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Introduction to Business

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Introduction to Business ­MGT 211
VU
Lesson 41
NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION MODES
What is non-verbal communication?
Definition  "nonverbal  communication  involves  those  nonverbal  stimuli  in  a
communication setting that are generated by both the source [speaker] and his or her
use of the environment and that have potential message value for the source or
receiver [listener]. Basically it is sending and receiving messages in a variety of ways
without the use of verbal codes (words). It is both intentional and unintentional. Most
speakers / listeners are not conscious of this. It includes -- but is not limited to:
touch
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glance
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eye contact (gaze)
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volume
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vocal nuance
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proximity
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gestures
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facial expression ? pause (silence)
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intonation
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dress
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posture
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smell
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word choice and syntax
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sounds (paralanguage)
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Broadly  speaking,  there  are  two  basic  categories  of  non-verbal  language:
nonverbal messages produced by the body; nonverbal messages produced by the broad
setting (time, space, silence).
Why is non-verbal communication important?
Basically, it is one of the key aspects of communication (and especially important in a
high-context culture). It has multiple functions:
Used to repeat the verbal message (e.g. point in a direction while stating
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directions.
Often used to accent a verbal message. (e.g. verbal tone indicates the actual
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meaning of the specific words).
Often complement the verbal message but also may contradict. E.g.: a nod
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reinforces a positive message (among Americans); a "wink" may contradict a
stated positive message.
Regulate interactions (non-verbal cues covey when the other person should
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speak or not speak).
May substitute for the verbal message (especially if it is blocked by noise,
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interruption, etc) -- i.e. gestures (finger to lips to indicate need for quiet), facial
expressions (i.e. a nod instead of a yes).
Note the implications of the proverb: "Actions speak louder than words." In essence,
this  underscores  the  importance  of  non-verbal  communication.  Non-verbal
communication is especially significant in intercultural situations. Probably non-verbal
differences account for typical difficulties in communicating.
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Introduction to Business ­MGT 211
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Cultural Differences in Non-verbal Communication
General Appearance and Dress
All cultures are concerned for how they look and make judgments based on looks and
dress. Americans, for instance, appear almost obsessed with dress and personal
attractiveness. Consider differing cultural standards on what is attractive in dress and
on what constitutes modesty. Note ways dress is used as a sign of status?
Body Movement
We send information on attitude toward person (facing or leaning towards another),
emotional statue (tapping fingers, jiggling coins), and desire to control the environment
(moving towards or away from a person).
More than 700,000 possible motions we can make -- so impossible to categorize them
all! But just need to be aware the body movement and position is a key ingredient in
sending messages.
Posture
Consider the following actions and note cultural differences:
Bowing (not done, criticized, or affected in US; shows rank in Japan)
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Slouching (rude in most Northern European areas)
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Hands in pocket (disrespectful in Turkey)
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Sitting with legs crossed (offensive in Ghana, Turkey)
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Showing soles of feet. (Offensive in Thailand, Saudi Arabia)
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Even in US, there is a gender difference on acceptable posture?
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Gestures
Impossible to catalog them all. But need to recognize: 1) incredible possibility and
variety and 2) that an acceptable in one's own culture may be offensive in another. In
addition, amount of gesturing varies from culture to culture. Some cultures are
animated; other restrained. Restrained cultures often feel animated cultures lack
manners and overall restraint. Animated cultures often feel restrained cultures lack
emotion or interest.
Even simple things like using hands to point and count differ.
Pointing: US with index finger; Germany with little finger; Japanese with entire hand (in
fact most Asians consider pointing with index finger to be rude)
Counting: Thumb = 1 in Germany, 5 in Japan, middle finger for 1 in Indonesia.
Facial Expressions
While some say that facial expressions are identical, meaning attached to them differs.
Majority opinion is that these do have similar meanings world-wide with respect to
smiling, crying, or showing anger, sorrow, or disgust. However, the intensity varies
from culture to culture. Note the following:
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Introduction to Business ­MGT 211
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Many Asian cultures suppress facial expression as much as possible.
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Many Mediterranean (Latino / Arabic) cultures exaggerate grief or sadness
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while most American men hide grief or sorrow.
Some see "animated" expressions as a sign of a lack of control.
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Too much smiling is viewed in as a sign of shallowness.
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Women smile more than men.
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Eye Contact and Gaze
In USA, eye contact indicates: degree of attention or interest, influences attitude
change or persuasion, regulates interaction, communicates emotion, defines power
and status, and has a central role in managing impressions of others.
Western cultures -- see direct eye to eye contact as positive (advise children to
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look a person in the eyes). But within USA, African-Americans use more eye
contact when talking and less when listening with reverse true for Anglo
Americans. This is a possible cause for some sense of unease between races
in US. A prolonged gaze is often seen as a sign of sexual interest.
Arabic cultures make prolonged eye-contact. -- believe it shows interest and
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helps them understand truthfulness of the other person. (A person who doesn't
reciprocate is seen as untrustworthy)
Japan, Africa, Latin American, Caribbean -- avoid eye contact to show respect.
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Touch
Question: Why do we touch, where do we touch, and what meanings do we assign
when someone else touches us?
Illustration: An African-American male goes into a convenience store recently
taken over by new Korean immigrants. He gives a $20 bill for his purchase to
Mrs. Cho who is cashier and waits for his change. He is upset when his
change is put down on the counter in front of him.
What is the problem? Traditional Korean (and many other Asian countries)
don't touch strangers. Especially between members of the opposite sex. But
the African-American sees this as another example of discrimination (not
touching him because he is black).
Basic answer: Touch is culturally determined! But each culture has a clear concept of
what parts of the body one may not touch. Basic message of touch is to affect or
control -- protect, support, disapprove (i.e. hug, kiss, hit, kick).
USA -- handshake is common (even for strangers), hugs, kisses for those of
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opposite gender or of family (usually) on an increasingly more intimate basis.
Note differences between African-Americans and Anglos in USA. Most African
Americans touch on greeting but are annoyed if touched on the head (good
boy, good girl overtones).
Islamic and Hindu: typically don't touch with the left hand. To do so is a social
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insult. Left hand is for toilet functions. Mannerly in India to break your bread
only with your right hand (sometimes difficult for non-Indians)
Islamic cultures generally don't approve of any touching between genders
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(even hand shakes). But consider such touching (including hand holding, hugs)
between same-sex to be appropriate.
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Many Asians don't touch the head (Head houses the soul and a touch puts it in
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jeopardy).
Basic patterns: Cultures (English, German, Scandinavian, Chinese, and Japanese)
with high emotional restraint concepts have little public touch; those which encourage
emotion (Latino, Middle-East, Jewish) accept frequent touches.
Smell
USA -- fear of offensive natural smells (billion dollar industry to mask
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objectionable odors with what is perceived to be pleasant ) -- again connected
with "attractiveness" concept.
Many other cultures consider natural body odors as normal (Arabic).
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Asian cultures (Filipino, Malay, Indonesian, Thai, Indian) stress frequent bathing
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-- and often criticize USA of not bathing often enough!
Paralanguage
vocal characterizers (laugh, cry, yell, moan, whine, belch, yawn). These send
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different messages in different cultures (Japan -- giggling indicates
embarrassment; India ­ belch indicates satisfaction)
vocal qualifiers (volume, pitch, rhythm, tempo, and tone). Loudness indicates
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strength in Arabic cultures and softness indicates weakness; indicates
confidence and authority to the Germans,; indicates impoliteness to the Thais;
indicates loss of control to the Japanese. (Generally, one learns not to "shout"
in Asia for nearly any reason!). Gender based as well: women tend to speak
higher and more softly than men.
vocal segregates (un-huh, shh, uh, ooh, mmmh, humm, eh, mah, lah).
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Segregates indicate formality, acceptance, assent, uncertainty.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:CONCEPT OF BUSINESS, KINDS OF INDSTRY, TYPES OF TRADE
  2. ORGANIZATIONAL BOUNDARIES AND ENVIRONMENTS:THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
  3. BUSINESS ORGANIZATION:Sole Proprietorship, Joint Stock Company, Combination
  4. SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS:ADVANTAGES OF SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP
  5. PARTNERSHIP AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS:ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PARTNERSHIP
  6. PARTNERSHIP (Continued):KINDS OF PARTNERS, PARTNERSHIP AT WILL
  7. PARTNERSHIP (Continued):PARTNESHIP AGREEMENT, CONCLUSION, DUTIES OF PARTNERS
  8. ORGANIZATIONAL BOUNDARIES AND ENVIRONMENTS:ETHICS IN THE WORKPLACE, SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
  9. JOINT STOCK COMPANY:PRIVATE COMPANY, PROMOTION STAGE, INCORPORATION STAGE
  10. LEGAL DOCUMENTS ISSUED BY A COMPANY:MEMORANDUM OF ASSOCIATION, CONTENTS OF ARTICLES
  11. WINDING UP OF COMPANY:VOLUNTARY WIDNIGN UP, KINDS OF SHARE CAPITAL
  12. COOPERATIVE SOCIETY:ADVANTAGES OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETY
  13. WHO ARE MANAGERS?:THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS, BASIC MANAGEMENT SKILLS
  14. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:Human Resource Planning
  15. STAFFING:STAFFING THE ORGANIZATION
  16. STAFF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT:Typical Topics of Employee Training, Training Methods
  17. BUSINESS MANAGERíS RESPONSIBILITY PROFILE:Accountability, Specific responsibilities
  18. COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS:THE LEGAL CONTEXT OF HR MANAGEMENT, DEALING WITH ORGANIZED LABOR
  19. COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS (Continued):MOTIVATION IN THE WORKPLACE
  20. STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCING JOB SATISFACTION AND MORALE
  21. MANAGERIAL STYLES AND LEADERSHIP:Changing Patterns of Leadership
  22. MARKETING:What Is Marketing?, Marketing: Providing Value and Satisfaction
  23. THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT:THE MARKETING MIX, Product differentiation
  24. MARKET RESEARCH:Market information, Market Segmentation, Market Trends
  25. MARKET RESEARCH PROCESS:Select the research design, Collecting and analyzing data
  26. MARKETING RESEARCH:Data Warehousing and Data Mining
  27. LEARNING EXPERIENCES OF STUDENTS EARNING LOWER LEVEL CREDIT:Discussion Topics, Market Segmentation
  28. UNDERSTANDING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR:The Consumer Buying Process
  29. THE DISTRIBUTION MIX:Intermediaries and Distribution Channels, Distribution of Business Products
  30. PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION:Transportation Operations, Distribution as a Marketing Strategy
  31. PROMOTION:Information and Exchange Values, Promotional Strategies
  32. ADVERTISING PROMOTION:Advertising Strategies, Advertising Media
  33. PERSONAL SELLING:Personal Selling Situations, The Personal Selling Process
  34. SALES PROMOTIONS:Publicity and Public Relations, Promotional Practices in Small Business
  35. THE PRODUCTIVITY:Responding to the Productivity Challenge, Domestic Productivity
  36. THE PLANNING PROCESS:Strengths, Weaknesses, Threats
  37. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT:Planning for Quality, Controlling for Quality
  38. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (continued):Tools for Total Quality Management
  39. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (continued):Process Re-engineering, Emphasizing Quality of Work Life
  40. BUSINESS IN DIGITAL AGE:Types of Information Systems, Telecommunications and Networks
  41. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION MODES:Body Movement, Facial Expressions
  42. BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS:Organization as a System
  43. ACCOUNTING:Accounting Information System, Financial versus Managerial Accounting
  44. TOOLS OF THE ACCOUNTING TRADE:Double-Entry Accounting, Assets
  45. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT:The Role of the Financial Manager, Short-Term (Operating) Expenditures