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Human Relations

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Human Relations­ MGMT611
Lesson 43
What is a Human Relation?
Meanings of Communication
Culture and Personality
Personality and Stress
5. Perception and Individual behaviour
What is Group?
Attitude and Behaviour
Theories of Motivation
Goal Setting and Motivation
Problem Solving and Cognition
Creativity and Characteristics of Creative Workers
Self-Defeating Behaviour and Self-Defeating Attitude
Conflict and Conflict Resolution
Organizational Communication
Relationship of Self-Esteem with Childhood, Media and Public Image
1. What is a Human Relation?
The term Human Relations in its broadest sense covers all types of interactions among people. This subject
focuses on the systematic analysis of human behavior, preventing conflict, and resolution of behavioral
problems. In an organization; managers are concerned with three types of resources,
Physical resources;
Financial resources;
Human resources;
2. Meanings of Communication:
Communication has 3meanings, in any form
Pure Meaning: The meaning which I use through words e.g. dictionary.
Intended Meaning: Which I want to convey to another person in written or spoken form.
Perceived Meanings: Those messages that we convey and how these are taken by the different people.
3. Culture and Personality
Culture: Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, norms, customs and any
other habit acquired by a man as a member of a society".(Advertiler)
Personality: Personality is a sum total of habits, traits, characteristics of an individual. It is actually a force
or power to do things.
Another important aspect of personality is intelligence quotient or IQ. In a job situation employers are
interested it see how quickly employees can pick up instructions, learn more new skills and adapt to the
change in demands such skills are rewarded and helpful in developing a successful career for the individuals
and increase in organizations profit.
Types of Persons: A person is an entity having a distinct identity with certain distinguishable and
persistent characteristics.
1. Type A: The Type A personality is characterized as fast moving, hardworking, time conscious,
comparative, impatient and preoccupied with work.
2. Type B: The Type B personality is the opposite of Type A which is commonly associated with stress and
is usually liked by the organizations today.
Human Relations­ MGMT611
4. Personality and Stress
There is a deep relationship between "personality and stress". Stress plays a very important role in every
day life of an individual and is present in one form or another. Stress affects the personality as well as the
performance of a person. If we understand the relation between stress and the personality, how they affect
each other we will be able to channalize and manage stress in a better way.
Two types of stress
a. Positive stress-it is called u-stress; you perform well due to this stress.e.g. Stress in exams makes you
achieve better marks in the examination.
b. Negative stress: if you can't adjust to the demands of the situation then the stress is prolonged then this
negative stress affects on your performance, your health and your over all personality. This aspect of
personality is linked with stress. Stress is situation where there are demands on a person.
ˇ  Social demands
ˇ  Organizational demands
ˇ  Situational demands
Personal Tools to Control Stress: Tools of stress and personality enhance the work performance of a
person. It is your self confidence to do things.
Self perception: Self perception is the picture you hold about your self.
Self awareness: Knowing your self is self awareness.
Self worth: You should know your own worth and value of your work. Basically it is marketing of your self
as well as your capabilities.
Self love: You should appreciate your self and your personality. If you don't love your self you have
negative feelings about yourself which creates negative stress.
Self esteem: Self esteem is earned through success and is very important. Taking responsibility and
accomplishing the task will help to built up self esteem.
Self respect: Your own feelings about your self are self respect; emotion is a respectable energy and a
powerful source.
5. Perception and Individual Behaviour
"Perception is a process through which people select, organize, interpret, retrieve and respond to
Three concepts of personality: Communication has many forms. Everyone who communicates through a
picture, verbal design or with a landscape has its three meanings.
1. Intended meanings, the meanings which I want to convey to the audience.
2. The second meaning is dictionary meaning e.g. communication material, words I have used.
3. Most important is "perceived meanings" the meanings that you are getting .your meanings will b
based on meanings that you are getting from the other person's speech.
Life World: In sociology there is a concept "life world". Every person has a different life world. What are his
life experiences? Due to different experiences a person views different things in different way.
Bias in Perception: Following are main factors that influence the process of perception development.
ˇ  Stereotype images
ˇ  Expectations
ˇ  Projection
ˇ  Interest
ˇ  Selective exposure
ˇ  Frame of reference
Human Relations­ MGMT611
6. What is a Group?
The organizations are using the word team for the groups now a day. So a group/team is "two or more
people interacting to achieve an objective". This definition has three major components: Objective,
Interaction, and Projective
Why do People Join Group: People join groups for a variety of reasons. Some group members are
motivated by task concerns and others are motivated by interpersonal attraction to other group members.
1. Group Synergy: "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts, which also refers to group synergy.
2. Support and Commitment: A group may be more willing to take on a large project than would an
3. Interpersonal Needs: Individuals often join a group to meet their interpersonal needs.
Roles in Groups
ˇ  Task-Oriented Roles: These are several roles which relate to the completion of the groups task
ˇ  Social Roles: Groups also have members who play certain social roles:
ˇ  Individualistic Roles: These roles place the group member above the group and are destructive to
the group.
7. Attitude and Behaviour
Attitude: Attitude is a usual way of doing things. Successes and failures in life depend upon the attitude of
the individuals. If attitudes are positive, then human relations will be positive. And positive human relations
are necessary for a successful life.
Behaviour: The actions or reactions of a person or animal in response to external or internal stimuli.
Types of Attitudes
ˇ  Positive attitude: The predisposition that results in desirable outcomes for individuals and
organizations can be described as positive attitude.
ˇ  Negative attitude: The tendency of a person that results in an undesirable outcome for individuals
and organizations can be described as negative attitude.
How to change attitude
ˇ  Cognitive approaches focus on changing the way people think about an entity or object.
ˇ  Behavioral approaches focus reward and punishments for certain attitudes and behaviours.
ˇ  Social approaches focus on our tendency to copy the beliefs and behaviours of others.
8. Theories of Motivation
The Need Theory of Motivation: Personal needs and wants motivate people until these are satisfied. The
need cycle shows the relationship with work and achievement:
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Maslow's hierarchy of needs show that people strive to satisfy the
following needs in a sequential order:
(1) Physiological
(2) Safety
(3) Social
(4) Esteem
(5) Self-actualizing
9. Goal Setting and Motivation
Success demands identifying goals. Almost all successful people set goals and write them down for personal
Human Relations­ MGMT611
Goal setting on the Job: Goal setting is important in both profit and nonprofit firms, especially in
technical, professional and managerial jobs.
Types of personal goals: Personal goals can be divided into different groups: Social and family, hobbies
and interests, physical and mental health, financial, etc.
Guidelines for Goal Setting: An action plan is needed to achieve goals.
ˇ  Specify Goals: Vague goals may delay action.
ˇ  Concise Goals: Use a short, punchy statement.
ˇ  Set Realistic Goals: A realistic goal represents the right amount of challenge for the person
pursuing the goal. The higher a person's self-efficacy, the more likely he or she may think that a
goal is realistic.
ˇ  Set Goals for Different Time Periods: Include daily, short-range, medium-range, and long-range
ˇ  Include Some Fantasy in Personal Goal Setting: Fantasy goals reflect a vision of the ideal type
of life one would like to lead. Such goals also facilitate relaxation.
ˇ  Review Goals from Time to Time: Some goals lose their relevance and therefore must be
Techniques of Self-Motivation
ˇ  Set goals for yourself: Goal setting is fundamental to motivation.
ˇ  Find intrinsically motivating work: Intrinsic motivation refers to the natural tendency to seek
out novelty and challenges, to extend and use one's capabilities.
ˇ  Get feedback on your performance: Feedback acts as a reward.
ˇ  Apply behavior modification to yourself: In using behavior modification, remember that self-
rewards may be more effective than self-punishments in sustaining the right behavior.
ˇ  Improve your skills relevant to your goals: According to the expectancy theory of motivation,
people need confidence in their skills to be motivated.
ˇ  Raise your level of self-expectation: The Galatea effect is the technical term for improving
performance through raising one's expectations.
ˇ  Develop a strong work ethic: If you are committed to the idea that most work is valuable and
that it is joyful to work hard, you will automatically become strongly motivated.
10. Problem Solving and Cognition
Personality influences a person's cognitive style (intuitive skills). It influences the mental processes used
to perceive and make judgments from available information. The four dimensions of psychological
functioning are: (1) Introverted (shy) versus extroverted, (2) Thinking versus feeling,(3) Sensing versus
intuiting, and (4) Judging versus perceiving.
Ways to Solve Problems: A highly recommended way of solving problems and making decisions is to use
the following steps.
