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Theory of Automata

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Theory of Automata
(CS402)
Theory of Automata
Lecture N0. 18
Reading Material
Introduction to Computer Theory
Chapter 7
Summary
NFA corresponding to union of FAs, example, NFA corresponding to concatenation of FAs, examples, NFA
corresponding to closure of an FA, example
b
a,b
Example
a
a
q
FA1
p-
+
b
a
2
4
a
a
a,b
b
FA2
6+
a
b
b
a
b
b
3
5
3
a,b
b
a
a
q
p
+
b
b
a
a
a
2
4
-
a
a
a,b
b
b
1
6+
a
b
a
b
b
b
3
5
NFA equivalent to FA1«FA2
NFA corresponding to Concatenation of FAs
Method
Introduce additional transitions for each letter connecting each final state of the first FA with the states of
second FA that are connected with the initial state of second FA corresponding to each letter of the alphabet.
Remove the +ve sign of each of final states of first FA and ­ve sign of the initial state of second FA. It will
create non-determinism at final states of first FA and hence NFA, thus obtained, will be the required NFA.
Note
It may be noted that if first FA accepts the Null string then every string accepted by second FA must be accepted
by the concatenation of FAs as well. This situation will automatically be accommodated using the method
discussed earlier. However if the second FA accepts Null string, then every string accepted by first FA must be
accepted by the required FA as well. This target can be achieved as, while introducing new transitions at final
states of first FA the +ve sign of these states will not be removed.
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Theory of Automata
(CS402)
Lastly if both FAs accepts the Null string, then the Null string must be accepted by the required FA. This
situation will automatically be accommodated as the second FA accepts the Null string and hence the +ve signs
of final states of first FA will not be removed.
Example (No FA accepts Null string)
b
a,b
a
FA1
a
q
p-
r+
b
a
2
4
a
a
a,b
b
FA2
6+
a
b
b
a
b
b
3
5
3
a
2
4
a a
a
b
a,b
b
a,b
a
a
q
p-
r
a
6+
1
p
b
b
b
a
b
b
b
3
5
NFA equivalent to FA1FA2
Example (FA2 accepts Null string)
b
a,b
a
a
q
p-
r+
b
FA1
a, b
x±
y
FA2
a, b
a,b
b
a
a
q
p-
r+
b
a, b
a, b
y
x+
a, b
54
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Theory of Automata
(CS402)
NFA equivalent to FA1FA2
Example (Both FAs accept Null string)
a, b
x±
y
FA1
a, b
b
1±
3
b
a
a
a
a
FA2
b
4
2
b
b
a, b
b
y
3
±
1+
b
a, b
a
a
a
a
a
b
4
2
NFA equivalent to FA1FA2
b
NFA corresponding to the Closure of an FA
Apparently, it seems that since closure of an FA accepts the Null string, so the required NFA may be obtained
considering the initial state of given FA to be final as well, but this may allow the unwanted string to be
accepted as well. For example, an FA, with two states, accepting the language of strings, defined over. S = {a,
b}, ending in a, will accept all unwanted strings, if the initial state is supposed to be final as well.
Method
Thus, to accommodate this situation, introduce an initial state which should be final as well (so that the Null
string is accepted) and connect it with the states originally connected with the old start state with the same
transitions as the old start state, then remove the ­ve sign of old start state. Introduce new transitions, for each
letter, at each of the final states (including new final state) with those connected with the old start state.This
creates non-determinism and hence results in the required NFA.
Example
b
a,b
Consider the following FA
a
a
2
1-
3+
b
It may be observed that the FA* accepts only the additional string which is the Null string.
Considering the state 1 to be final as well, will allow the unwanted strings be accepted as well. Hence the
required NFA is constructed introducing the new initial state, shown below.
a
a,b
a
b
a
b
a
±
2
1
3+
b
b
55
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Theory of Automata
(CS402)
Example
Consider the following FA
b
a
a
2+
b
It may be observed that the FA* accepts only the additional string which is the Null string
As observed in the previous example the required NFA can be constructed only if the new initial state is
introduced as shown below.
a
b
a
a
b
±
1
2+
b
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