ZeePedia buy college essays online


Principles of Management

<<< Previous PLANNING PROCESS AND GOAL LEVELS:Types of Plans Next >>>
 
img
Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
Lesson 8.23
PLANNING PROCESS AND GOAL LEVELS
The overall planning process
A.
Planning is a two-part function--setting goals and determining how to try to achieve the
goals.
1.
A goal (often used interchangeably with "objective") is a future target or end
result that an organization wishes to achieve.
2.
A plan is the means devised for attempting to reach a goal.
B.
An organization's mission is the organization's purpose or fundamental reason for
existence.
1.
A mission statement is a broad declaration of the basic, unique purpose and
scope of operations that distinguishes the organization from others of this type.
2.
A mission statement serves a variety of purposes.
a.
For managers, a mission statement can be a benchmark against which to
evaluate success.
b.
For employees, mission statements define a common purpose, nurture
organizational loyalty, and help foster a sense of community among
members.
c.
For external groups, mission statements help provide unique insights into
an organization's values and future directions.
3.
The mission statement typically defines the organization in terms of the important
attributes of the organization. Answers to many of these questions are answered
using information and processes described in the two previous chapters in the
text.
a.
Customers: Who are the organization's customers?
b.
Products or services: What are the organization's major products or
services?
c.
Location: Where does the organization compete?
d.
Technology: What is the firms' basic technology?
e.
Philosophy: What are the basic beliefs, values, aspirations, and
philosophical priorities of the organization?
f.
Self-concept: What are the organization's major strengths and competitive
advantages?
g.
Concern for public image: what are the organization's public
responsibilities and what image is desired?
h.
Concern for employees: What is the organization's attitude toward its
employees?
Types of Plans
Plans can be described by their breadth, time frame, specificity, and frequency of use.
a.
Breadth: strategic versus operational plans. Strategic plans are those that are organization wide,
establish overall objectives, and position an organization in terms of its environment. Operational
plans are plans that specify details on how overall objectives are to be achieved.
b.
Time frame: short-term versus long-term plans. Short-term plans are plans that cover one year or
less. Long-term plans are those that extend beyond three years.
Specificity: specific versus directional plans. Specific plans are those that are clearly defined and
c.
leave no room for interpretation. Directional plans are flexible plans that set out general
guidelines.
The Nature of organizational Goals
A.
The use of goals has several benefits.
1.
Performance can be improved.
62
img
Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
2.
Expectations can be improved.
3.
The Controlling function can be facilitated so that progress can be assessed and
corrective action taken.
4.
Meeting goals can increase motivation.
B.
The three levels of goals within an organization form a hierarchy of goals, with lower-level
goals forming a mean-end chain with the next level of goals.
4.
Strategic goals are broadly defined targets or future end results set by top
management.
5.
Tactical goals are the targets or future end results usually set by middle
management for specific departments or units.
6.
Operational goals are those targets or future end results set by lower
management that address specific, measurable outcomes required from the lower
levels.
How Goals Facilitate Performance
The content of goals should meet five criteria.
1.
Challenging goals usually lead to higher performance from individuals and
groups.
2.
Attainable goals, not impossible demands, are more likely to improve
performance.
3.
Specific and measurable goals are needed so that it is clear when they have been
achieved.
4.
Time-limited goals give them meaning.
5.
Relevant goals enable employees to see the purpose of the goals and to devise
ways of meeting them.
6.
Measurable means the performance and targets can be measured after an interval
of time.
Goal commitment is one's attachment to, or determination to reach, a goal. Without commitment goals
have little impact on performance. Managers can help foster commitments in a number of ways.
1.
Supervisory authority should serve to motivate employees to meet their goals.
2.
Peer and group pressure may serve as motivation.
3.
Expectations of success can be improved by managerial coaching and
instruction.
4.
Incentives are offered during the goal-setting process; rewards occur upon goal
achievement.
5.
Participation in the goal setting process may be effective in engendering goals commitment.
Work behavior may be affected by four factors influenced by goals content and goal commitment.
1.
Goals provide Direction by channeling attention and action toward activities
related to those goals, rather than to other activities.
2.
Goals to which we are committed boost effort by mobilizing energy.
3.
Persistence involves maintaining direction and effort on behalf of a goal until it is
reached.
4.
Goal setting leads to planning if the goals are appropriately challenging.
The impact of goals on performance of any specific job can be influenced by a number of other process
components.
1.
Job knowledge and ability are likely to affect an individual' work behavior and
prospects for reaching goals.