1. Awareness of the Problem.
2. Identify Causes of the Problem.
3. Find Creative Alternatives.
4. Weigh Alternatives.
5. Make the Choice.
6. Implement the Choice.
7. Evaluate the Choice.
11. Creativity and Characteristics of Creative Workers
Creativity: The ability to use `imagination' or power of mind to develop new and original ideas or things.
Following are the characteristics of the creative workers
1. Knowledge
Human Relations­ MGMT611
2. Intellectual Abilities
3. Personality
Improving creativity: Many strategies and techniques can improve creativity, and all of them help people
move beyond intellectual constraints. The goal of these experiences is to think like a creative problem
1. Concentrate on the problem or task: At limes, we think we are thinking intently about our
problem, yet in reality we may be thinking about something that interferes with creativity.  They
can hamper the development of new ideas.
2. Overcome traditional mindset: Mental flexibility helps a person overcome a traditional
set, a fixed way of thinking about objects and activities. An effective way of overcoming
traditional mind set into challenge, the status quo.
3. Discipline yourself to think laterally: Vertical thinking is an analytical, logical process that results
in few answers. In contrast, lateral thinking spreads out to find many different
solutions to a problem. Critical thinking is vertical and creative thinking is lateral. To learn to think
laterally, develop the mental set that every problem has multiple solutions.
4. Conduct brainstorming sessions: The best-known method of improving creativity is
brainstorming, a technique by which group members think of multiple solutions to a
5. Borrow creative ideas
6. Negate your own ruts or mental set
7. Establish idea quotas for yourself
8. Play the roles of explorer, artist, judge, and lawyer
10. Forced Associations. A widely used method of releasing creativity is the forced-association
technique. Using this technique, individuals or groups solve a problem by making associations
between the properties of two objects. A link is found between the properties of the random object
and the problem object. The forced association is supposed to help solve the problem.
12. Self-Defeating Behaviour and Self-Defeating Attitude
ˇ  Self-Defeating Behaviour: In today's increasingly complex social and economic
environment, most people have to overcome personal behaviour as they influence their
personal and work life.
ˇ  Self-Defeating Attitude: Self-defeating attitude is a tendency to act in such a way that
one's behaviour works against his/her own interests, either intentionally or unintentionally.
ˇ  Positive attitude
A positive attitude gives you the power and confidence to approach every situation with
the expectation that you will ultimately find the right thing to do -- and then do it.
Strategies to overcome Self-Defeating:
1. Examine Yourself and Make the Necessary Changes
2. Stop Blaming Others for Your Problems and Cursing Fate
3. Solicit Feedback on Your Actions
4. Learn from Criticism
5. Stop Denying the Existence of Problems
6. Visualize Self-Enhancing Behavior
Some personal problem
ˇ  Drug Abuse: All drugs may have serious side effects (for example, Relaxants, Heroine).
Getting Help for Drug Abuse Problems. Drug abusers, like alcohol abusers, can also perceive their
problem as a disease or maladaptive behavior thus directing their remedial strategy.
ˇ  Internet Dependence: An Internet dependence (or addiction) is a condition whereby a person
spends so much time on the Internet that other work suffers and the person experiences sleep
deprivation and neglects human contact.
ˇ  Coping with the loss of a relationship: A major personal problem many people encounter is the
loss of a valued personal relationships, including separation, divorce, or death. Loss of intimacy in a
Human Relations­ MGMT611
relationship is another significant type of loss. The person who takes the initiative in terminating a
relationship often has to cope with guilt.
ˇ  Absenteeism and lateness: Absenteeism and lateness are the leading factors of employee
discipline. They are a form of career self-sabotage.
ˇ  Depression and Neurobiological Disorders: Disturbed emotions and brain malfunctioning can
interfere with handling some aspects of job responsibilities well.
ˇ  Dealing with anger: Anger is a feeling of extreme hostility or displeasure. Anger creates stress and
results in physiological changes such as enlarged pupils, and a flushed face.
13. Conflict and Conflict Resolution
Conflict is a condition that exists when two sets of demands, goals, or motives are incompatible or
Conflict resolution: Negotiation is treated as an important way of resolving conflict.
Why so Much Conflict Exists?
ˇ  Competition for Limited Resources
ˇ  The Generation Gap and Personality Clashes
ˇ  Aggressive Personalities
ˇ  Culturally Diverse Teams
ˇ  Competing Work and Family Demands
ˇ  Gender-based Harassment
The Good and Bad Side of Conflict: Conflict has both positive and negative consequences, much like
work stress. On the positive side, the right amount of conflict enhances mental and emotional functioning
and may lead to improved relationships. On the negative side, intense conflict may lead to physical and
mental illness, wasted resources, sabota9e, excessive fatigue, and workplace violence including homicide.
