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Software Project Management

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Software Project Management (CS615)
LECTURE # 5
1. Introduction & Fundamentals
1.16
PM's nine Knowledge Areas
1. Project Integration Management
Project Integration Management includes the processes required to ensure that the
various elements of the project are properly coordinated. It involves making
tradeoffs among competing objectives and alternatives to meet or exceed stake-
holder needs.
These processes interact with each other and with the processes in the other
knowledge areas as well. Each process may involve effort from one or more
individuals or groups of individuals, based on the needs of the project. Each
process generally occurs at least once in every project phase.
Project integration management comes into play when a cost estimate is needed
for a contingency plan, or when risks associated with various staffing alternatives
must be identified. However, for a project to be completed successfully,
integration must also occur in a number of other areas as well. For example:
The work of the project must be integrated with the ongoing operations of the
performing organization.
Product scope and project scope must be integrated.
One of the techniques used to both integrate the various processes and to measure
the performance of the project as it moves from initiation through to completion is
Earned Value Management (EVM).
Earned value is the amount of work completed, measured according to the
budgeted effort that the work was supposed to consume.
It is also called the budgeted cost of work performed.
As each task is completed, the number of person-months originally planned
for that task is added to the earned value of the project.
­ Earned value charts: An earned value chart has three curves:
The budgeted cost of the work scheduled.
The earned value.
The actual cost of the work performed so far.
2. Project Scope Management
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Software Project Management (CS615)
Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the
project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the
project successfully. It is primarily concerned with defining and controlling what
is or is not included in the project.
The processes, tools, and techniques used to manage product scope vary by
application area and are usually defined as part of the project life cycle
A project generally results in a single product, but that product may include
subsidiary components, each with its own separate but interdependent product
scopes. For example, a new telephone system would generally include four
subsidiary components--hardware, software, training, and implementation.
Completion of the project scope is measured against the project plan, but
completion of the product scope is measured against the product requirements.
Both types of scope management must be well integrated to ensure that the work
of the project will result in delivery of the specified product.
3. Project Time Management
Project Time Management includes the processes required to ensure timely
completion of the project. The followings are major processes in developing the
project time schedule:
(a) Activity Definition--identifying the specific activities that must be
performed to produce the various project deliverables.
(b) Activity Sequencing--identifying and documenting interactivity
dependencies.
(c) Activity Duration Estimating--estimating the number of work periods that
will be needed to complete individual activities.
(d) Schedule Development--analyzing activity sequences, activity durations,
and resource requirements to create the project schedule.
(e) Schedule Control--controlling changes to the project schedule.
These processes interact with each other and with the processes in the other
knowledge areas as well. Each process may involve effort from one or more
individuals or groups of individuals, based on the needs of the project. Each
process generally occurs at least once in every project phase.
4. Project Cost Management
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Software Project Management (CS615)
Project Cost Management includes the processes required to ensure that the
project is completed within the approved budget.
Resource Planning--determining what resources (people, equipment, materials)
and what quantities of each should be used to perform project activities.
Cost Estimating--developing an approximation (estimate) of the costs of the
resources needed to complete project activities.
Cost Budgeting--allocating the overall cost estimate to individual work
activities.
Cost Control--controlling changes to the project budget.
These processes interact with each other and with the processes in the other
knowledge areas as well. Each process may involve effort from one or more
individuals or groups of individuals, based on the needs of the project. Each
process generally occurs at least once in every project phase.
5. Project Quality Management
Project Quality Management includes the processes required to ensure that the
project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. It includes "all
activities of the overall management function that determine the quality policy,
objectives, and responsibilities and implements them by means such as quality
planning, quality assurance, quality control, and quality improvement, within the
quality system.
These processes interact with each other and with the processes in the other
knowledge areas as well. Each process may involve effort from one or more
individuals or groups of individuals, based on the needs of the project. Each
process generally occurs at least once in every project phase.
Project quality management must address both the management of the project and
the product of the project. The generic term product is occasionally used, in
literature regarding quality, to refer to both goods and services.
6. Project Human Resource Management
Project Human Resource Management includes the processes required to make
the most effective use of the people involved with the project. It includes all the
project stakeholders--sponsors, customers, partners, and individual contributors
Following are some major processes:
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Software Project Management (CS615)
Organizational Planning--identifying, documenting, and assigning project
roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships.
Staff Acquisition--getting the human resources needed assigned to and
working on the project.
Team Development--developing individual and group competencies to
enhance project performance.
These processes interact with each other and with the processes in the other
knowledge areas as well. Each process may involve effort from one or more
individuals or groups of individuals, based on the needs of the project.
There is a substantial body of literature about dealing with people in an
operational, ongoing context. Some of the many topics include:
Leading, communicating, negotiating, etc.
Key General Management Skills:
Delegating, motivating, coaching, mentoring, and other subjects related to
dealing with individuals.
Team building, dealing with conflict, and other subjects related to dealing
with groups.
Performance appraisal, recruitment, retention, labor relations, health and
safety regulations, and other subjects related to administering the human
resource function.
Most of this material is directly applicable to leading and managing people on
projects, and the project manager and project management team should be
familiar with it. However, they must also be sensitive as to how this knowledge is
applied on the project. For example:
Project Human Resource Management includes the processes required to make
the most effective use of the people involved with the project. It includes all the
project stakeholders--sponsors, customers, partners, and individual contributors.
Major processes include:
Organizational Planning--identifying, documenting, and assigning project
roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships.
Staff Acquisition--getting the human resources needed assigned to and
working on the project.
Team Development--developing individual and group competencies to
enhance project performance.
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Software Project Management (CS615)
These processes interact with each other and with the processes in the other
knowledge areas as well. Each process may involve effort from one or more
individuals or groups of individuals, based on the needs of the project.
7. Project Communications Management
Project Communications Management includes the processes required to ensure
timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, storage, and ultimate
disposition of project information. It provides the critical links among people,
ideas, and information that are necessary for success. Everyone involved in the
project must be prepared to send and receive communications, and must
understand how the communications in which they are involved as individuals
affect the project as a whole.
Major processes include:
Communications
Planning--determining
the
information
and
communications needs of the stakeholders: who needs what information,
when they will need it, and how it will be given to them.
Information Distribution--making needed information available to project
stakeholders in a timely manner.
Performance  Reporting--collecting  and  disseminating  performance
information. This includes status reporting, progress measurement, and
forecasting.
Administrative  Closure--generating,  gathering,  and  disseminating
information to formalize a phase or project completion.
These processes interact with each other and with the processes in the other
knowledge areas as well. Each process may involve effort from one or more
individuals or groups of individuals, based on the needs of the project. Each
process generally occurs at least once in every project phase.
Communicating is a broader subject and involves a substantial body of knowledge
that is not unique to the project context. For example:
Sender-receiver models--feedback loops, barriers to communications, etc.
Choice of media--when to communicate in writing versus when to
communicate orally, when to write an informal memo versus when to write a
formal report, etc.
Writing style--active versus passive voice, sentence structure, word choice,
etc.
Presentation techniques--body language, design of visual aids, etc.
Meeting management techniques--preparing an agenda, dealing with
conflict, etc.
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Software Project Management (CS615)
8. Project Risk management
Project Risk management is the systematic process of identifying, analyzing, and
responding to project risk. It includes maximizing the probability and
consequences of positive events and minimizing the probability and consequences
of adverse events to project objectives.
Risk Management Planning--deciding how to approach and plan the risk
management activities for a project.
Risk Identification--determining which risks might affect the project and
documenting their characteristics.
Qualitative Risk Analysis--performing a qualitative analysis of risks and
conditions to prioritize their effects on project objectives.
Quantitative Risk Analysis--measuring the probability and consequences of
risks and estimating their implications for project objectives.
Risk Response Planning--developing procedures and techniques to enhance
opportunities and reduce threats to the project's objectives.
