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Abnormal Psychology

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Abnormal Psychology ­ PSY404
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LESSON 21
PSYCHOTHERAPY
Global Therapies
Following are the global therapies-which help people to recognize and change features of their personality
that are the root of their problem.
Psychodynamic
Humanistic
Existential
Gestalt
Problem based therapies
Problem based therapies focus on the symptoms and specific complaints. It includes cognitive, behavioral
and biological therapies.
Psychoanalytic therapy
Psychoanalytic therapy focuses on the unconscious motives, repressed wishes and childhood experiences
Techniques of psychoanalysis includes
Free association, dream analysis, analysis of resistance , transference
Positive transference
Negative transference
Ambivalent transference
Counter transference
Humanistic therapies
Humanistic therapists help their clients to look at them selves and their situations more accurately and
acceptingly with the aim of actualizing their full potential as human beings.
Focus on self actualization. Client centered therapy tries to create a very supportive climate in which clients
can see themselves more honestly and begin to accept what they discover themselves to be.
Gestalt therapy
Gestalt therapy make clients recognize and accept their needs through techniques of role playing, exercises
and games.
Existential therapies
Existential therapists form close relationships with clients and encourage them to accept responsibility for
their lives, to recognize their freedom to choose a different course of action.
Existential neurosis: When a person suffers from meaninglessness in life.
Behavioral therapies
The goal of behavioral therapies is to identify the client's problem causing behaviors and to replace them
with more appropriate ones.
 Aversion
 Flooding/ implosion
 Systematic desensitization
Cognitive therapies
Cognitive therapies based on the premise that abnormal functioning is caused by maladaptive assumptions
and thoughts.
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Abnormal Psychology ­ PSY404
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Rational emotive behavioral therapy
Beck's cognitive therapy
Biological therapies
Biological therapies include physical, chemical methods developed to help overcome their psychological
problems
 Psychopharmacology
 ECT
 Psychosurgery
Psychoanalytic Therapy
Psychodynamic therapists believe that today's mental disorder is the result of yesterday's emotional trauma.
 Focus is on childhood experiences as agents of mental disorders
 From Freudian psychoanalysis to modern therapies all are based on object relations theory or self
theory.
 The goal of psychodynamic therapy is
 to help clients uncover past traumatic events and the inner conflicts that have resulted from them
 To resolve, settle these conflicts
 To resume the interrupted personal development
The psychodynamic therapy is considered the insight therapy
This process of gaining insight is not to be rushed or imposed
The therapist must guide the therapeutic discussions so that the clients must discover for
themselves
Techniques of Psychoanalysis
The techniques of psychoanalysis include
Free association
Dream analysis ­interpretation of dreams
Slip of tongue-- psychopathology of everyday life
slip of pen
Transference
Positive transference
Negative transference
Counter transference
Catharsis--sweeping the chimney phenomena
Freudian Psychoanalysis
Breuer's collaborator, Sigmund Freud, adopted the hypnotic method for a time, but he soon
concluded that hypnosis was not necessary to encourage open expression.
Instead, Freud used a method called free association, in which he simply told his patients to speak
freely about whatever thoughts crossed their mind, without censoring them. Usually due to
unconscious control blocking and resistance results. when a client says that I forgot that I had an
appointment with you or I can not recall events of the past, well he is being defensive, guarded and
he is resisting self disclosure.
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Abnormal Psychology ­ PSY404
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This method of Free Association became a cornerstone of Freud's famous treatment,
psychoanalysis.
The true benefit of free association, in Freud's view, was that it revealed aspects of the unconscious
mind.
Freud also believed that dreaming and slips of the tongue (now called Freudian slips) provided
especially revealing information about the unconscious.
Thus, according to Freud, free association, dreams, and slips of the tongue are valuable because
they serve as "windows into the unconscious."
The ultimate goal of psychoanalysis is to bring formerly unconscious material into conscious
awareness.
This is what Freud called insight.
Freud asserted that insight is sufficient for curing psychological disorders.
The analyst's main tool for promoting insight is interpretation.
In offering an interpretation, the analyst suggests hidden meanings to patients' accounts of their
past and present life.
One essential element in probing the unconscious mind and offering interpretations is therapeutic
neutrality.
Psychoanalysts maintain a distant stance toward their patients in order to minimize their influence
on free association.
The analyst's distant stance is thought to encourage transference, the process whereby patients
transfer their feelings about some key figure in their life onto the shadowy figure of the analyst.
Insight into the transference relationship presumably helps patients understand how and why they
are relating to the analyst in the same dysfunctional manner in which they related to a loved one.
A common misconception about psychoanalysis is that the ultimate goal of insight is to rid the
patient of all defenses.
According to Freud, defenses are essential for the functioning of a healthy personality.
