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Introduction to Psychology

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Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
VU
Lesson 4
PERSPECTIVE/MODEL/APPROACH
·
A paradigm in psychology is a distinct way of describing, observing, understanding,
and predicting any given psychological phenomena. The professionals, as well as
students, in order to conceptualize and organize the available information, need a
model or paradigm. Also, it is required because it is used to test hypotheses and for
conducting research work in order to testify the validity of assumptions.
·
Includes assumptions about what drives human behavior, how disorders develop, and
treatment prescriptions
Biological /Medical Perspective
Based on the assumption of Materialism i.e., all behavior has a physiological basis
·  An understanding of biochemical processes will give an understanding of psychological and
social phenomena
·  Physical structures and hereditary processes determine behavior or behavior potential
·  Physical/physiological interventions can alter mental processes and behavior
·  Root cause of abnormalities and disorders lies in biology and requires medical intervention
Historical Background
The historical roots of biological model are very old, dating back to at least the time of Hippocrates. There are
a number of great names that contributed to this approach, of which the more important ones will be
discussed.
Hippocrates (460-377 B.C)
·  Greek physician/philosopher
·  Regarded as the "Father of Medicine"
·  Talked about basis for medical problems
·  Believed that rational knowledge could serve a path for understanding psychological problems.
Galen (129-199 A.D)
·  Born to Greek parents in Asia Minor
·  Great physician with an empirical approach who rejected the old doctrine and relied on his
observation and research.
·  Correctly identified various parts of the nervous system and had an accurate grasp of how
nervous system functions.
·  Known for anatomical studies on animals and observations of human body functions
Julien Offroy De La Mettrie (1709-1751 Ad)
·  French priest turned physician
·  Noticed that his fever and the resulting physical condition affected his mental
state as well as
his physical state
·  Body is like a machine and the soul is no different from mind
·  Mind was a part of the body
Cabanis
·  French physician
·  Consciousness was a function of brain and was proved by the fact that guillotine victims were
not conscious after beheading
Philippe Pinel (1745-1826 Ad)
·  French physician
·  Believed that abnormal behavior is caused by some hereditary defects or nervous
system defects.
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Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
VU
Wilhelm Griesinger (1817 ­ 1868 Ad)
·  German psychiatrist
·  Believed that the best way to understand mental disorders is to assume that they are caused by
brain pathology
Paul Broca (1824-1880)
·  French surgeon and anthropologist
·  His main contribution is with reference to the localization of function; specific areas of brains
are responsible for specific functions
·  Discovered speech center in brain
Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926 Ad)
·  German psychiatrist
·  Stressed the likely physical cause of mental illness, and gave the first classification system of
mental disorders
Charles Darwin: (1809-1882 Ad)
·  British scientist
·  Author of the revolutionary "The Origin of Species" (1859)
·  According to Darwin, variations among individuals of a species would occur by chance, but
could in turn be passed on to the future generations
·  Gave the concept of "Survival of the Fittest" ;only those variations which helped the
individuals survive long enough to breed would sustain, and be passed on
Theories in biological model
Biological/Medical
Theories
Genetic
Diathesis-stress
Theories
Theory
Biochemical Theories
Genetic Theories
Gregor Johann Mendel:
(1822-1884)
Charles Darwin:
Theory of Evolution
Genes=fundamental
units of heredity,Laws
of genetics
Biochemical Theory
Very small amounts of certain chemicals in the body can cause profound changes in behavior as proved by
researches.
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Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
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Diathesis-Stress Theory
Predisposition i.e., diathesis (including genes) and stressful environment combine together to cause
abnormal behavior
Traits are influenced by genes and by environment
Focus of Study
Focus of Study
Heredity/
Endocrine Glands/
Genes
Hormones
Neurotransmitters
The synapse of the neuron releases special chemicals
called
Nervous System/
"neurotransmitters"
Neurotransmitters
·  Existence of neurotransmitters has been known
since 1920's; but the evidence of their relationship
with psychological disorders has been found and known since 1950s
·  More than 50 neurotransmitters exist in human body
Neurotransmitters and Their Role
·
Acetylcholine: Learning, Memory and Muscle control
·
Dopamine: Motor activity, Coordination, Emotion and Memory
·
Epinephrine: Emotion, Stress
·
GABA (Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid): Anxiety, Arousal, Learning
·
Serotonin: Sensory Processing, Sleep, Arousal
·
Glutamate: Anxiety, Mood
Endocrine Glands
These glands form the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of ductless glands that secrete
hormones (special chemicals) into the bloodstream"
ENDOCRINE
Hormones
GLANDS
Endocrine Glands and Abnormality
·
Low secretions of the thyroid produce anxiety like symptoms such as irritability and tension
·
Low level of pituitary secretions produces depression like symptoms--Fatigue, apathy etc.
