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Fundamentals of Public Relations

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Fundamentals of Public Relations ­MCM 401
VU
Lesson 5
PLANNING PUBLIC RELATIONS PROGRAMMES
Overview
This lecture will explain about the methods and essentials of planning public relations program. It is
important to consider and determine as to how these can be planned for tangible results. Although once
again we will be talking on broad scale yet this can be adapted to suit particular or more modest
requirements.
4 Reasons for Planning PR Programmes.
1. Set targets for PR Operation -- (Against which results can be assessed.)
2. Estimate the working hours and other costs involved for such PR Plan.
3. Select priorities which will control the number and timing of different operations in the program.
4. Decide feasibility of carrying out declared objectives according to availability of:
·  Sufficient staff of proper caliber.
·  Specific equipment like computers, cameras, vehicles etc.
·  Adequate Budget.
6 Point PR Planning Model
In order to plan a successful and result oriented PR plan following model should be adopted;
·  Appreciation of the situation.
·  Definition of objectives.
·  Definition of publics.
·  Selection of media & techniques.
·  Planning of a budget.
·  Assessment of results.
Let us now study the above enumerated parameters of successful PR plan model individually.
Appreciation Of The Situation
HOSTILITY
SYMPATHY
PREJUDICE
ACCEPTANCE
APATHY
INTEREST
IGNORANCE
KNOWLEDGE
NEGATIVE SITUATION
POSITIVE SITUATION
Methods Of Appreciating A Situation
In order to prepare an effective strategy to counter a situation it is important that the gravity of situation
should first be assessed and appreciated. Following are the universally tried and accepted methods of
appreciating a situation.
·  Opinion, attitude or image surveys.
·  Press clippings, monitored broadcasting scripts.
·  Sales figures trends & sales report indications,
·  State of competition within & from imports.
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Fundamentals of Public Relations ­MCM 401
VU
·  Share price if Public Company, dividends, balance sheet etc.
·  Industrial relation situation.
·  Customer complaints, test reports & product performance.
·  Discussion with sales force & distributors.
·  Prices & effect of price changes.
·  Market forces, economic, social & political.
Definition Of Objectives.
1.
Change the image because company has changed its activities.
2.
Improve the caliber of job applicants.
3.
Tell people about little known story of the company & gain credit for achievement.
4.
Make company known & understood in new local & international markets.
5.
Prepare stock market for a new share launch.
6.
Improve community relations following public criticism based on misunderstanding of company's
intention.
7.
Educate installers, users or consumers about the product.
8.
Regain public confidence after a disaster which had portrayed company as inefficient in any way,
the cause having been rectified.
9.
Establish a new corporate identity.
10.
Support a sponsorship scheme.
11.
Make politicians better informed about company's activities, perhaps because of some impending
legislation which could affect the company unfavorably.
12.
Propagate company's research activities.
When we determine the objectives it is essential that we should first of all identify the public we want to
target from various publics, as already enumerated in the previous lectures also. Broadly speaking there are
two major publics classified as internal and external while following are the expanded publics in the
modern day.
Expanded Publics.
·  The Community.
·  Potential Employees.
·  Employees.
·  Suppliers of services & materials.
·  Investors --- the money market.
·  Distributors.
·  Consumers & users.
·  Opinion leaders.
Selection of Media & Techniques.
Once the objectives have been worked out and the publics selected, it will be necessary to select the media
and technique to be adopted for the achievement of the desired objectives. It is important as in relation to
the objectives, determined publics identified, only the selection of proper public will yield positive results.
Following is the classification of different media as in use in the present days.
Electronic Media
Print Media
1.
Press.
1.
Radio
2.
Printed Material.
2.
Television.
3.
Direct Mail.
4.
House Journals
Misc. Media
1. Exhibitions.
2. Air balloons & ships.
3. Electronic Bill Boards.
While determining the media and required techniques it is essential and important that before launching a
public relations plan a budget should also be worked out. In this context following is the five point strategy.
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Fundamentals of Public Relations ­MCM 401
VU
5 Points For Planning PR Budget
1.
To determine, what will it cost to carry out a PR Plan.
2.
What sort of plan can be carried out for a given sum of money?
3.
After agreeing to a cost & Plan, budget provides a check list to tasks, to be done as per a time table.
4.
Budget sets a discipline for both expenditure & over - expenditure.
5.
After completion of campaign, results can be measured against the budget.
