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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
VU
LESSON 18
PLANNING ­ I
At the end of the lecture students will be able to understand:
-
The importance & definition of Planning;
-
What is managerial planning and its importance;
-
Basic principles underlying planning and
-
Types of plans
Importance of Planning
Planning is the most important activity of an organization and of managers. Because without
planning organizations may not be able to achieve their goals and objective.
Definition
Planning is the French word `prevoyance', which means to look ahead. According to Pfiffner and
Presthus planning is "a rational process characterized of all human behaviour."
According to Dimock and Dimock "Planning is an organized attempt to anticipate and to make
rational arrangement for dealing with future problems by projecting trends."
According to Simon, Smithburg and Victor A. Thomson: "Planning is that activity that concern
itself with proposal for future, evaluation of alternative proposals and with method by which these
proposals may be achieved."
Planning is also defined as future course of action.
The resources have to be managed to achieve goals which exist in future point in time.
In all definition of planning, there is one common element i.e. "Future course of action".
Levels of Planning
Planning is done at different level; therefore its size and magnitude is different. Following are
different levels of plan:
1.
National level is made at the country level.
2.
Provincial level is made at the provincial level.
3.
Organization level is made at organization level.
4.
Department level is made of department level.
5.
Unit level is made at unit level.
6.
Personal level plan could be professional plan or private plan.
Four Major Aspects of Planning
The nature of planning can be understood by examining four aspects:
1.
Its contribution to purpose and objectives
2.
Its importance in managerial task
3.
Its pervasiveness
4.
The efficiency Vs. effectiveness of plans
1.
The contribution of plan to purpose and objectives: Every plan must contribute to the
accomplishment of purpose of the organization. This concept derives from the nature of the
organized enterprise which exists for the accomplishment of the group purpose.
2.
The importance of planning to the managerial tasks: Planning precedes all other managerial tasks.
(organizing, staffing leading, motivating, controlling, budgeting and evaluating) It is unique as it
involves setting of objectives.
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
VU
Plan as Foundation of Management
Figure 1
What kind of
organization
structure to have
Which helps us
to know?
What kind of people
we need and when
Plans
Which affect the
kind of
Objectives and how
leadership
to achieve them
How most effectively
to lead
To ensure
success of plan
By developing
standards of control
Figure 1 shows that plans sets out objectives, and then the kind of organization structure will be
determined that will have achieve those objectives. Then to achieve the plan objectives the manager should
select right people. After selection of right people then these must be effectively led. Finally the control
standards must be developed to determine if plan has achieved the objectives.
Relationship of Planning and Controlling
Figure 2
Controlling:
Implementation
No
Planning
Comparing plans
of Plan
Deviation
with result
Deviation
Corrective
action
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
VU
Figure 2 shows the relationship between planning and controlling. The relationship between
planning and controlling is inextricable, because the two support each other.
3.
The Pervasiveness: Planning is a function of all managers. If managers are not allowed to plan to a
certain degree then they may not be able to function as manager. All managers plan- from chief
executive to the first level supervisor.
4.
The efficiency vs. effectiveness of plans: A plan is said to be efficient if it achieves its purpose with
minimizing cost. It is the contribution of the plan to the objectives. E.G. If cost is higher than the
benefits, the plan is said to be inefficient. Effectiveness is the achievement of goals and objectives set
out in the plan.
Types of Plans
Plans are future course of action and these are varied according to the time frame. These are
classified as:
1.
Purpose or Mission
2.
Objectives or Goals
3.
Strategies
4.
Policies
5.
Procedures
6.
Rules
7.
Programmes
8.
Budgets
We will examine each separately.
1. Purpose or Mission
The mission or purpose identifies the basic task of the organization. Every organization should
have a purpose or mission. Example: The purpose of National Highway Authority is to design, build and
operate national highways. The purpose of courts is to interpret laws. So each organization has its purpose.
2. Objectives or Goals
Objectives or goals are ends towards which activity is aimed. These represent not only the end
point of planning but also end toward which organizing, staffing, leading and controlling are aimed. While,
the objectives are the basic plan of an organization, its department may have objectives. Which are more
specific and these are sometime called "targets". Example: Objectives of an organization is to make profits
by producing television sets. The objectives of the production department would be to produce 2000
television sets in a year of given design and quality at a given cost
3. Strategies
Strategies mean `grand plan' made in the light of what an opponent might do or not do. Strategy is
defined as determination of long term plan of an organization and following course of action and allocation
of resources necessary to achieve the goals
4. Policies
Policies are general statements or understanding that guide or channel thinking in decision making.
Not all policies are "statements"; they can be implied from the actions of managers. Policies define an area
within which decision is to be made and ensure that the decision will be consistent with and contribute to
objectives. Example: Policy of Privatization
5. Procedures
Procedures are plans that establish a required method of handling future activities. They are guides
to action, rather than to thinking and they spell out the exact manner in which activities are to be
accomplished. Example: Procedure of making of passport, how police should challan a traffic violator
6. Rules
Rules spell out specific action or non action, allowing no discretion. Rules are unlike procedures in
that they guide action without specifying time sequence. In fact a procedure is part of rule; a rule may or
may not be part of procedure. Example: Traffic Rules, Pension Rules
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
VU
Concepts:
Plan:
a document which delineates future course of action.
Pervasiveness of Plan:
existence of plan at all level of the organization.
Control:
establishing standards and measuring performance against it.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  8. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION II
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  20. PLANNING COMMISSION AND PLANNING DEVELOPMENT:Functions, Approval Authority
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  25. SELECTION AND TRAINING AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS:Performance Evaluation,
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  44. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA I
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management