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Project Management

Project Management ­MGMT627
Procurement Cycles
Type of contract
Categories of Contract
Ethics in Project Management
45.1. Procurement
Procurement can be defined as the acquisition of goods or services. Procurement (and contracting) is a
process that involves two parties with different objectives who interact in a given market segment. Good
procurement practices can increase corporate profitability by taking advantage of quantity discounts,
minimizing cash flow problems, and seeking out quality suppliers. Because procurement contributes to
profitability, procurement is often centralized, which results in standardized practices and lower
paperwork costs.
All procurement strategies are frameworks by which an organization attains its objectives. There are
two basic procurement strategies:
Corporate procurement strategy: the relationship of specific procurement actions to the corporate
Project procurement strategy: the relationship of specific procurement actions to the operating
environment of the project
Project procurement strategies can differ from corporate procurement strategies because of constraints,
availability of critical resources, and specific customer requirements. Corporate strategies might
promote purchasing small quantities from several qualified vendors, whereas project strategies may
dictate sole source procurement.
Procurement planning usually involves the selection of one of the following as the primary objective:
 Procure all goods/services from a single source.
 Procure all goods/services from multiple sources.
 Procure only a small portion of the goods/services.
 Procure none.
Another critical factor is the environment in which procurement must take place. There are two
environments: macro and micro. The macro environment includes the general external variables that
can influence how and when we do procurement. These include recessions, inflation, cost of
borrowing money, and unemployment. As an example, a foreign corporation had undertaken a large
project that involved the hiring of several contractors. Because of the country's high unemployment
rate, the decision was made to use only domestic suppliers/contractors and to give first preference to
contractors in cities where unemployment was the greatest, even though there were other more
qualified suppliers/contractors.
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The microenvironment is the internal environment of the firm, especially the policies and
procedures imposed by the firm, project, or client in the way that procurement will take place.
This includes the procurement/contracting system, which contains five cycles:
Requirement cycle: definition of the boundaries of the project
Requisition cycle: analysis of sources
Solicitation cycle: the bidding process
Award cycle: contractor selection and contract award
Contract administration cycle: managing the subcontractor until completion of the contract
There are several activities that are part of the procurement process and that overlap several of the
cycles. These cycles can be conducted in parallel, especially requisition and solicitation.
Procurement Cycles
The first step in the procurement process is the definition of project, specifically the requirement.
This is referred to as the requirement cycle and includes the following:
Defining the need for the project
Development of the statement of work, specifications, and work breakdown structure
Performing a make or buy analysis
Laying out the major milestones and the timing/schedule
Cost estimating, including life-cycle costing
Obtaining authorization and approval to proceed
The SOW is a narrative description of the work to be accomplished and/or the resources to be
supplied. The identification of resources to be supplied has taken on paramount importance during
the last ten years or so. During the 1970s and 1980s, small companies were bidding on mega jobs
only to subcontract out more than 99% of all of the work. Lawsuits were abundant and the solution
was to put clauses in the SOW requiring that the contractor identify the names and resumes of the
talented internal resources that would be committed to the project, including the percentage of their
time on the project. Specifications are written, pictorial, or graphic information that describe, define,
or specify the services or items to be procured. There are three types of specifications:
Design specifications: These detail what is to be done in terms of physical characteristics. The risk
of performance is on the buyer.
Performance specifications: These specify measurable capabilities the end product must achieve in
terms of operational characteristics. The risk of performance is on the contractor.
Functional specifications: This is when the seller describes the end use of the item to stimulate
competition among commercial items, at a lower overall cost. This is a subset of the performance
specification, and the risk of performance is on the contractor.
There are always options in the way the end item can be obtained. Feasible procurement alternatives
include make or buy, lease or buy, buy or rent, and lease or rent. Buying domestic or international is
also of critical importance, especially to the United Auto Workers Union. Factors involving the
make or buy analysis is shown below:
 The make decision
 Less costly (but not always!!)
 Easy integration of operations
 Utilize existing capacity that is idle
 Maintain direct control
 Maintain design/production secrecy
 Avoid unreliable supplier base
 Stabilize existing workforce
 The buy decision
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Less costly (but not always!!)