·
Abnormal secretions of hormones may cause major depression
Assumptions of Biological/Medical Model
THERAPUTIC TECHNIQUES
·  Abnormality is caused by some disease in
IN
the "Central Nervous System"(C.N.S).
BIOLOGICAL MODEL
·  Disease in the C.N.S.has some biological
or physical origin.
·  Physicians are best able to treat
PHARMACHOLOGICAL
diseases of the C.N.S.
NON-PHARMACHOLOGICAL/
TREATMENT/
·  Diseases in the C.N.S. are not
SOMATIC
PSYCHOTROPIC
TREATMENT
MEDICATIONS
currently specific.
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Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
VU
Therapeutic Techniques in Biological Model
PHARMACHOLOGICAL
TREATMENT/
PSYCHOTROPIC
MEDICATION
CHEMOTHERAPY
NARCOSIS
PROLONGED NARCOANALYSIS
NARCOSIS
TRANQUILIZERS
ENERGIZERS
Pharmacological Treatment
"Pharmacology is the science of the study of drugs to treat a wide range of less severe psychological
disorders".
I. Narcosis: The word "Narcosis" is derived from the Greek word meaning, "be numb".
a.
Prolonged Narcosis
· Person is made to sleeps for15-24 hours a day and is kept under constant observation
· Prolonged narcosis is difficult and dangerous to administer, because a number of physiological
complications develop under prolonged sleep
· Seldom used today
b.
Narcoanalysis
· Drugs are given in amounts that produce a state of "grogginess"
II. Chemotherapy
It is the type of therapy that treats mental and behavioral disorders with drugs and chemicals
a.
Tranquilizers
· Drugs that produce soothing and calming effects
b.
Energizers
· They are used with the sufferers of depression s who are not helped by sedatives
Types of Drugs
·
Stimulants: Caffeine, nicotine, cocaine
·
Depressants: Alcohol, barbiturates
·
Anti-anxiety drugs: Benzodiazepines: diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan)
·
Antidepressants: phenezine (Nardil), paroxatine (Paxil)
·
Hallucinogens: lysergic acid (LSD), MDMA (Ecstasy)-in large doses, cannabis (marijuana)-in
large doses
NON-PHARMACHOLOGICAL
SOMATIC TREATMENT
INSULIN-
SHOCK
PSYCHO-SURGURY
THERAPY
ELECTRO-CONVULSIVE
THERAPY
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Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
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Non-pharmacological Somatic Treatment
In 1930's, several therapies were developed which draw considerable attention
Insulin-Shock Therapy
·
Developed by Manfred Sakel to cure psychological disorders by administrating insulin to produce a
state of comma
·
Comma is caused because of a reduction in blood sugar level
·
Depression of metabolic processes tissues and cells; Found to be
Effective with schizophrenics, addicts etc., if used with psychotherapy.
· Now rarely used as a method of treatment
Electro-Convulsive Therapy (ECT)
·  A biochemical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent
through the brain of the anesthetized patient
·  This controversial therapy is applied to severely depressed patients
Psycho-Surgery
· It involves brain surgery which is used in the treatment of severe psychotic patients who have
resisted all other forms of treatments
Merits of Biological Approach
·
Although psychological causes are significant, biological causes are worthy of examination and
study too
·
Research work is rapid, producing valuable new information
Demerits of Biological Approach
·
Explains human behavior in biological terms, treats with the help of biological methods, and
ignores psychological factors
·
Mental life is an inter play of both biological and non-biological (environmental) factors;
biological has been emphasized at the cost of ignoring the non biological, or psychological
Criticism Against Medical/ Biological Model
·
No independent means of verifying/ identifying the existence of the disease; both factors and
symptoms are often assessed.
·
There exist alleged differences between the symptoms of physical illness and the symptoms of
mental illness
·
Symptoms of mental illness are subjective, whereas those of physical illnesses are objective.
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Table of Contents:
  1. WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?:Theoretical perspectives of psychology
  2. HISTORICAL ROOTS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY:HIPPOCRATES, PLATO
  3. SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT:Biological Approach, Psychodynamic Approach
  4. PERSPECTIVE/MODEL/APPROACH:Narcosis, Chemotherapy
  5. THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH/ MODEL:Psychic Determinism, Preconscious
  6. BEHAVIORAL APPROACH:Behaviorist Analysis, Basic Terminology, Basic Terminology
  7. THE HUMANISTIC APPROACH AND THE COGNITIVE APPROACH:Rogers’ Approach
  8. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY (I):Scientific Nature of Psychology
  9. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY (II):Experimental Research
  10. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND NATURE NURTURE ISSUE:Nature versus Nurture
  11. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT:Socio- Cultural Factor, The Individual and the Group
  12. NERVOUS SYSTEM (1):Biological Bases of Behavior, Terminal Buttons
  13. NERVOUS SYSTEM (2):Membranes of the Brain, Association Areas, Spinal Cord
  14. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM:Pineal Gland, Pituitary Gland, Dwarfism
  15. SENSATION:The Human Eye, Cornea, Sclera, Pupil, Iris, Lens
  16. HEARING (AUDITION) AND BALANCE:The Outer Ear, Auditory Canal
  17. PERCEPTION I:Max Wertheimer, Figure and Ground, Law of Closure
  18. PERCEPTION II:Depth Perception, Relative Height, Linear Perspective
  19. ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS:Electroencephalogram, Hypnosis
  20. LEARNING:Motor Learning, Problem Solving, Basic Terminology, Conditioning
  21. OPERANT CONDITIONING:Negative Rein forcer, Punishment, No reinforcement
  22. COGNITIVE APPROACH:Approach to Learning, Observational Learning
  23. MEMORY I:Functions of Memory, Encoding and Recoding, Retrieval
  24. MEMORY II:Long-Term Memory, Declarative Memory, Procedural Memory
  25. MEMORY III:Memory Disorders/Dysfunctions, Amnesia, Dementia
  26. SECONDARY/ LEARNT/ PSYCHOLOGICAL MOTIVES:Curiosity, Need for affiliation
  27. EMOTIONS I:Defining Emotions, Behavioral component, Cognitive component
  28. EMOTIONS II:Respiratory Changes, Pupillometrics, Glandular Responses
  29. COGNITION AND THINKING:Cognitive Psychology, Mental Images, Concepts
  30. THINKING, REASONING, PROBLEM- SOLVING AND CREATIVITY:Mental shortcuts
  31. PERSONALITY I:Definition of Personality, Theories of Personality
  32. PERSONALITY II:Surface traits, Source Traits, For learning theorists, Albert Bandura
  33. PERSONALITY III:Assessment of Personality, Interview, Behavioral Assessment
  34. INTELLIGENCE:The History of Measurement of Intelligence, Later Revisions
  35. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY:Plato, Aristotle, Asclepiades, In The Middle Ages
  36. ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR I:Medical Perspective, Psychodynamic Perspective
  37. ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR II:Hypochondriasis, Conversion Disorders, Causes include
  38. PSYCHOTHERAPY I:Psychotherapeutic Orientations, Clinical Psychologists
  39. PSYCHOTHERAPY II:Behavior Modification, Shaping, Humanistic Therapies
  40. POPULAR AREAS OF PSYCHOLOGY:ABC MODEL, Factors affecting attitude change
  41. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY:Understanding Health, Observational Learning
  42. INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY:‘Hard’ Criteria and ‘Soft’ Criteria
  43. CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Focus of Interest, Consumer Psychologist
  44. SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Some Research Findings, Arousal level
  45. FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY:Origin and History of Forensic Psychology