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Introduction to Psychology

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Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
VU
Lesson 40
POPULAR AREAS OF PSYCHOLOGY
·
Psychology today is the most popular social science.
·
American Psychological Association has 55 divisions.
Most popular areas of psychology today:
·
Clinical psychology.
·
Health psychology.
·
Organizational psychology.
Major Sub fields of Psychology:
·
Behavioral Neuroscience
·
Clinical psychology
·
Clinical Neuropsychology
·
Cognitive Psychology
·
Counseling Psychology
·
Cross-cultural Psychology
·
Developmental Psychology
·
Educational Psychology
·
Environmental Psychology
·
Evolutionary Psychology
·
Experimental psychology
·
Forensic Psychology
·
Health Psychology
·
Industrial/Organizational Psychology
·
Personality psychology
·
Program Evaluation
·
Psychology of women
·
School Psychology
·
Social Psychology
·
Sport psychology
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
The branch of psychology concerned with how people's thoughts, feelings and actions are affected by
others.
·
How will we have if we do not have any people around us?
·
What would we be like if we had never ever come across another human being
Attitudes, Behavior and Persuasion
Attitudes
Learned predispositions to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner to a particular object.
Attitudes can also be defined as our learned evaluations that we hold about other people,
objects, events, behaviors, and beliefs.
ABC MODEL
The model suggesting that an attitude has three components: affect, behavior and cognition.
Affect component: That part of an attitude encompassing how one feels about the object of one's
attitude.
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Behavior component: A predisposition to act in a way that is relevant to one's attitude.
Cognition component: The beliefs and thoughts held about the object of one's attitude.
COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES
Affect
Behavior
Attitude
Cognition
Forming and Maintaining Attitudes Classical Conditioning and Attitudes
Advertisers make use of the principals of classical conditioning of attitudes by attempting to link a product
they want consumers to buy with a positive feeling or event.
Operant Conditioning Approaches to Attitude Acquisitions
Attitudes that are reinforced, either verbally or nonverbally, tend to be maintained.
Vicarious Learning of Attitudes: Learning by observing others.
For example, even if they have never met a blind person, children whose parents say that "blind people are
incompetent' may adopt such attitudes themselves. We also learn attitudes vicariously through television,
films and other media. (e.g. violence).
Agents of Attitude Formation
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Family
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School
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Peer group
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Neighborhood
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Social Environment
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Mass Media
Persuasion
Persuasion is the process through which people's attitudes are changed.
Factors affecting attitude change
·  Message source
·  Characteristics of the message
·  Characteristics of the target audienceMessage Source
The characteristics of the attitude communicator or the deliverer of the message are important.
Characteristics that make a different:
Ø Physical attractiveness
Ø Social attractiveness
Ø Expertise
Ø Trustworthiness
Ø Audiences belief that the communicator does not have any ulterior motive.
Characteristics of the Message
Two-sided messages are more effective than one-sided messages.
Two-sided messages are the ones in which both sides of the argument are discussed.
Fear-producing messages are effective when it is accompanied by a solution to the problem as well.
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If the message is too fear provoking, and without a solution too, then it may be ignored.
Characteristics of the Target
Less intelligent people are less resistant and the more intelligent are more resistant to persuasion.
Persuasion is relatively easier with women when in public settings, and when they have less knowledge
about the issue under question.
There are no gender differences in case of a change in private attitudes.
Types of Information Processing used by the Target for Interpreting the Message
a.  Central Route Processing
b. Peripheral Route Processing
Central Route Processing
Interpretation of messages involving thoughtful consideration of the issues and arguments used to
persuade.
Peripheral Route Processing
Interpretation of messages involving consideration of the message source, and related general
information, instead of considering the message itself.
Cognitive Dissonance
·Cognitive dissonance is a conflict experienced by a person.
·This conflict arises when an individual holds two contradictory cognitions i.e., attitudes or thoughts.
Reducing Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive
Dissonance
Denying that
Modifying one
cognitions are
or both
related
cognitions
Changing
Adding
perceived
additional
importance
cognitions
of
1. I am fat.
2. I eat
sweets
1. I'm not too
Denying
fat.
that
2 I don't eat
cognitions
I work a lot and
Sugar is not
consume the
the
sugar
cause of
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Social Cognition
The processes that underlie our understanding of the social world.
· We use social cognitions to understand and make sense of others and of ourselves.
Schemas
·Research shows that we have highly developed schemas.
Schemas are sets of cognitions about people and social experiences.
Impression formation
The process by which an individual organizes information about another individual to form an overall
impression of that person.
Central traits
The major traits considered in forming impressions of others.
Theories of social cognition describe how people form an overall impression other's personality traits.
Attribution Processes
·
The processes of attributing causes to other people's behavior
Attribution Theory
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The theory of personality that explains how we decide, about the specific causes of an
individual's behavior on the basis of samples of that person's behavior.
The Nature of Perceived Causes of Behavior
Situational causes
A perceived cause of behavior that is based on environmental factors.
Dispositional causes
A perceived cause of behavior that is based on internal traits or personality factors.
Biases in Attribution
1. The fundamental attribution error
People have a tendency to attribute the behavior of other people to dispositional causes; they give
less importance to the situational causes.
2. The halo effect
·
If our initial perception of a person is positive then we tend to expect that the person has other
uniformly positive characteristics too.
3. Assumed similarity bias
·
We have a tendency to think that others are similar to us. This may happen even when we see
someone for the first time.
Social Influence
The process through which our behavior is affected by the actions of another individual or a group.
·
Social influence can be seen in terms of:
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Conformity,
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Obedience,
Conformity
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Conformity is going along with people.
·
People are said to be conforming when their behavior or attitudes change as a result of a desire to follow the beliefs or
standards of other people.
·
The following variables may determine whether or not one will conform:
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The characteristics of the group
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The situation in which the individual is responding
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The kind of task
·
Unanimity of the group
Obedience
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It is a form of conforming behavior that results from the commands of others.
Compliance
·  A form of conforming behavior that results from direct social pressure.
·  Different tactics are used by lay people, organizations, and salespersons to make others
comply:
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The foot-in-the-door technique,
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The-door-in-the-face technique,
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The that's-not; all technique,
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The not-so-free sample.
Prejudice and Discrimination
Prejudice
Prejudice refers to the negative or positive expectations about social groups and their members.
Discrimination
Negative behavior toward members of a particular group.
Prejudice and discrimination may result from stereotypes:
Stereotype
A kind of schema in which beliefs and expectations about members of a group are held simply on
the basis of their membership in that group.
Stereotypes can be positive as well as negative
Ingroup -Outgroup Bias
The tendency to hold less favorable opinions about groups to which we do not belong, while holding
more favorable opinions about to which we do belong.
Out groups
Groups to which people feel and believe they do not belong.
In-groups
Groups to which people feel and believe they do belong.
Self-fulfilling prophecy
An expectation about the occurrence of an event or behavior that increases the likelihood that the event or
behavior will happen.
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Table of Contents:
  1. WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?:Theoretical perspectives of psychology
  2. HISTORICAL ROOTS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY:HIPPOCRATES, PLATO
  3. SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT:Biological Approach, Psychodynamic Approach
  4. PERSPECTIVE/MODEL/APPROACH:Narcosis, Chemotherapy
  5. THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH/ MODEL:Psychic Determinism, Preconscious
  6. BEHAVIORAL APPROACH:Behaviorist Analysis, Basic Terminology, Basic Terminology
  7. THE HUMANISTIC APPROACH AND THE COGNITIVE APPROACH:Rogers’ Approach
  8. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY (I):Scientific Nature of Psychology
  9. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY (II):Experimental Research
  10. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND NATURE NURTURE ISSUE:Nature versus Nurture
  11. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT:Socio- Cultural Factor, The Individual and the Group
  12. NERVOUS SYSTEM (1):Biological Bases of Behavior, Terminal Buttons
  13. NERVOUS SYSTEM (2):Membranes of the Brain, Association Areas, Spinal Cord
  14. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM:Pineal Gland, Pituitary Gland, Dwarfism
  15. SENSATION:The Human Eye, Cornea, Sclera, Pupil, Iris, Lens
  16. HEARING (AUDITION) AND BALANCE:The Outer Ear, Auditory Canal
  17. PERCEPTION I:Max Wertheimer, Figure and Ground, Law of Closure
  18. PERCEPTION II:Depth Perception, Relative Height, Linear Perspective
  19. ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS:Electroencephalogram, Hypnosis
  20. LEARNING:Motor Learning, Problem Solving, Basic Terminology, Conditioning
  21. OPERANT CONDITIONING:Negative Rein forcer, Punishment, No reinforcement
  22. COGNITIVE APPROACH:Approach to Learning, Observational Learning
  23. MEMORY I:Functions of Memory, Encoding and Recoding, Retrieval
  24. MEMORY II:Long-Term Memory, Declarative Memory, Procedural Memory
  25. MEMORY III:Memory Disorders/Dysfunctions, Amnesia, Dementia
  26. SECONDARY/ LEARNT/ PSYCHOLOGICAL MOTIVES:Curiosity, Need for affiliation
  27. EMOTIONS I:Defining Emotions, Behavioral component, Cognitive component
  28. EMOTIONS II:Respiratory Changes, Pupillometrics, Glandular Responses
  29. COGNITION AND THINKING:Cognitive Psychology, Mental Images, Concepts
  30. THINKING, REASONING, PROBLEM- SOLVING AND CREATIVITY:Mental shortcuts
  31. PERSONALITY I:Definition of Personality, Theories of Personality
  32. PERSONALITY II:Surface traits, Source Traits, For learning theorists, Albert Bandura
  33. PERSONALITY III:Assessment of Personality, Interview, Behavioral Assessment
  34. INTELLIGENCE:The History of Measurement of Intelligence, Later Revisions
  35. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY:Plato, Aristotle, Asclepiades, In The Middle Ages
  36. ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR I:Medical Perspective, Psychodynamic Perspective
  37. ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR II:Hypochondriasis, Conversion Disorders, Causes include
  38. PSYCHOTHERAPY I:Psychotherapeutic Orientations, Clinical Psychologists
  39. PSYCHOTHERAPY II:Behavior Modification, Shaping, Humanistic Therapies
  40. POPULAR AREAS OF PSYCHOLOGY:ABC MODEL, Factors affecting attitude change
  41. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY:Understanding Health, Observational Learning
  42. INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY:‘Hard’ Criteria and ‘Soft’ Criteria
  43. CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Focus of Interest, Consumer Psychologist
  44. SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Some Research Findings, Arousal level
  45. FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY:Origin and History of Forensic Psychology