and Résumé Database Services, Extreme Job Hunting
  27. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESUME:Major types of resumes, Electronic Submission of the Résumé
  28. IMPROVING INTERVIEW SKILLS:Successful interview, Knowing the employer or Organization
  29. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-1:Reasons of procrastination, Techniques for Reducing Procrastination
  30. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-2:Developing the proper attitudes and values, Time-management techniques
  31. NEW MODEL OF CAREER ADVANCEMENT:Career portability, HUMAN RELATIONS SELF-ASSESSMENT
  32. TAKING CONTROL OF YOURSELF:Develop Outstanding Interpersonal Skills, Business etiquettes
  33. EXERTING CONTROL ON OUTSIDE ENVIRONMENT:Important communication tip, Exerting control over the outside world
  34. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-1:Your personal financial plan, Steps in budget making
  35. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-2:Basic investment principles, Tolerance for Investment Risks, Types of investments
  36. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-1:Finding happiness and enhancing your personal life, The key to happiness
  37. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-2:The Five Principles of Psychological Functioning, Your mind and Happiness
  38. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-3:Need for intimacy, Working out issues with relationships
  39. APATHY AND ITS REMEDIES:Let us try to understand the various definitions of apathy, Coping strategies for apathy
  40. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-1:Influence of Culture, Common ethical problems
  41. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-2:Common ethical problems, Guidelines for Behaving Ethically
  42. HELPING OTHERS GROW:Being a Nurturing, Positive Person, A list of mentoring behaviour, Coaching skills and techniques
  43. REVIEW-I:What is a Human Relation?, Meanings of Communication, Two types of stress, Some personal problem, Communication style
  44. REVIEW-II:Steps to build self-confidence, Globalization, Building Good Relations with Co-workers, Good work habits
  45. REVIEW-III:New model of career advancement, Choosing your investment, Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People