Utilize skills of suppliers
Small volume requirement (not cost effective to produce)
Having limited capacity or capability
Augment existing labor force
Maintain multiple sources (qualified vendor list)
Indirect control
The lease or rent decision is usually a financial endeavor. Leases are usually longer term than
renting. Consider the following example. A company is willing to rent you a piece of equipment at a
cost of $100 per day. You can lease the equipment for $60 per day plus a one-time cost of $5000.
What is the breakeven point, in days, where leasing and renting are the same?
Therefore, if the firm wishes to use this equipment for more than 125 days, it would be more cost
effective to sign a lease agreement rather than a rental agreement.
Requisition Cycle
Once the requirements are identified, a requisition form is sent to procurement to begin the
requisition process. The requisition cycle includes:
Evaluating/confirming specifications (are they current?)
Confirming sources
Reviewing past performance of sources
Producing solicitation package
The solicitation package is prepared during the requisition cycle but utilized during the solicitation
cycle. In most situations, the same solicitation package must be sent to each possible supplier so that
the playing field is level. A typical solicitation package would include:
Bid documents (usually standardized)
Listing of qualified vendors (expected to bid)
Proposal evaluation criteria
Bidder conferences
How change requests will be managed
Supplier payment plan
Standardized bid documents usually include standard forms for compliance with EEO, affirmative
action, OSHA/EPA, minority hiring, etc. A listing of qualified vendors appears in order to drive
down the cost. Quite often, one vendor will not bid on the job because it knows that it cannot submit
a lower bid than one of the other vendors. The cost of bidding on a job is an expensive process.
Bidder conferences are used so that no single bidder has more knowledge than others. If a potential
bidder has a question concerning the solicitation package, then it must wait for the bidders'
conference to ask the question so that all bidders will be privileged to the same information. This is
particularly important in government contracting. There may be several bidders' conferences
between solicitation and award. Project management may or may not be involved in the bidders'
conferences, either from the customer's side or the contractor's side.
Solicitation Cycle
Selection of the acquisition method is the critical element in the solicitation cycle. There are three
common methods for acquisition:
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Small purchases (i.e., office supplies)
Advertising is when a company goes out for sealed bids. There are no negotiations. Competitive
market forces determine the price and the award goes to the lowest bidder.
Negotiation is when the price is determined through a bargaining process. In such a situation, the
customer may go out for a:
 Request for information (RFI)
 Request for quotation (RFQ)
 Request for proposal (RFP)
The RFP is the most costly endeavor for the vendor. Large proposals contain separate volumes for
cost, technical performance, management history, quality, facilities, subcontractor management, and
others. The negotiation process can be competitive or noncompetitive. Noncompetitive processes
are called sole-source procurement.
On large contracts, the negotiation process goes well beyond negotiation of the bottom line.
Separate negotiations can be made on price, quantity, quality, and timing. Vendor relations are
critical during contract negotiations. The integrity of the relationship and previous history can
shorten the negotiation process. The three major factors of negotiations are:
 Compromise ability
 Good faith
Negotiations should be planned for. A typical list of activities would include:
 Develop objectives (i.e., min-max positions)
 Evaluate your opponent
 Define your strategy and tactics
 Gather the facts
 Perform a complete price/cost analysis
 Arrange ''hygiene" factors
If you are the buyer, what is the maximum you will be willing to pay? If you are the seller, what is
the minimum you are willing to accept? You must determine what motivates your opponent. Is your
opponent interested in profitability, keeping people employed, developing a new technology, or
using your name as a reference? This knowledge could certainly affect your strategy and tactics.
Hygiene factors include where the negotiations will take place. In a restaurant? Hotel? Office?
Square table or round tables? Morning or afternoon? Who faces the windows and who faces the
walls? There should be a postnegotiation critique in order to review what was learned. The first type
of postnegotiation critique is internal to your firm. The second type of postnegotiation critique is
with all of the losing bidders to explain why they did not win the contract. Losing bidders may
submit a "bid protest" where the customer may have to prepare a detailed report as to why this
bidder did not win the contract. Bid protests are most common on government contracts.
Award Cycle
The award cycle results in a signed contract. Unfortunately, there are several types of contracts. The
negotiation process also includes the selection of the type of contract.
There are certain basic elements of most contracts.
Mutual agreement: There must be an offer and acceptance.
Consideration: There must be a down payment.
Contract capability: The contract is binding only if the contractor has the capability to perform the
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The objective of the award cycle is to negotiate a contract type and price that will result in
reasonable contractor risk and provide the contractor with the greatest incentive for efficient and
economic performance.
Legal purpose: The contract must be for a legal purpose.
Form provided by law: The contract must reflect the contractor's legal obligation, or lack of
obligation, to deliver end products.
The two most common contract forms are completion contracts and term contracts.
Completion contract: The contractor is required to deliver a definitive end product. Upon delivery
and formal acceptance by the customer, the contract is considered complete, and final payment can
be made.
Term contract: The contract is required to deliver a specific "level of effort," not an end product.
The effort is expressed in woman/man-days (months or years) over a specific period of time using
specified personnel skill levels and facilities. When the contracted effort is performed, the
contractor is under no further obligation. Final payment is made, irrespective of what is actually
accomplished technically.
The final contract is usually referred to as a definitive contract, which follows normal contracting
procedures such as the negotiation of all contractual terms, conditions, cost, and schedule prior to
initiation of performance. Unfortunately, negotiating the contract and preparing it for signatures
may require months of preparation. If the customer needs the work to begin immediately or if long-
lead procurement is necessary, then the customer may provide the contractor with a letter contract
or letter of intent. The letter contract is a preliminary written instrument authorizing the contractor
to begin immediately the manufacture of supplies or the performance of services. The final contract
price may be negotiated after performance begins, but the contractor may not exceed the "not to
exceed" face value of the contract. The definitive contract must still be negotiated.
The type of contract selected is based upon the following:
Overall degree of cost and schedule risk
Type and complexity of requirement (technical risk)
Extent of price competition
Cost/price analysis
Urgency of the requirements
Performance period
Contractor's responsibility (and risk)
Contractor's accounting system (is it capable of earned value reporting?)
Concurrent contracts (will my contract take a back seat to existing work?)
Extent of subcontracting (how much work will the contractor outsource?)
45.3. Types of Contracts
Before analyzing the various types of contracts, one should be familiar with the terminology found
in them.
The target cost or estimated cost is the level of cost that the contractor will most likely obtain under
normal performance conditions. The target cost serves as a basis for measuring the true cost at the
end of production or development. The target cost may vary for different types of contracts even
though the contract objectives are the same. The target cost is the most important variable affecting
research and development.
Target or expected profit is the profit value that is negotiated for, and set forth, in the contract. The
expected profit is usually the largest portion of the total profit.
Profit ceiling and profit floor are the maximum and minimum values, respectively, of the total
profit. These quantities are often included in contract negotiations.
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Price ceiling or ceiling price is the amount of money for which the government is responsible. It is
usually measured as a given percentage of the target cost, and is generally greater than the target
Maximum and minimum fees are percentages of the target cost and establish the outside limits of
the contractor's profit.
The sharing arrangement or formula gives the cost responsibility of the customer to the cost
responsibility of the contractor for each dollar spent. Whether that dollar is an overrun or an under-
run dollar, the sharing arrangement has the same impact on the contractor. This sharing arrangement
may vary depending on whether the contractor is operating above or below target costs.
The production point is usually that level of production above which the sharing arrangement
Point of total assumption is the point (cost or price) where the contractor assumes all liability for
additional costs.
At one end of the range is the cost-plus, a fixed-fee type of contract where the company's profit,
rather than price, is fixed and the company's responsibility, except for its own negligence, is
minimal. At the other end of the range is the lump sum or turnkey type of contract under which the
company has assumed full responsibility, in the form of profit or losses, for timely performance and
for all costs under or over the fixed contract price. In between are various types of contracts, such as
the guaranteed maximum, incentive types of contracts, and the bonus-penalty type of contract.
These contracts provide for varying degrees of cost responsibility and profit depending on the level
of performance. Contracts that cover the furnishing of consulting services are generally on a per
diem basis at one end of the range and on a fixed-price basis at the other end of the range.
Because no single form of contract agreement fits every situation or project, companies normally
perform work in the United States under a wide variety of contractual arrangements, such as:
 Cost-plus percentage fee
 Cost-plus fixed fee
 Cost-plus guaranteed maximum
 Cost-plus guaranteed maximum and shared savings
 Cost-plus incentive (award fee)
 Cost and cost sharing
 Fixed price or lump sum
 Fixed price with re-determination
 Fixed price incentive fee
 Fixed price with economic price adjustment
 Fixed price incentive with successive targets
 Fixed price for services, material, and labor at cost (purchase orders, blanket agreements)
 Time and material/labor hours only
 Joint venture
At one end of the range is the cost-plus, a fixed-fee type of contract where the company's profit,
rather than price, is fixed and the company's responsibility, except for its own negligence, is
minimal. At the other end of the range is the lump sum or turnkey type of contract under which the
company has assumed full responsibility, in the form of profit or losses, for timely performance and
for all costs under or over the fixed contract price. In between are various types of contracts, such as
the guaranteed maximum, incentive types of contracts, and the bonus-penalty type of contract.
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These contracts provide for varying degrees of cost responsibility and profit depending on the level
of performance. Contracts that cover the furnishing of consulting services are generally on a per
diem basis at one end of the range and on a fixed-price basis at the other end of the range.
There are generally five types of contracts to consider:
 Fixed-Price (FP),
 Cost -Plus-Fixed-Fee (CPFF), Or Cost-Plus-Percentage-Fee (CPPF),
 Guaranteed Maximum-Shared Savings (GMSS),
 Fixed-Price-Incentive-Fee (FPIF), And
 Cost-Plus-Incentive-Fee (CPIF) Contracts.
Each type is discussed separately.
Fixed-Price (FP)
Under a fixed-price or lump-sum contract, the contractor must carefully estimate the target cost.
The contractor is required to perform the work at the negotiated contract value. If the estimated
target cost was low, the total profit is reduced and may even vanish. The contractor may not be able
to underbid the competitors if the expected cost is overestimated. Thus, the contractor assumes a
large risk.
This contract provides maximum protection to the owner for the ultimate cost of the project, but has
the disadvantage of requiring a long period for preparation and adjudications of bids. Also, there is
the possibility that because of a lack of knowledge of local conditions, all contractors may
necessarily include an excessive amount of contingency. This form of contract should never be
considered by the owner unless, at the time bid invitations are issued, the building requirements are
known exactly. Changes requested by the owner after award of a contract on a lump sum basis lead
to troublesome and sometimes costly extras.
Cost -Plus-Fixed-Fee (CPFF), Or Cost-Plus-Percentage-Fee (CPPF)
Traditionally, the cost-plus-fixed-fee contract has been employed when it was believed that accurate
pricing could not be achieved any other way. In the CPFF contract, the cost may vary but the fee
remains firm. Because, in a cost-plus contract, the contractor agrees only to use his best efforts to
perform the work, good performance and poor performance are, in effect, rewarded equally. The
total dollar profit tends to produce low rates of return, reflecting the small amount of risk that the
contractor assumes. The fixed fee is usually a small percentage of the total or true cost.
The cost-plus contract requires that the company books be audited. With this form of contract the
engineering-construction contractor bids a fixed dollar fee or profit for the services to be supplied
by the contractor, with engineering, materials, and field labor costs to be reimbursed at actual cost.
This form of bid can be prepared quickly at a minimal expense to contractor and is a simple bid for
the owner to evaluate. Additionally, it has the advantage of establishing incentive to the contractor
for quick completion of the job.
If it is a cost-plus-percentage -fee contract, it provides maximum flexibility to the owner and
permits owner and contractor to work together cooperatively on all technical, commercial, and
financial problems. However, it does not provide financial assurance of ultimate cost. Higher
building cost may result, although not necessarily so, because of lack of financial incentive to the
contractor compared with other forms. The only meaningful incentive that is evident today is the
increased competition and prospects for follow-on contracts.
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Guaranteed Maximum-Shared Savings (GMSS)
Under the guaranteed maximum-share savings contract, the contractor is paid a fixed fee for his
profit and reimbursed for the actual cost of engineering, materials, construction labor, and all other
job costs, but only up to the ceiling figure established as the "guaranteed maximum." Savings below
the guaranteed maximum are shared between owner and contractor, whereas contractor assumes the
responsibility for any overrun beyond the guaranteed maximum price.
This contract form essentially combines the advantages as well as a few of the disadvantages of
both lump sum and cost-plus contracts. This is the best form for a negotiated contract because it
establishes a maximum price at the earliest possible date and protects the owner against being
overcharged, even though the contract is awarded without competitive tenders. The guaranteed
maximum-share savings contract is unique in that the owner and contractor share the financial risk
and both have a real incentive to complete the project at lowest possible cost.
Fixed-Price-Incentive-Fee (FPIF)
Fixed-price-incentive-fee contracts are the same as fixed-price contracts except that they have a
provision for adjustment of the total profit by a formula that depends on the final total cost at
completion of the project and that has been agreed to in advance by both the owner and the
contractor. To use this type of contract, the project or contract requirements must be firmly
established. This contract provides an incentive to the contractor to reduce costs and therefore
increase profit. Both the owner and contractor share in the risk and savings.
Cost-Plus-Incentive-Fee (CPIF) Contracts
Cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts are the same as cost plus contracts except that they have a
provision for adjustment of the fee as determined by a formula that compares the total project costs
to the target cost. This formula is agreed to in advance by both the owner and contractor. This
contract is usually used for long-duration or R&D type projects. The company places more risk on
the contractor and forces him to plan ahead carefully and strive to keep costs down.
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45.4. ETHICS
Ethical Origins
Societal Ethics: Standards of Members of Society use when dealing with each other Based on
"Values & standards"
Societal Ethics: Found in Society's Legal Rules, Norm, & Mores. Codified in the "Form of Law" &
Society Customer.
Norms dictate how people should behave. Societal ethics vary based on a given Society. Strong
beliefs in one country differ elsewhere.
Professional Ethics: Professional Ethics are the Values & standards used by Group of Managers in
workplace. They are applied when decision not "Clear-Cut Ethically". Some examples are the
practices of Physicians/Lawyers Professional Associates (PMA, Bar Council)
Values: are an individual's basic convictions of what is "Right & Wrong". They are the basic beliefs
about what one should or should not do? & what is & is not important?
Individual Ethics: are the values of an individual resulting from their family & upbringing.
Ethics codes & policies provide sign of top management's desires in project based organizational
culture. Project manager should behave ethically to avoid harming others. Managers responsible for
"protecting & nurturing resources" in their charge. Leadership, Culture and Incentive Compensation
Plans help Shape "Individual Ethical behavior" in project management promoting ethics. There is
strong evidence showing that ethical managers benefit in the longer run. Firms increasingly seek to
make good ethics part of norm & organizational culture. Ethical decisions involve normative
judgment implies "something is good or bad, right or wrong, better or worse." Some examples are:
Should you pay compensation pay to lay off workers?
Should you buy goods from overseas firms that hire children? (If you don't Children may not earn
enough money to eat)
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Views of Ethical Decision-Making
Figure 45.1: Views of Ethical Decision Making
Code of Ethics:
Professional organizations such as the Project Management Institute are taking a serious look at
developing the requirements for a professional project manager. In a paper by Ireland, Pike, and
Schrock, this subject was described by an ethics obligation matrix and a code of ethics.
Figure 45.2: Ethics Obligation Matrix
Code of Ethics for Project Managers
Project Managers, in the pursuit of their profession, affect the quality of life for all people in our
society. Therefore, it is vital that Project Managers conduct their work in an ethical manner to earn
and maintain the confidence of team members, colleagues, employees, clients and the public.
Article I: Project Managers shall
 Maintain high standards of personal and professional conduct.
 Accept responsibility for their actions.
 Undertake projects and accept responsibility only if qualified by training or experience, or
after full disclosure to their employers or clients of pertinent qualifications.
 Maintain their professional skills at the state -of-the-art and recognize the importance of
continued personal development and education.
 Advance the integrity and prestige of the profession by practicing in a dignified manner.
 Support this code and encourage colleagues and co-workers to act in accordance with this
 Support the professional society by actively participating and encouraging colleagues and
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coworkers to participate.
Obey the laws of the country in which work is being performed.
Article II: Project Managers shall, in their work:
 Provide the necessary project leadership to promote maximum productivity while striving to
minimize costs.
 Apply state-of-the-art management tools and techniques to ensure schedules are met and the
project is appropriately planned and coordinated.
 Treat fairly all project team members, colleagues and co-workers, regardless of race,
religion, sex, age or national origin.
 Protect project team members from physical and mental harm.
 Provide suitable working conditions and opportunities for project team members.
 Seek, accept and offer honest criticism of work, and properly credit the contribution of
 Assist project team members, colleagues and co-workers in their professional development.
Article III: Project Managers shall, in their relations with employers and clients:
Act as faithful agents or trustees for their employers or clients in professional or business
Keep information on the business affairs or technical processes of an employer or client in
confidence while employed, and later, until such information is properly released.
Inform their employers, clients, professional societies or public agencies of which they are
members or to which they may make any presentations, of any circumstances that could
lead to a conflict of interest.
Neither give nor accept, directly or indirectly, any gift, payment or service of more than
nominal value to or from those having business relationships with their employers or
Be honest and realistic in reporting project cost, schedule and performance.
ARTICLE IV: Project Managers shall, in fulfilling their responsibilities to the community:
Protect the safety, health and welfare of the public and speak out against abuses in those
areas affecting the public interest.
Seek to extend public knowledge and appreciation of the project management profession
and its achievements.
How Firms Can Improve Their Social Responsiveness (Ethical Performance)
Establish and publish their own Code of Ethics
Ombudsmen - (committee, task force) to review the corporate past behavior
Protect whistle-blowing - when an employee discloses an illegal, immoral, or unethical
action committed by a member of the organization
Training programs - ethical sensitivity training
Controlling compliance - corporate social audit (or ethics audit)
Leadership - demonstrate commitment from leaders
Involve personnel at all levels
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT:Broad Contents, Functions of Management
  2. CONCEPTS, DEFINITIONS AND NATURE OF PROJECTS:Why Projects are initiated?, Project Participants
  5. PROJECT LIFE CYCLES:Conceptual Phase, Implementation Phase, Engineering Project
  6. THE PROJECT MANAGER:Team Building Skills, Conflict Resolution Skills, Organizing
  7. THE PROJECT MANAGER (CONTD.):Project Champions, Project Authority Breakdown
  9. PROJECT FEASIBILITY (CONTD.):Scope of Feasibility Analysis, Project Impacts
  10. PROJECT FEASIBILITY (CONTD.):Operations and Production, Sales and Marketing
  11. PROJECT SELECTION:Modeling, The Operating Necessity, The Competitive Necessity
  12. PROJECT SELECTION (CONTD.):Payback Period, Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
  13. PROJECT PROPOSAL:Preparation for Future Proposal, Proposal Effort
  14. PROJECT PROPOSAL (CONTD.):Background on the Opportunity, Costs, Resources Required
  15. PROJECT PLANNING:Planning of Execution, Operations, Installation and Use
  16. PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Outside Clients, Quality Control Planning
  17. PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Elements of a Project Plan, Potential Problems
  18. PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Sorting Out Project, Project Mission, Categories of Planning
  19. PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Identifying Strategic Project Variables, Competitive Resources
  20. PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Responsibilities of Key Players, Line manager will define
  21. PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):The Statement of Work (Sow)
  22. WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE:Characteristics of Work Package
  24. SCHEDULES AND CHARTS:Master Production Scheduling, Program Plan
  25. TOTAL PROJECT PLANNING:Management Control, Project Fast-Tracking
  26. PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT:Why is Scope Important?, Scope Management Plan
  27. PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT:Project Scope Definition, Scope Change Control
  28. NETWORK SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES:Historical Evolution of Networks, Dummy Activities
  29. NETWORK SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES:Slack Time Calculation, Network Re-planning
  34. QUALITY IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT:Value-Based Perspective, Customer-Driven Quality
  35. QUALITY IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT (CONTD.):Total Quality Management
  38. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT TOOLS:Data Tables, Identify the problem, Random method
  39. PROJECT EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH ENHANCED PRODUCTIVITY:Messages of Productivity, Productivity Improvement
  40. COST MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL IN PROJECTS:Project benefits, Understanding Control
  42. PROJECT MANAGEMENT THROUGH LEADERSHIP:The Tasks of Leadership, The Job of a Leader
  44. PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT:Components of Risk, Categories of Risk, Risk Planning