Techniques for Resolving Conflicts
ˇ  Confrontation and Problem Solving Leading to Win-Win
ˇ  Disarm the opposition
ˇ  Cognitive Restructuring
ˇ  Appeal top Third Party
ˇ  The Grievance Procedure
14. Organizational Communication
Management communication is especially important and most channels of communication with workers are
based in the management. The major dimension of organizational communication is open communication
that values diversity. In general, organizational communication is the compounded interpersonal
communication process across an organization.
Process of communication: There are three technical steps for any communication to occur:
(1)Encoding (putting ideas into symbols), (2) Communication media,(3) Decoding (understanding the
Interpersonal communication and IT: Advances in information technology had both positive and
negative impacts on interpersonal communicative- E-mail and tele-comrnunication are two key domains for
changes in communication created by information technology.
Barriers to Organizational Communication
ˇ  Perception
ˇ  Emotions (anger, fear, sadness, happiness)
Human Relations­ MGMT611
ˇ  Filtering (process of altering the message for more favorable image)
ˇ  Trust and credibility
ˇ  Information overload
ˇ  Not listening (only hearing)
ˇ  Time and place
ˇ  Media selection
Improving communication skills
ˇ  Appeal to Human Needs and Time Your Messages
ˇ  Repeat Your Message, Using More Than One channel
ˇ  Have an Empowered Attitude and Be Persuasive
ˇ  Check for Comprehension and Feelings
ˇ  Minimize Defensive Communication
ˇ  Combat Info Overload
ˇ  Establishing Rapport
ˇ  Engage in Small Talk and constructive Gossip
ˇ  Improve Your Telephone and Voice-Mail and Speakerphone Communication Skills
ˇ  Use Presentation Technology to Your Advantage
Improving gender barriers to communication: Another strategy for overcoming communication
barriers is to deal effectively with cultural differences. Two areas of cultural differences are those related to
gender and geography. Gender differences in communication style have amused considerable interest, but
they must be regarded as cultural stereotypes. Individual differences in communication style are usually
more important than group (men versus women).
Types of organizational communication
ˇ  Vertical Communication
Vertical communication is the flow of information both up and down the chain of command. It is
usually official information. It is upward and downward.
ˇ  Horizontal communication
It is the flow of information with people on the same or similar levels in the organizational
ˇ  Grapevine communication (informal)
It is "the informal transmission of information, gossip or rumor from person to person" The
grapevine is the informal and unsanctioned information network within every organization.
ˇ  Communication networks
"The network helps employees make sense of the world around them and consequently provides a
release from emotional stress and all informal information is undocumented." (Circle, chain, all
channel etc)
Communication style: The patterns of behaviors that others can observe can be called communication
Basic communication styles
ˇ  Emotive: Tends to express high emotional opinions. Outspoken, use gestures and facial
ˇ  Directing: Determined to come to the top. Tend not to accept mistakes. Cold and have no
feelings. Use always, never, don't.
ˇ  Reflective: Tends to avoid making a decision. Interested in detail. Formal and avoid displaying
Human Relations­ MGMT611
ˇ  Supportive: Attempts to win approval by agreeing with everyone. Seeks reassurance, refuses to
take stand is apologetic.(Situational demands are important and one could be flexible to change
ˇ  Versatility when we speak of interpersonal relationships (an interaction involving at least two
people), we contend that no one can do much about what another person says or does, but each of
us can do something about what we say and do. And because dealing with others is such a major
aspect of our lives, if we can control what we say and do to make others more comfortable, we can
realistically expect our relationships to be more positive, or effective.
15. Relationship of Self-Esteem with Childhood, Media and Public Image
Self-esteem: "Appreciating my own worth and importance and having the character to be accountable for
myself and to act responsibly towards others." Self-esteem can be thought of as the sum of self-confidence
and self-respect." A child's life is a piece of paper on which every passer-by leaves a mark. Parents do not
teach their children self-esteem. But they do shape it with positive and negative messages.
Childhood and self-esteem: Parental discipline is one way of telling children that parents care about them
and what they do.
Media and self-esteem: The media play a strong part in how adolescents see themselves.