Risk Monitoring and Control--monitoring residual risks, identifying new
risks, executing risk reduction plans, and evaluating their effectiveness
throughout the project life cycle.
These processes interact with each other and with the processes in the other
knowledge areas. Each process generally occurs at least once in every project.
9. Project Procurement Management
Project Procurement Management includes the processes required to acquire
goods and services, to attain project scope, from outside the performing
organization. For simplicity, goods and services, whether one or many, will
generally be referred to as a product.
An overview of the major processes includes:
Procurement Planning--determining what to procure and when.
Solicitation Planning--documenting product requirements and identifying
potential sources.
Solicitation--obtaining quotations, bids, offers, or proposals, as appropriate.
Source Selection--choosing from among potential sellers.
Contract Administration--managing the relationship with the seller.
Contract Closeout--completion and settlement of the contract, including
resolution of any open items.
These processes interact with each other and with the processes in the other
knowledge areas as well. Each process may involve effort from one or more
individuals or groups of individuals, based on the needs of the project
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Software Project Management (CS615)
Project Procurement Management is discussed from the perspective of the buyer
in the buyer-seller relationship. The buyer-seller relationship can exist at many
levels on one project. Depending on the application area, the seller may be called
a subcontractor, a vendor, or a supplier.
The seller will typically manage its work as a project. In such cases:
The buyer becomes the customer, and is thus a key stakeholder for the seller.
The seller's project management team must be concerned with all the
processes of project management, not just with those of this knowledge area.
The terms and conditions of the contract become a key input to many of the
seller's processes. The contract may actually contain the input (e.g., major
deliverables, key milestones, cost objectives), or it may limit the project
team's options (e.g., buyer approval of staffing decisions is often required on
design projects).
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Table of Contents:
  1. Introduction & Fundamentals
  2. Goals of Project management
  3. Project Dimensions, Software Development Lifecycle
  4. Cost Management, Project vs. Program Management, Project Success
  5. Project Managementís nine Knowledge Areas
  6. Team leader, Project Organization, Organizational structure
  7. Project Execution Fundamentals Tracking
  8. Organizational Issues and Project Management
  9. Managing Processes: Project Plan, Managing Quality, Project Execution, Project Initiation
  10. Project Execution: Product Implementation, Project Closedown
  11. Problems in Software Projects, Process- related Problems
  12. Product-related Problems, Technology-related problems
  13. Requirements Management, Requirements analysis
  14. Requirements Elicitation for Software
  15. The Software Requirements Specification
  16. Attributes of Software Design, Key Features of Design
  17. Software Configuration Management Vs Software Maintenance
  18. Quality Assurance Management, Quality Factors
  19. Software Quality Assurance Activities
  20. Software Process, PM Process Groups, Links, PM Phase interactions
  21. Initiating Process: Inputs, Outputs, Tools and Techniques
  22. Planning Process Tasks, Executing Process Tasks, Controlling Process Tasks
  23. Project Planning Objectives, Primary Planning Steps
  24. Tools and Techniques for SDP, Outputs from SDP, SDP Execution
  25. PLANNING: Elements of SDP
  26. Life cycle Models: Spiral Model, Statement of Requirement, Data Item Descriptions
  27. Organizational Systems
  28. ORGANIZATIONAL PLANNING, Organizational Management Tools
  29. Estimation - Concepts
  30. Decomposition Techniques, Estimation Ė Tools
  31. Estimation Ė Tools
  32. Work Breakdown Structure
  33. WBS- A Mandatory Management Tool
  34. Characteristics of a High-Quality WBS
  35. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  36. WBS- Major Steps, WBS Implementation, high level WBS tasks
  37. Schedule: Scheduling Fundamentals
  38. Scheduling Tools: GANTT CHARTS, PERT, CPM
  39. Risk and Change Management: Risk Management Concepts
  40. Risk & Change Management Concepts
  41. Risk Management Process
  42. Quality Concept, Producing quality software, Quality Control
  43. Managing Tasks in Microsoft Project 2000
  44. Commissioning & Migration