63
img
Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
2.
The complexity of the task may affect the degree to which goal-directed work
behaviors influence job performance.
3.
Situation constraints include such things as having the proper tools, materials,
and equipment.
4.
Knowledge of results or feedback about progress enables individuals to gauge
their progress toward goal attainment.
Strategic plans typically involve time periods of 5 years or more, but the time frame is dependent upon the
stability of the industry in question.
The planning process can be used to promote innovation in organizations.
3.
The organizational mission statement can be a primary means of encouraging
innovation.
4.
The goals component can translate the mission in a way supporting innovation.
5.
The plans component can provide actual plans for achieving innovative outcomes.
Obstacles to planning exist, but may be countered by organizations.
1.
Obstacles to planning threaten the ability of organizations to develop effective
plans.
a.
Plans in a rapidly changing environment require frequent revisions.
Manager may resist formalized planning if they believe planning is
unnecessary. The pressure of day-to-day responsibilities may keep
managers  from  planning.  Managers  may  be  poorly  prepared.
Staff specialists may come to dominate the planning process
2.
Organizations can take steps to reduce the obstacles to planning.
a.
Top-level managers may demonstrate their support of the planning
process.
b.
A planning staff is a small group of individuals who assist top-level
managers in developing the various components of the planning process.
This staff should focus on helping rather than taking over the planning
process.
c.
Contingency planning is the development of alternative plans for use in
the event that environmental conditions evolve differently than
anticipated, rendering original plans unwise or unfeasible.
64
Table of Contents:
  1. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT:The Egyptian Pyramid, Great China Wall
  2. MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS:Why Study Management?
  3. MANAGERIAL ROLES IN ORGANIZATIONS:Informational roles, Decisional roles
  4. MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS I.E. POLCA:Management Process, Mistakes Managers Make
  5. MANAGERIAL LEVELS AND SKILLS:Middle-level managers, Top managers
  6. MANAGEMENT IDEAS: YESTERDAY AND TODAY, Anthropology, Economics
  7. CLASSICAL VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Scientific management
  8. ADMINISTRATIVE VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Division of work, Authority
  9. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT:The Hawthorne Studies
  10. QUANTITATIVE, CONTEMPORARY AND EMERGING VIEWS OF MANAGEMENT
  11. SYSTEMíS VIEW OF MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION:Managing Systems
  12. ANALYZING ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
  13. 21ST CENTURY MANAGEMENT TRENDS:Organizational social Responsibility
  14. UNDERSTANDING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT WTO AND SAARC
  15. DECISION MAKING AND DECISION TAKING
  16. RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Models of Decision Making
  17. NATURE AND TYPES OF MANAGERIAL DECISIONS:Decision-Making Styles
  18. NON RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Group Decision making
  19. GROUP DECISION MAKING AND CREATIVITY:Delphi Method, Scenario Analysis
  20. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-I:Methods of Forecasting, Benchmarking
  21. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-II:Budgeting, Scheduling, Project Management
  22. PLANNING: FUNCTIONS & BENEFITS:HOW DO MANAGERS PLAN?
  23. PLANNING PROCESS AND GOAL LEVELS:Types of Plans
  24. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE (MBO):Developing Plans
  25. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT -1:THE IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
  26. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT - 2:THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
  27. LEVELS OF STRATEGIES, PORTERíS MODEL AND STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT (BCG) AND IMPLEMENTATION
  28. ENTREPRENEURSHIP MANAGEMENT:Why Is Entrepreneurship Important?
  29. ORGANIZING
  30. JOB DESIGN/SPECIALIZATION AND DEPARTMENTALIZATION
  31. SPAN OF COMMAND, CENTRALIZATION VS DE-CENTRALIZATION AND LINE VS STAFF AUTHORITY
  32. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND ORGANIC VS MECHANISTIC VS VIRTUAL STRUCTURES
  33. LEADING AND LEADERSHIP MOTIVATING SELF AND OTHERS
  34. MASLOWíS NEEDS THEORY AND ITS ANALYSIS
  35. OTHER NEED AND COGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  36. EXPECTANCY, GOAL SETTING AND RE-ENFORCEMENT THEORIES
  37. MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE PROFESSIONALS LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORIES
  38. BEHAVIORAL AND SITUATIONAL MODELS OF LEADERSHIP
  39. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP MODELS
  40. UNDERSTANDING GROUP DYNAMICS IN ORGANIZATIONS
  41. GROUP CONCEPTS, STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT AND TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
  42. UNDERSTANDING MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  43. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND CHANNELS EFFECT OF ICT ON MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  44. CONTROLLING AS A MANAGEMENT FUNCTION:The control process
  45. CONTROLLING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY