ZeePedia buy college essays online


Introduction to Psychology

<<< Previous OPERANT CONDITIONING:Negative Rein forcer, Punishment, No reinforcement Next >>>
 
img
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
VU
Lesson 21
OPERANT CONDITIONING
·
Type of learning in which a voluntary response becomes stronger or weaker depending on its
positive or negative consequences.
·  The organism plays an active role and `operates' on environment to produce the desired
outcome.
Operant conditioning forms an association between a behavior and a consequence.
Consequences have to be immediate, or clearly linked to the behavior. With verbal humans, we can explain
the connection between the consequence and the behavior, even if they are separated in time. For example,
you might tell your friends that you'll buy dinner for them since they helped you move, or a parent might
explain that the child can't go to summer camp because of her bad grades. With very young children,
humans who don't have verbal skills, and animals, you can't explain the connection between the
consequence and the behavior. For the animal, the consequence has to be immediate.
Four Possible Consequences
There are four possible consequences of any behavior:
Something Good can start or be presented
Something Good can end or be taken away
Something Bad can start or be presented
Something Bad can end or be taken away
Applying these terms to the Four Possible Consequences
·  Something Good can start or be presented: behavior increases = Positive Reinforcement
(R+).
·  Something Good can end or be taken away: behavior decreases = Negative Punishment
(P-).
·  Something Bad can start or be presented: behavior decreases = Positive Punishment
(P+).
·  Something Bad can end or be taken away, so behavior increases = Negative
Reinforcement (R-).
Thorndike's Law of Effect
Any response leading to an outcome that is satisfying for the organism is likely to be repeated; a response
leading to an outcome that is not satisfying is not likely to be repeated.
Association by Contiguity
·  The organism forms an association or connection between the response and its
consequences. For it to be effective, the response and the outcome have to be closely
linked__ both in time and space.
·  The theory drew attention towards the significance of reward and punishment in learning
new behavior.
Criticism against Thorndike's Approach
It was not clear about what exactly `satisfying' meant
Some points to ponder
Have you ever thought?
·
Why do teachers give silver and gold stars on children's workbooks?
·
Why do horses gallop faster when the rider whips them?
·
Why do parents allow children to watch cartoons when they finish their homework in time?
·
Why do we find surprise gifts in the packs of detergents?
·
Why do employees who earn profit to the organization get a bonus at the end of year? And,
·
Why do children show temper tantrums in the presence of guests even when they know the
mother is going to scold and punish?
The answers to all these questions can be found in the operant conditioning approach
Burrhus Frederic Skinner: 1904-1990
126
img
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
VU
·  American Psychologist and the founder of Operant Conditioning.
·  His theory is somewhat similar to Thorndike's, but it was actually Watson who impressed him.
The Typical procedure in Skinner's Operant conditioning experiments
·  A special apparatus usually known as skinner's box is used.
·  Laboratory animals learn to press a lever so that food is delivered to them.
·  The environment is controlled.
·  The animal operates on the environment, and as a result of its behavior it may be rewarded or
punished. Food is the reward.
·  The consequence determines if the response will be repeated or not.
Consequences of Behavior
Positive
Behavior
consequence
Negative
consequence
No
consequence
Consequences of Behavior; Reinforcement
Reinforcement is used for increasing the probability that the preceding behavior will be repeated
through a stimulus. Also some consequences may deter the re occurrence of behavior. Reinforcement can
be in the form of:
·
Positive reinforcement
·
Negative reinforcement
Other consequences may be:
·  Punishment
·  No reinforcement
Reinforcer
·The stimulus that increases the probability of repetition or re occurrence of a behavior
·It can be material as well a non material in nature.
Positive Reinforcer/ Reward
It is a stimulus whose introduction brings about an increase in the preceding response.
CONSEQUENCES OF BEHAVIOR AND THEIR IMPACT
Positive
Response
reinforcement
Response
will be
repeated
127
img
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
VU
Negative Rein forcer
·A stimulus whose removal reinforces and leads to a higher likelihood that the response bringing about this
removal will be repeated: in simpler terms it means repeating a behavior in order to get rid of a negative
stimulus.
Negative
Response
Reinforcement
Response
will be
Repeated
Punishment
Punishment is an unpleasant or painful stimulus whose introduction following a certain behavior decreases
the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.
Response
Punishment
Response
will not be
No reinforcement
Repeated
This also deters or stops a behavior from being repeated.
No
Response
Reinforcement
Response
will not be
repeated
Schedules of Reinforcement
·The procedures involving specific frequency and timing of
reinforcing a desired behavior
Schedules of Reinforcement
SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT
Continuous Versus Partial Schedules
Continuous Schedule
Reinforcing the behavior every time it is repeated.
Continuous
Partial
Partial Schedule
The behavior is reinforced but not every time.
128
img
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
VU
PARTIAL SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT
Fixed
Fixed
Ratio
Interval
Variable
Variable
Interval
Ratio
PARTIAL SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT CONSIDERING THE FREQUENCY OR
NUMBER OF RESPONSES
Fixed Ratio Schedule
The organism is reinforced only after a specific number of
responses is made e.g. salary after 7 days.
Variable
Fixed
Variable Ratio Schedule
Ratio
Ratio
The organism is reinforced after a varying number of
responses is made (not a fixed number) e.g. surprise
bonus.
PARTIAL SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT CONSIDERING THE PERIOD OR
AMOUNT OF TIME
Fixed- Interval Schedule
The organism is reinforced after pre fixed time intervals e.g.
giving students a candy every two days.
Variable- Interval Schedule
Variable
Fixed
The organism is reinforced after around an average time
Interval
Interval
interval instead of fixed ones e.g. at times giving 2 candies
after 6days, and one after two days.
Remember!!! Immediate and appropriate reinforcement is essential for learning.
Consistency is the golden rule; follow the pattern of reinforcement regularly and never let the organism
feel that his/her/its behavior is not been observed and the progress not followed.
The most effective schedule of reinforcement is the variable-interval schedule.
Shaping
·
Successive approximations of a required/-desired response are reinforced until that response is fully
learnt:
·
In the beginning each and every success is reinforced with a reward, no matter how small the success.
·
Once the desired response is learnt the reinforcer immediately follows it, every time it happens.
·
Once learnt the behavior, in many cases, the organism may not need reinforcement since many
behaviors are self-reinforcing e.g. learning to play a musical instrument.
129
img
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
VU
Stages in Shaping
Acquisition: Initially the response rate following reinforcement may be slow but at one stage it increases to
the maximum-----acquisition.
Extinction: If reinforcement is withheld the response rate decreases and finally no response is shown------
extinction.
Shaping Can Best Be Used For
·Learning alphabets, vocabulary, mathematical
tables, or a new language.
·Learning to play a musical Instrument.
·Appropriate classroom behavior.
·Training mentally handicapped children.
Behavior Modification
·A therapeutic/intervention strategy used for modifying behavior in such a manner that the frequency of
desired behavior is increased up to the optimal level, and the frequency of undesired behavior is brought
down to the minimum...or to extinction level.
·The intervention is based upon the operant principles of learning.
Steps in Behavior Modification
·Identification of goals in terms of target behavior.
·Recording the preliminary/background information concerning the behavior in question.
·Designing the intervention, issues involved, and deciding its components.
·Implementation of the planned program as well as careful monitoring.
·Recording the events, progress, and problems during the implementation phase.
·Evaluating the program and making alterations if required.
Token Economy/ Token System:
·The person is rewarded with some form of a token every time a desired behavior is exhibited.
·The token can be play money/token or a chip representing money; it can be the silver or gold stars earned
by the child; parents can give different colored paper tokens for good behavior.
·After a specific number of tokens have been earned, they can be exchanged for something desirable.
Contingency Contracting
·A written contract is held between the client and the therapist, specifying all goal-behaviors as well as
consequences; parents and teachers can also use it.
·The contract is followed strictly no matter if the consequences of behavior are negative, and the client may
in fact dislike them; the purpose is to promote target behavior e.g. if an over-eater fails to refrain from
confectionary throughout the week, he will have to send a donation cheque for drinks in a marathon; the
cheques are prepared at the beginning of the program.
Who is Operant Conditioning Most Effective with?
·Children
·Animals
·Mentally handicapped
Applications of Operant Conditioning in Real Life Situations
·  Child rearing.
·  Classroom management.
·  Teaching of skills.
·  Animal taming.
130
img
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
VU
·
Advertising.
·
Psychological intervention and Psycho- therapy: behavior modification, assertiveness training, and
token economy.
Child Rearing
Things to remember:
·If you make rules, stick to them; if you can not stick to them then don't make rules.
·Provide immediate reinforcement as promised.
·Consider no reinforcement along with positive/ negative reinforcement and punishment.
Classroom Management
·In different situations positive/negative reinforcement, punishment, and no reinforcement work.
·The same rules apply as is in child rearing.
Significant results in case of:
·  Discipline
·  Memorization e.g. learning tables
·  Vocabulary
·  New skills
Shaping procedures are of special help in classroom settings.
Organizational Behavior
·Fixed wages after a fixed period or variable wages depending on performance have different effects in
different situations.
Psychotherapy/care for special needs/health psychology
·More effective when combined with cognitive approach for:
·Children with special needs.
·Quitting smoking or alcohol.
·Weight reduction programs.
·Compliance with medical advice.
How do many youngsters start taking drugs?
·Operant conditioning principles operate here too. What positively reinforces addictive behavior can be
the:
·Free offers.
·The subsequent effect.
·Peer acceptance.
Weight Reduction Programs
Following can be of help:
·Contracts
·Allowing one's self to eat favorite food once a week
Learning Healthy Lifestyles
Acquiring better skills for improving and enhancing health can be made easier by using learning techniques.
131
Table of Contents:
  1. WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?:Theoretical perspectives of psychology
  2. HISTORICAL ROOTS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY:HIPPOCRATES, PLATO
  3. SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT:Biological Approach, Psychodynamic Approach
  4. PERSPECTIVE/MODEL/APPROACH:Narcosis, Chemotherapy
  5. THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH/ MODEL:Psychic Determinism, Preconscious
  6. BEHAVIORAL APPROACH:Behaviorist Analysis, Basic Terminology, Basic Terminology
  7. THE HUMANISTIC APPROACH AND THE COGNITIVE APPROACH:Rogers’ Approach
  8. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY (I):Scientific Nature of Psychology
  9. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY (II):Experimental Research
  10. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND NATURE NURTURE ISSUE:Nature versus Nurture
  11. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT:Socio- Cultural Factor, The Individual and the Group
  12. NERVOUS SYSTEM (1):Biological Bases of Behavior, Terminal Buttons
  13. NERVOUS SYSTEM (2):Membranes of the Brain, Association Areas, Spinal Cord
  14. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM:Pineal Gland, Pituitary Gland, Dwarfism
  15. SENSATION:The Human Eye, Cornea, Sclera, Pupil, Iris, Lens
  16. HEARING (AUDITION) AND BALANCE:The Outer Ear, Auditory Canal
  17. PERCEPTION I:Max Wertheimer, Figure and Ground, Law of Closure
  18. PERCEPTION II:Depth Perception, Relative Height, Linear Perspective
  19. ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS:Electroencephalogram, Hypnosis
  20. LEARNING:Motor Learning, Problem Solving, Basic Terminology, Conditioning
  21. OPERANT CONDITIONING:Negative Rein forcer, Punishment, No reinforcement
  22. COGNITIVE APPROACH:Approach to Learning, Observational Learning
  23. MEMORY I:Functions of Memory, Encoding and Recoding, Retrieval
  24. MEMORY II:Long-Term Memory, Declarative Memory, Procedural Memory
  25. MEMORY III:Memory Disorders/Dysfunctions, Amnesia, Dementia
  26. SECONDARY/ LEARNT/ PSYCHOLOGICAL MOTIVES:Curiosity, Need for affiliation
  27. EMOTIONS I:Defining Emotions, Behavioral component, Cognitive component
  28. EMOTIONS II:Respiratory Changes, Pupillometrics, Glandular Responses
  29. COGNITION AND THINKING:Cognitive Psychology, Mental Images, Concepts
  30. THINKING, REASONING, PROBLEM- SOLVING AND CREATIVITY:Mental shortcuts
  31. PERSONALITY I:Definition of Personality, Theories of Personality
  32. PERSONALITY II:Surface traits, Source Traits, For learning theorists, Albert Bandura
  33. PERSONALITY III:Assessment of Personality, Interview, Behavioral Assessment
  34. INTELLIGENCE:The History of Measurement of Intelligence, Later Revisions
  35. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY:Plato, Aristotle, Asclepiades, In The Middle Ages
  36. ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR I:Medical Perspective, Psychodynamic Perspective
  37. ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR II:Hypochondriasis, Conversion Disorders, Causes include
  38. PSYCHOTHERAPY I:Psychotherapeutic Orientations, Clinical Psychologists
  39. PSYCHOTHERAPY II:Behavior Modification, Shaping, Humanistic Therapies
  40. POPULAR AREAS OF PSYCHOLOGY:ABC MODEL, Factors affecting attitude change
  41. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY:Understanding Health, Observational Learning
  42. INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY:‘Hard’ Criteria and ‘Soft’ Criteria
  43. CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Focus of Interest, Consumer Psychologist
  44. SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Some Research Findings, Arousal level
  45. FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY:Origin and History of Forensic Psychology