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Principles of Management

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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
Lesson 10.29
ORGANIZING
Organizations are experimenting with different approaches to organizational structure and design.
Organizational structure can play an important role in an organization's success. The process of
ORGANIZING--the second management functions--is how an organization's structure is created.
The nature of organization structure
Managers are seeking structural designs that will best support and allow employees to effectively and
efficiently do their work. Organizing is the process of creating an organization's structure.
Organization structure is the formal pattern of interactions and coordination designed by management to
link the tasks of individuals and groups in achieving organizational goals. An organizational structure is
the formal framework by which job tasks are divided, grouped, and coordinated.
1.
This formal pattern designed by management is to be distinguished from the
informal pattern of interactions that simply emerges within an organization.
2.
Organization structure consists primarily of four elements:
a.
Job design
b.
Departmentalization
c.
Vertical coordination
d.
Horizontal coordination
3.
Organization design is the process of developing an organization structure. Organizational
design is the process of developing or changing an organization's structure. It involves decisions about six
key elements: work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control,
centralization/decentralization, and formalization. We need to take a closer look at each of these structural
elements.
The organization chart is a line diagram that depicts the broad outlines of an organization's structure.
While varying in detail from one organization to another, typically organization charts show the major
positions or departments in the organization, the way positions are grouped together, reporting
relationships for lower to higher levels, official channels for communications, and possibly the titles
associated with major positions in the organization.
1.
The organization chart provides a visual map of the chain of command, the
unbroken line of authority that ultimately links each individual with the top
organizational position thorough a managerial position at each successive layer in
between.
2.
Nearly all organizations having just a few members have an organization chart.
Responsibility is the obligation or expectation to perform and carry out duties and achieve goals related to
a position.
Authority is the right inherent in a managerial position to tell people what to do and to expect them to do
it, right to make decisions and carry out actions to achieve organizational goals.
While part of a manager's work may be delegated, the manager remains accountable for results.
a.
Accountability is the requirement of being able to answer for significant
deviations from duties or expected results.
b.
The fact that managers remain accountable for delegated work may cause
them to resist delegation.
Delegation is assignment of part of manager's work to others along with responsibility and authority.
1.
In addition to issues of accountability, managers may resist delegation for a
number of reasons.
a.
Managers may fear if subordinates fail.
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
b.
Managers may think they lack time to train subordinates.
c.
Managers may want to hold on to their power.
d.
Managers may enjoy doing the tasks subordinates could do.
e.
Managers may feel threatened by subordinates.
f.
Managers may not know how to delegate.
2.
Subordinates may resist delegation because of fear of failure or of risk taking.
3.
Failure to delegate may have serious negative consequences for a manger's career.
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Table of Contents:
  1. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT:The Egyptian Pyramid, Great China Wall
  2. MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS:Why Study Management?
  3. MANAGERIAL ROLES IN ORGANIZATIONS:Informational roles, Decisional roles
  4. MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS I.E. POLCA:Management Process, Mistakes Managers Make
  5. MANAGERIAL LEVELS AND SKILLS:Middle-level managers, Top managers
  6. MANAGEMENT IDEAS: YESTERDAY AND TODAY, Anthropology, Economics
  7. CLASSICAL VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Scientific management
  8. ADMINISTRATIVE VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Division of work, Authority
  9. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT:The Hawthorne Studies
  10. QUANTITATIVE, CONTEMPORARY AND EMERGING VIEWS OF MANAGEMENT
  11. SYSTEMíS VIEW OF MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION:Managing Systems
  12. ANALYZING ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
  13. 21ST CENTURY MANAGEMENT TRENDS:Organizational social Responsibility
  14. UNDERSTANDING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT WTO AND SAARC
  15. DECISION MAKING AND DECISION TAKING
  16. RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Models of Decision Making
  17. NATURE AND TYPES OF MANAGERIAL DECISIONS:Decision-Making Styles
  18. NON RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Group Decision making
  19. GROUP DECISION MAKING AND CREATIVITY:Delphi Method, Scenario Analysis
  20. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-I:Methods of Forecasting, Benchmarking
  21. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-II:Budgeting, Scheduling, Project Management
  22. PLANNING: FUNCTIONS & BENEFITS:HOW DO MANAGERS PLAN?
  23. PLANNING PROCESS AND GOAL LEVELS:Types of Plans
  24. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE (MBO):Developing Plans
  25. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT -1:THE IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
  26. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT - 2:THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
  27. LEVELS OF STRATEGIES, PORTERíS MODEL AND STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT (BCG) AND IMPLEMENTATION
  28. ENTREPRENEURSHIP MANAGEMENT:Why Is Entrepreneurship Important?
  29. ORGANIZING
  30. JOB DESIGN/SPECIALIZATION AND DEPARTMENTALIZATION
  31. SPAN OF COMMAND, CENTRALIZATION VS DE-CENTRALIZATION AND LINE VS STAFF AUTHORITY
  32. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND ORGANIC VS MECHANISTIC VS VIRTUAL STRUCTURES
  33. LEADING AND LEADERSHIP MOTIVATING SELF AND OTHERS
  34. MASLOWíS NEEDS THEORY AND ITS ANALYSIS
  35. OTHER NEED AND COGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  36. EXPECTANCY, GOAL SETTING AND RE-ENFORCEMENT THEORIES
  37. MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE PROFESSIONALS LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORIES
  38. BEHAVIORAL AND SITUATIONAL MODELS OF LEADERSHIP
  39. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP MODELS
  40. UNDERSTANDING GROUP DYNAMICS IN ORGANIZATIONS
  41. GROUP CONCEPTS, STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT AND TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
  42. UNDERSTANDING MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  43. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND CHANNELS EFFECT OF ICT ON MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  44. CONTROLLING AS A MANAGEMENT FUNCTION:The control process
  45. CONTROLLING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY