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Radio News Reporting and Production

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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
VU
LESSON 03
OBJECTIVES OF BROADCASTING IN PAKISTAN
At the time of the emergence of Pakistan there were just three radio stations, i.e.; radio station Lahore, radio
station Dhaka and radio station Rawalpindi, in the newly born country.
Some specific areas were figured out in which the broadcasting in Pakistan concentrated in the coming
years. Right from the start until the early 90s of the last century, Radio Pakistan, which was later turned to
be called Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation in 1972, enjoyed complete monopoly in the realm of radio
broadcasting. This monopoly was though disturbed with the emergence of F.M. broadcast in the private
sector, but still the public sector medium enjoys the maximum approach to people with a wide range of
radio stations, F.M. and A.M. both, in every nook and corner of the country.
F.M. broadcast in third world countries in general and in Pakistan in particular, unfortunately and
mistakenly indeed, has been perceived as the kind of broadcast that is meant to play music and nothing else.
Hence the objective of setting up F.M. channels in Pakistan has been narrowed down to putting the
meaningless compering and all-the-time music, without any planning and potential, on air.
The A.M. broadcast, however, has selected certain important areas to broadcast for, may well be called the
objectives of broadcasting in Pakistan. They are as under:
1. Information
To give information about something is to convey about it. Information may be from any realm of life
ranging from science to art, from beneath the earth to unlimited depths of skies, from religion to
humanities, from tangibles to intangibles. Radio tries to bring to listeners every possible information that
they must know about.
2. Education
To educate people is a process of teaching and training; to improve knowledge and develop skill. Radio,
being a mass medium does manage to present education­oriented programmes in its transmission.
3. Entertainment
People wish to get entertained as well. So radio, broadcasts entertainment programmes comprising music,
drama, disk-jockey, and comedy programmes.
4. Islamic ideology
Since Pakistan is an Islamic country which was struggled for in the name of Islam therefore as a responsible
medium, Radio Pakistan has been performing appreciate-able role for the promotion and preaching of
Islamic teachings in the Light of Quran, Sunnaah and Hadith.
5. Ideology of Pakistan
Two-nation theory provides blood and soul to the ideology of Pakistan which seeks its roots in Islam. Radio
Pakistan is playing a vital role in illuminating the ideology of Pakistan in the listeners, especially in our
youth.
6. Promotion of culture
Pakistan is a land of different regions and varied cultures. These cultures represent their respective people
and add rainbow colours to the vast canvass of Pakistan. Radio Pakistan is doing its best to promote and
preserve this picture of heterogeneous cultures by producing programmes strongly portraying the beauty of
different lands such as Sindh, N.W.F.P., Balochistan, Azad Kashmir and Punjab.
7. Promotion of regional languages
As mentioned above Pakistan is blessed with different lands and heterogeneous yet rich cultures and any
culture of a land is incomplete without its own medium of expression that is language. Through the
language it is possible not only to preserve a culture for next generations but also for its promotion and
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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
VU
propagation. Radio Pakistan manages to make programmes in regional languages. Presently programmes are
being produced in the following 21 languages:
8. National Unity
A nation is always comprised of many races and people possessing various thought, beliefs and opinions. So
is with Pakistan. All Pakistani people making one Pakistani nation are free to have their own beliefs, political
associations and opinions, but they are not strong unless they are united. The prime objective of any
country's media must be to frame its matter and content in such a manner that the national unity may be
achieved and strengthened. So is doing radio Pakistan, efficiently and effectively indeed.
9. To boost up nation's morale at adverse hours
Yet another important objective of Radio Pakistan is to keep the nation's morale high at the hours of
challenge, dejection, panic or trial. For instance soon after the emergence of Pakistan the first and foremost
challenge in front of Pakistan was the rehabilitation of muhajerin who migrated from India in flocks and
flocks. They were miserable. They were heavy-hearted. They were lonely on their own homeland. Radio
Pakistan presented programmes to share their desolation and provided them necessary information and
guidance.
The final departure of the father of the nation, Quaid-e- Azam, Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the first aching
and the most agonizing episode in the history of the nation. Radio Pakistan, not only, broadcast a moving
and touching commentary of the last journey of the great leader, but tried to pacify the people of Pakistan
as well.
The war of 1965 proved yet another trial of nerves and patience of the nation. Radio Pakistan's services, it
rendered during the war, are unforgettable indeed. The highly moving blend of the selfless passions of the
ace poets of the country, the heart touching sentiments of the leading singers and the subtle and sublime
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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
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creativity of the musicians and composers created treasured tunes and memorable melodies. The blood-
exiting taranas and national songs sung by Madam Noor Jehan composed by Kaley Khan and produced by
Azam Khan are still capable enough to ignite the sentiments and emotions of every Pakistani.
The morning of October 8, 2005 left humanity with utmost grief and agony in Azad Kashmir and northern
areas of Pakistan when a gigantic earthquake shook the plates beneath the earth and killed people on the
earth in thousands and thousands turning the lofty mountains upside down. It was the real traumatic and
disastrous episode in the history of Pakistan, people had ever witnessed. At this hour of fear and tear, Radio
Pakistan and other private F.M. radios went to the ups of the shattered cliffs and to the downs of the
injured valleys and provided the best of the services to the grief ­ stricken victims of the natural calamity.
10. News Coverage
Yet another important objective of radio broadcast is the coverage of news since on radio news bulletins go
on air almost round the clock. News gathering and writing for radio is more different and difficult process
than doing the both tasks for other media like newspaper and TV. Radio puts news on air after every four
or five hours in the bulletins of different durations from five minute
WHAT IS NEWS?
The term NEWS is so vast in application, so dynamic in use and so complicated in understanding that to
define it as a term precisely is rather a difficult task. However, the efforts have constantly been offered by
renowned practical journalists, media scholars and dictionaries to reach at a crisp yet comprehensive
definition of the term. The universality of the term does not allow a single definition to convey the meaning
covering all the aspects coming under the umbrella of the "NEWS". Defining the word some of the experts
went as under:
An account of an event.
A fact that interests people.
A presentation of a report on current event.
Anything that people want to know about.
An Accurate and timely intelligence of Happenings, Discoveries, Opinions, Inventions and matters
of any sort that affect or interest the listener.
Comprising of all current activities of general human interest and the best news is that in which the
most listeners or readers take interest.
Anything that enough people want to know about is news, provided it does not violate the canons
(principals) of good taste and the laws of libel. (Laws of libel will be touched upon in detail in
coming lectures).
Anything that is timely that interest a number of listeners, and the best news is that which has the
greatest interest for the greatest number of people.
A presentation of a report on current events in a newspaper or on radio or on television.
Some of the famous dictionaries define the term NEWS as under:
CONCISE OXFORD DICTIONARY
"Tidings, new or interesting information, fresh events reported."
OXFORD ADVANCED LEARNER'S DICTIONARY
"New information about something that has happened recently"
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Renowned journalists and media experts go on the term as under:
BEN BRADLEE
"News is the first rough draft of history"
FREDA MORRIS
"News is the immediate, the important thing that has impact on our lives."
CHARLES DANA
"When a dog bites a man, that is not news, but when a man bites a dog, that is news."
ARTHUR MCEWEN
"News is anything that makes the reader or listener say---' Gee Whiz!"
SUMMARY
There are certain things common which can easily be drawn out of all of the above given definitions and
they are:
There should be an event or opinion
That event or opinion must posses the potential to affect or influence a great number of people.
A large number of people must have interest in that event or statement.
Now it is pretty necessary to figure out that what people wish to know about, or, they may feel a ray of
interest in. Quite obvious is to conclude that the things, activities, events, or happenings which are around
people, and somehow or the other are attached with them, stir up and attract their interest.
What follows from all the above-given definitions is that "the newsworthy event is one that affects or
changes social, economic, political, physical, or other relationships.
Or, NEWS is an account of man's changing relationships with his environment.
Or, to be even more specific, the newsworthy development is one that changes or shows promise to change
the status quo, i.e., the prevailing status or situation.
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Table of Contents:
  1. WHAT RADIO IS:HISTORY OF RADIO, MARCONI –THE INVENTOR
  2. HISTORY OF RADIO:B.B.C. – 1922, Radio in Sub-Continent, PBC SERVICES
  3. OBJECTIVES OF BROADCASTING IN PAKISTAN:Information, Islamic ideology
  4. NEWS VALUES I:CONFLICT, PROGRESS, VICTORY AND DEFEAT
  5. NEWS VALUES II:TIMELINESS, PROXIMITY, NOVELTY, HUMAN INTEREST
  6. NEWS VALUES AND ELEMENTS OF NEWS:MISCELLANEOUS NEWS VALUES
  7. MEASURING THE IMPORTANCE OF NEWS:Intensity of an Event, NEWS STORY TYPES
  8. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES II:SIMPLE TYPES, ILLNESS, DEATH
  9. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES III:Conspiracy, Drug Trafficking, Lunar Months
  10. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES IV:COMPLEX NEWS, Forms of Government, Monarchy
  11. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES V:Education, Research, Religion
  12. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES VI:Lifestyles, Receptions, Entertainment
  13. SOURCES OF NEWS I:Network of Reporters, QUALITIES OF A REPORTER
  14. SOURCES OF NEWS II:MONITORING, NEWS/ PRESS RELEASE
  15. SOURCES OF NEWS III:National News Agencies, HARD NEWS, SOFT NEWS
  16. REPORTING:ORDER OF REPORTING, REPORTER’S QUALITIES, Well informed
  17. A SUCCESSFUL RADIO REPORTER:Briefing, Reporter’s Ammunition, Meeting Deadline
  18. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING I:Growth of Interpretative Reporting
  19. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING II:Factual Background, SPEECH STORY
  20. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING III:FIRES & ACCIDENTS, CRIME STORIES
  21. INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING I:Thalidomide Scandal, Watergate Scandal
  22. INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING II:Identification of the problem, INTERVIEW
  23. TYPES OF INTERVIEW:Hard News Interview, Informational Interview
  24. ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD INTERVIEW I:Comments and Opinion, Topic must be specific
  25. ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD INTERVIEW II:Preparation of the Interview, Language
  26. RADIO NEWS GLOSSARY:Actuality, Cut, Voicer, Wrap, Hourly, Lead
  27. FUNDAMENTALS OF NEWS WRITING:Inverted Pyramided Style, Telling the Story
  28. FUNDAMENTALS OF WRITING NEWS FOR RADIO I:Language
  29. FUNDAMENTALS OF WRITING NEWS FOR RADIO II:Complex numbers
  30. ESSENTIALS OF A NEWSCASTER:Authority, Credibility, Language, Pronunciation
  31. PRODUCTION AND PLANNING:Principals of Planning a Program
  32. PRODUCER & BUDGETING:Strengths of a Radio Program, Budgeting a Program
  33. JARGONS OF PRODUCTION (Continued):Frequency spectrum, Dead studio
  34. TYPES OF TALK:Qualification of a Talker, Essentials of a talk, Vetting a talk
  35. DISCUSSION:Controlled Discussion, Live Discussion, Current affairs
  36. DISCUSSION:Selection of the TopicKnowledge of the Topic, Narrowing down the topic
  37. RADIO FEATURE:Sound Effects, Narration, Dramatic Feature, Religion, Personalities
  38. RADIO DOCUMENTARY:Commentary, History, Persons, Things, Phenomena
  39. DRAMA:Solo plays, Series, Serial, Soap, Components of Drama
  40. SPECIAL AUDIENCE PROGRAM:Children’s Programs, Women’s programs
  41. SPORTS PROGRAM:Live Programs, Recorded Programs, Preparation of OB
  42. THE MUSIC I:Folk Music, Classical Music, Light Music, Pop Music
  43. THE MUSIC II:Classification of Raga In Terms Of Notes, Aado, Khaado
  44. ETHICS & LIMITATIONS OF MEDIA:Domain of Freedom of Media, Defamation
  45. RECAP:What Radio Is, Timeliness, Elements of news, Types of Reporting, Production