Assessment Of Results
Once all essentials like objectives, proper identification of publics and selection of media and techniques are
in place and the cost involved for such plan has been worked out on the above explained strategy, it is
imperative that an assessment should be made with regard to the public relations plan about the results or
achievement of the objectives on following lines even if these may be qualitative and not quantitative.
·  Evaluate results.
·  Adopt proper evaluating methods.
·  Compare results against Objectives.
Sometimes the results may not be measurable statistically, but by experience and self evident qualities such
as the evidence that now job applicants are better educated and more proficient or in some other way more
suitable than before. These are basically the qualitative results. However, the quantitative results may show
increased sales, awareness and reduced number of complaints, increased job applicants, oversubscription of
shares or even increased number of mentions of the company name in the media.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION & BRIEF HISTORY:Definitions Of Public Relations
  2. HOW DOES PR WORK?:OVERVIEW, Formulation of policy
  3. PUBLIC RELATIONS DISTINGUISHED:Size of a PR Department.
  4. PUBLICS OF PR:Expanded Publics, Few Examples Of Publics
  5. PLANNING PUBLIC RELATIONS PROGRAMMES:Print Media, Electronic Media
  6. MEDIAS OF PR:Media for External Publics, Principles of Good Press Relations
  7. PRESS RELATIONS IN PR:What is News, Secrets Of Good News Release.
  8. CREATED PRIVATE MEDIA:Private Media, New Forms of House Journals
  9. SPECIAL USES OF PUBLIC RELATIONS:Crisis Management, Skills Of PR
  10. BUDGETING IN PR:Labour, Office Overheads, PR & Photographs
  11. PUBLIC RELATIONS PROBLEMS:Defining PR problems, C’s of PR explained
  12. METHODS OF COMMUNICATION:Psychology of Public Relations
  13. PR IN VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONS:Techniques of Trade Association PR
  14. PR IN LABOUR UNIONS & RELIGIOUS GROUPS:Community Public Relations
  15. PR IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS & IN MEDIA CHANNALS
  16. USING ADVERTISING FOR P R COMMUNICATION:Role Of PR
  17. ROLE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN MARKETING:How To Educate The Market
  18. PUBLIC RELATIONS AND CORPORATE STRUCTURE:Corporate Identity Essentials
  19. E-PR & ITS TOOLS:Immediate Points To Consider, Using Email As PR Tool
  20. SPONSORSHIP—AN IMPORTANT PR TOOL:PR & Communication Audit
  21. HOUSE JOURNALS:Possible Publics Of House Journals, Exhibitions & PR
  22. CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN PR:Plan Of Action Adopted, Interview at your place
  23. ADVERTISING IN PR:Broad Objectives Of Advertising, Direct Advertising.
  24. INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC RELATIONS:Media Used, Within Store Contacts
  25. PUBLIC RELATIONS CONSULTANCY:Disadvantages, Mass Communication
  26. PUBLIC RELATION’S ROLE IN MARKET EDUCATION:Kinds Of Markets
  27. MODERN DAY VALUES OF PR:Ethics Of Public Relations
  28. CHOICE OF MEDIA FOR PR COMPAIGN:Communication Channels & Media
  29. PR TECHNIQUES:Tactics & Techniques
  30. DESIGNING PR COMPAIGNS:Definitive Mission statement, Reputation.
  31. PUBLIC OPINION:Identifying Priority Publics, If Goal Is Attitude Change
  32. PUBLIC RELATIONS AND RESEARCH:Planning Phase Of Research
  33. PR AND RESEARCH:Unobtrusive Measures, Questionnaires For Survey
  34. PROBLEMS SOLVING STRATEGIES:Communicate results
  35. PERSUASION & COMMUNICATION THEORIES:Message Orientation
  36. COMMUNICATION CONCEPTS & THEORIES:Research and Persuasion
  37. PUBLIC RELATIONS & LAW:How To Stay Out Of Trouble
  38. PUBLIC RELATIONS & CASE STUDIES:Case Analysis, Images Of Public Relations
  39. PR AND PRINTING PROCESSES:Fundamentals Of Printing
  40. PUBLIC SPEAKING -- A PR TOOL:Key Benefits, How To Prepare
  41. PR -- COPING WITH UNEXPECTED:Some Possible PR Ideas
  42. DREAMS & REALITIES OF PR:Who Takes Charge Of Identity?
  43. CHANGING INTO OVERDRIVE:How International Is PR?
  44. GETTING ON WITH PR:Where does PR fit in the structure?
  45. FUNDAMENTALS OF A SUCCESSFUL NEWSLETTER:RESEARCH, WRITING