Thus, rather than ridding the patient of defenses, one goal of psychoanalysis is to replace them.
Defenses such as denial and projection are confronted because they distort reality dramatically,
whereas "healthier" defenses, such as rationalization and sublimation, are left unchallenged.
A second goal of psychoanalysis is to help patients become more aware of their basic needs or
drives so that they may find socially and psychologically appropriate outlets for them.
The Decline of Freudian Psychoanalysis
Because psychoanalysis requires substantial time, expense, and self-exploration, it is accessible only to
people who are relatively well functioning, introspective, and financially secure.
In many respects, psychoanalysis now is viewed as a process of self-understanding, not a treatment for
specific emotional disorders.
Although Freudian psychoanalysis has declined greatly, the approach spawned numerous therapeutic
variations broadly referred to as psychodynamic psychotherapy.
Psychodynamic psychotherapists often are more engaged and directive in therapy and treatment may be
relatively brief in comparison to psychoanalysis.
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Table of Contents:
  1. ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY:PSYCHOSIS, Team approach in psychology
  2. WHAT IS ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR:Dysfunction, Distress, Danger
  3. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT:Supernatural Model, Biological Model
  4. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT:Free association, Dream analysis
  5. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT:Humanistic Model, Classical Conditioning
  6. RESEARCH METHODS:To Read Research, To Evaluate Research, To increase marketability
  7. RESEARCH DESIGNS:Types of Variables, Confounding variables or extraneous
  8. EXPERIMENTAL REASEARCH DESIGNS:Control Groups, Placebo Control Groups
  9. GENETICS:Adoption Studies, Twin Studies, Sequential Design, Follow back studies
  10. RESEARCH ETHICS:Approval for the research project, Risk, Consent
  11. CAUSES OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR:Biological Dimensions
  12. THE STRUCTURE OF BRAIN:Peripheral Nervous System, Psychoanalytic Model
  13. CAUSES OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY:Biomedical Model, Humanistic model
  14. CAUSES OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF ABNORMALITY
  15. CLASSIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT:Reliability, Test retest, Split Half
  16. DIAGNOSING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS:The categorical approach, Prototypical approach
  17. EVALUATING SYSTEMS:Basic Issues in Assessment, Interviews
  18. ASSESSMENT of PERSONALITY:Advantages of MMPI-2, Intelligence Tests
  19. ASSESSMENT of PERSONALITY (2):Neuropsychological Tests, Biofeedback
  20. PSYCHOTHERAPY:Global Therapies, Individual therapy, Brief Historical Perspective
  21. PSYCHOTHERAPY:Problem based therapies, Gestalt therapy, Behavioral therapies
  22. PSYCHOTHERAPY:Ego Analysis, Psychodynamic Psychotherapy, Aversion Therapy
  23. PSYCHOTHERAPY:Humanistic Psychotherapy, Client-Centered Therapy, Gestalt therapy
  24. ANXIETY DISORDERS:THEORIES ABOUT ANXIETY DISORDERS
  25. ANXIETY DISORDERS:Social Phobias, Agoraphobia, Treating Phobias
  26. MOOD DISORDERS:Emotional Symptoms, Cognitive Symptoms, Bipolar Disorders
  27. MOOD DISORDERS:DIAGNOSIS, Further Descriptions and Subtypes, Social Factors
  28. SUICIDE:PRECIPITATING FACTORS IN SUICIDE, VIEWS ON SUICIDE
  29. STRESS:Stress as a Life Event, Coping, Optimism, Health Behavior
  30. STRESS:Psychophysiological Responses to Stress, Health Behavior
  31. ACUTE AND POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS
  32. DISSOCIATIVE AND SOMATOFORM DISORDERS:DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS
  33. DISSOCIATIVE and SOMATOFORM DISORDERS:SOMATOFORM DISORDERS
  34. PERSONALITY DISORDERS:Causes of Personality Disorders, Motive
  35. PERSONALITY DISORDERS:Paranoid Personality, Schizoid Personality, The Diagnosis
  36. ALCOHOLISM AND SUBSTANCE RELATED DISORDERS:Poly Drug Use
  37. ALCOHOLISM AND SUBSTANCE RELATED DISORDERS:Integrated Systems
  38. SCHIZOPHRENIA:Prodromal Phase, Residual Phase, Negative symptoms
  39. SCHIZOPHRENIA:Related Psychotic Disorders, Causes of Schizophrenia
  40. DEMENTIA DELIRIUM AND AMNESTIC DISORDERS:DELIRIUM, Causes of Delirium
  41. DEMENTIA DELIRIUM AND AMNESTIC DISORDERS:Amnesia
  42. MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
  43. MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
  44. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CHILDHOOD:Kinds of Internalizing Disorders
  45. LIFE CYCLE TRANSITIONS AND ADULT DEVELOPMENT:Aging