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History and Systems of Psychology

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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Lesson 41
PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD
Third world countries are considered those regions and countries that gained independence and self-rule
after World War II. Some of these countries were under the direct occupation of the European countries
and America; some others were under the control of other occupying forces. These countries included
Pakistan and India, most of the countries in Africa, some in the Far East as Vietnam and Indonesia, and the
biggest of them all was China. Where the II World War brought numerous sufferings to mankind, it also
resulted in freeing most of these regions and countries form the curse of modern slavery or colonialism.
Frantz Fanon (1925-1961)
Frantz Fanon
Post World War II psychologists have asked themselves a question if being colonized by a foreign power, it
influences the psyche of the people of the region? Frantz Fanon was one of such psychologists. Fanon
worked in Algeria as a psychiatrist. Algeria is a country in South American continent which was previously a
colony of France. With reference to psychology in the Third World, Fanon is a prominent contributor.
Frantz Fanon was a black African who was educated in France, specialized in psychiatry and joined a
hospital in Algeria. Frantz Fanon's relatively short life yielded two potent and influential statements of anti-
colonial revolutionary thought, Black Skin White Masks (1952) and The Wretched of the Earth (1961),
which have made Fanon a prominent contributor to postcolonial studies.
Fanon was born in 1925, in a middle-class family, in French colony of Martinique. He left Martinique in
1943, when he volunteered to fight with the Free French in World War II and he remained in France after
the war to study medicine and psychiatry on scholarship in Lyon. Here he began writing political essays and
plays, and he married a Frenchwoman. Before he left France, based on his lectures and experiences in Lyon,
Fanon had already published his first analysis of the effects of racism and colonization, "Black Skin, White
Masks" (BSWM), originally titled "An Essay for the Disalienation of Blacks". Fanon died in 1961.
He tried to look at mental diseases and also at the struggle of the colonized people of Algeria. As a result of
his practice and observation he came to have some interesting ideas which are included in his two famous
books. His books are available worldwide and have been translated into Urdu as well.
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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
He put forward the view that as a result of occupation, a region or country comes to have two types of
people:
·
The colonizer
·
The colonized
Both the colonizer and the colonized have different psyches. Colonizer is the aggressor who tends to
dominate the colonized. The colonized on the other hand is obviously meek and receptive towards the
colonizer who tends to impose him. Another important aspect of the colonizer, colonized relationship is
that the colonizer considers himself superior and the colonized inferior. This means that the practices, views
and beliefs of the colonizer are supported as superior by him while the colonized also accepts this. Further
the colonizer also considers his culture superior and the colonized agrees.
As a result of this division of superiority-inferiority, people feel anger and rage. This anger and rage is
expressed in various forms such as political turmoil, protests against the rulers etc. The rage is significant
because it is not directed against the real culprit, the colonizer, but against each other. The colonizer uses
this tool to keep a hold on the colonized. In other word, in order to ease his survival the colonizer facilitates
the flow of this rage against the colonized, by dividing and directing it against religious sects, tribal
belongingness, language and other cultural differences.
When the colonized adopts the ways of thinking of the colonizer, this adoption in Fanon's view is called the
"Colonial Mentality". Colonial mentality is considering the culture, language and the general way of life of
the colonizer as superior and considering these of the colonized as inferior.
Fanon put forward the view that mental disease is the result of rage of the colonized on one hand and the
adoption of colonial mentality on the other hand. He saw in his practice that when some of his mental
patients started to fight or take part in the struggle to free Algeria from the French control, they started to
rid themselves of their diseases also, so his suggested method of treatment was to make his patients
conscious of their rage and their acceptance of colonial mentality and prepare them to wage a battle against
the colonial powers. An important thing to note in this regard is that the battle may not be fought with guns
only, but also in schools and colleges by advancing in education; in hospitals by advancing in research and
developing new medicine etc.; and in games and sports also.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Methodology, Grading, Course Overview up to Midterm
  2. ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY/PSYCHOLOGY:Socrates, Plato
  3. GREEK THINKERS:Aristotle, Contiguity, Contrast
  4. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Saint Augustine, Avicenna
  5. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Al-Ghazali, Ibn-Rushd, Averroes
  6. RENAISSANCE:Rene Descartes
  7. ASSOCIATIONISTS:Thomas Hobbes, John Locke
  8. ASSOCIATIONISTS:David Hume, FRENCH REVOLUTION, Denis Diderot
  9. GERMAN CONTRIBUTION:Wilhelm Liebniz, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Hegel
  10. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
  11. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Ivan Pavlov, Reflex, Acquisition
  12. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Vladimir Bekhterev
  13. IMPACT OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES ON PSYCHOLOGY:Charles Darwin, Gustav Fechner
  14. STRUCTURALIST SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY:Wilhelm Wundt
  15. FUNCTIONALISM:William James, John Dewey
  16. EUROPEAN FUNCTIONALISTS:David Katz, Edgar Rubin, Jean Piaget
  17. BEHAVIORISM:Edward Lee Thorndike, Law of belongingness
  18. BEHAVIORISM:Albert Weiss, Edwin Holt, Learning, Canalization, Walter Hunter
  19. BEHAVIORISM:J.B.Watson
  20. NEO-BEHAVIOURISTS:Clark Hull, Edward Tolman, Edwin Gutherie
  21. NEO-BEHAVIORISTS:B.F. Skinner, Karl Lashley, Donald Hebb, Hobart Mowrer
  22. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Max Wertheimer, Similarity, Proximity, Closure
  23. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka, Edward De Bono
  24. GESTALT SCHOOL AND DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY:Kurt Lewin, DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY
  25. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Leon Vygotsky, Sergei Rubenstein
  26. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Alexei Leontiev, K.M Bykov
  27. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL DISORDERS
  28. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL ILLNESS:Philippe Pinel, Sameul Tuke
  29. SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT:The Superego
  30. SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTICAL MOVEMENT:Anna Freud
  31. CARL JUNG AND ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  32. JUNG’S ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  33. ALFRED ADLER AND INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY:Alfred Adler
  34. NEO-FREUDIANS:Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney
  35. NEO-FREUDIANS:Karen Horney, Erich Fromm
  36. ERIKSON and MORENO:J.L. Moreno, Protagonist, Audience, Role playing
  37. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY:Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Positive Psychology
  38. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT
  39. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT:Biological Approaches
  40. ANTI-PSYCHIATRY MOVEMENT:D.L. Rosenhan, R.D. Laing, Aaron Esterson
  41. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD:Frantz Fanon
  42. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD CHINA AND PAKISTAN
  43. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21st CENTURY
  44. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Consumer Psychology
  45. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Sports Psychology, Positive Psychology