Self-esteem and public image:" First-rate people hire first-rate people. Second- rate people hire third-rate
people." Individuals with secure self-esteem realize that in helping others succeed, they benefit themselves
as well. Acceptance of others is a good indication that you accept yourself.
16. Mentoring
Mentors are peopling who have been where you want to go in your career and who are willing to act as your
guide and friend.
Table of Contents:
  1. HUMAN RELATIONS:Some Guidelines for Effective Human Relations, Communication has 3meanings
  2. CULTURE AND PERSONALITY:Definition of sub culture, Definition of Personality, Types of Persons
  4. PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR:Three concepts of personality, Bias in Perception
  5. PERCEPTION AND GROUP BEHAVIOR:Characteristics of Groups, Individual and Group Behavior
  6. ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR:Types of Attitudes, Steps to turn attitude into action
  7. PERSONAL MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT:Needs and Motivation, Self-discipline and motivation
  8. SOLVING PROBLEMS SKILLFULLY:Problem solving and cognition, Ways to solve problems
  9. CREATIVITY IN PROBLEM SOLVING:Barriers to creativity, Tips to solve problems creatively
  10. HANDLING PERSONAL ISSUES:Self-Defeating Behaviour, Positive attitude to tackle personal problems
  12. COMMUNICATION AND HUMAN RELATIONS:Process of communication, Improving gender barriers to communication
  13. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION:To improve listening skills, Types of organizational communication
  14. UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION STYLES:Modeling communication style, Sociability continuum
  15. SELF-ESTEEM:Building process of self-esteem, Self-esteem and public image
  16. BUILDING SELF-CONFIDENCE:The importance of self-confidence and self-efficacy, Balanced Self-Confidence:
  17. BECOMING A LEADER-1:Assessing leadership role, Traits and Characteristics of Effective Leaders
  18. BECOMING A LEADER-II:Theories of leadership, Developing leadership potential
  19. GLOBALIZATION AND CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES:Religious Values and Bicultural Identities
  20. IMPROVING CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCE:Strategies to improve cross-cultural relations, More steps to improve Cultural Relations
  21. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH MANAGERS:Impressing your manager, Coping with a problem manager
  22. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CO-WORKERS:Make Co-workers feel important, Maintain Honest and Open Relationships
  23. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CUSTOMERS:Salesperson Represents the Business, Approaching the Customer, Excuses vs. Objections
  24. CHOOSING A CAREER-1:Ten Myths about Choosing a Career, Attitude toward and Perceptions about Myself
  25. CHOOSING A CAREER-II:Choosing a career and developing a portfolio Career, Suggestions for career Preparation
  26. FINDING A JOB:Targeting your job search, The Internet and Résumé Database Services, Extreme Job Hunting
  27. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESUME:Major types of resumes, Electronic Submission of the Résumé
  28. IMPROVING INTERVIEW SKILLS:Successful interview, Knowing the employer or Organization
  29. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-1:Reasons of procrastination, Techniques for Reducing Procrastination
  30. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-2:Developing the proper attitudes and values, Time-management techniques
  32. TAKING CONTROL OF YOURSELF:Develop Outstanding Interpersonal Skills, Business etiquettes
  33. EXERTING CONTROL ON OUTSIDE ENVIRONMENT:Important communication tip, Exerting control over the outside world
  34. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-1:Your personal financial plan, Steps in budget making
  35. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-2:Basic investment principles, Tolerance for Investment Risks, Types of investments
  36. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-1:Finding happiness and enhancing your personal life, The key to happiness
  37. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-2:The Five Principles of Psychological Functioning, Your mind and Happiness
  38. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-3:Need for intimacy, Working out issues with relationships
  39. APATHY AND ITS REMEDIES:Let us try to understand the various definitions of apathy, Coping strategies for apathy
  40. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-1:Influence of Culture, Common ethical problems
  41. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-2:Common ethical problems, Guidelines for Behaving Ethically
  42. HELPING OTHERS GROW:Being a Nurturing, Positive Person, A list of mentoring behaviour, Coaching skills and techniques
  43. REVIEW-I:What is a Human Relation?, Meanings of Communication, Two types of stress, Some personal problem, Communication style
  44. REVIEW-II:Steps to build self-confidence, Globalization, Building Good Relations with Co-workers, Good work habits
  45. REVIEW-III:New model of career advancement, Choosing your investment, Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People