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Human Resource Development

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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
VU
Lesson 6
MOTIVATION
Motivation: The willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the
effort's ability to satisfy some individual need.
Three key elements can be seen in this definition; effort, goals and needs.
Effort element is a measure of intensity or drive. The quality of effort is equally important to the intensity of
the effort.
Need: An internal state that makes certain outcomes appears attractive. An unsatisfied need creates tension
that stimulates drives within an individual. These drives lead to a search behavior to find particular goals that, if
attained, will satisfy the need and reduce the tension.
Performance and Motivation: Motivation alone does need lead to performance. The level of performance
attained is determined by three independent factors; ability, motivation, and resources. For performance levels
to be high, all three factors must be high. If any one is low or missing, the performance level will be adversely
affected. For example, a very intelligent student who has the books, but because he/she does not care about
grades, will not study (low motivation) and will not get an A grade.
EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
1. Hierarchy of needs theory
Maslow's theory that there is a hierarchy of five human needs: Physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self ­
actualization.
Physiological needs: A person's needs for food, drink, shelter, sexual satisfaction, and other physical needs.
Safety needs: A person's needs for security and protection from physical and emotional harm.
Social needs: A person's needs for affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship.
Esteem needs: A person's needs for internal factors such as self ­ respect, autonomy, and achievement, and
external factors such as status, recognition, and attention.
Self ­ actualization needs: A person's needs to become what he or she is capable of becoming.
2. Theory X
The assumptions that employees dislike work, are lazy, avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to perform.
Theory Y
The assumptions that workers are creative, enjoy work, seek responsibility, and can exercise self ­ direction.
McRegor's theory of X and Y is however not confirmed.
3. Herzberg's Motivation ­ hygiene theory
The motivation theory that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, whereas extrinsic
factors are associated with job dissatisfaction.
Hygiene factors: Factors that eliminate job dissatisfaction but don't motivate.
Motivators: Factors that increase job satisfaction and motivation. These factors are intrinsic.
CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
1. McClelland's Three ­ needs theory
The motivation theory that says three needs ­ achievement, power, and affiliation ­ are major motives in work.
Needs for achievement (nAch): The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, and to strive
to succeed.
Needs for power (nPow): The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved
otherwise.
Need for affiliation (nAff): The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationship.
Of these three needs, need for achievement has been researched most extensively.
2. Goal ­ setting theory
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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
VU
The propositions that specific goals increase performance and that difficult goals, when accepted, result in
higher performance than do easy goals.
Self ­ efficacy: An individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
3. Reinforcement theory
The theory that behavior is a function of its consequences.
Reinforcers: Any consequence immediately following a response that increases the probability that the
behavior will be repeated.
Designing Motivating Jobs
Job design: The way tasks are combined to form complete jobs.
Job scope: The number of different tasks require in a job and the frequency with which those tasks are
repeated.
Job enlargement: The horizontal expansion of a job by increasing job scope.
Job enrichment: The vertical expansion of a job by adding planning and evaluating responsibilities.
Job depth: The degree of control the employees have on their work.
Job characteristics model (JCM)
A framework for analyzing and designing jobs that identifies five primary job characteristics, their
interrelationships, and their impact on outcomes.
Skill variety: The degree to which a job requires a variety of activities so that an employee can use a number of
different skills and talents.
Task identity: The degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.
Task significance: The degree to which a job has a substantial on the lives or work of other people.
Autonomy: The degree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the
individual in scheduling work and determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out.
Feedback: The degree to which carrying out work activities required by a job results in the individual's
obtaining direct and clear information about his or her performance effectiveness.
4. Equity theory
The theory that an employee compares his or her job's inputs ­ outcomes ratio with that of relevant others and
then corrects any inequity.
Referents: The persons, systems, or selves against which individuals compare themselves to assess equity.
5. Expectancy theory
The theory that an individual tends to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed
by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  2. FOUNDATIONS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR:Attitudes, Personality, Emotional Intelligence
  3. PERCEPTION:Attribution Theory, Shortcuts Frequently Used in Judging Others
  4. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION:Why Choose Big Five Framework?, THE OUTCOME OF FIVE FACTOR MODEL
  5. FIVE FACTOR MODEL:The Basis of Intrinsically Motivated Behavior, Intrinsic Motivation and Values
  6. MOTIVATION:EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION, Designing Motivating Jobs
  7. The Motivation Process:HOW TO MOTIVATE A DIVERSE WORKFORCE?,
  8. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION:PRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
  9. THE WORLD BEYOND WORDS:DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION, MINDFUL LISTENING
  10. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS:EGO STATES, Parent Ego State, Child Ego State
  11. TYPES OF TRANSACTIONS:Complementary Transactions, Crossed Transactions, Ulterior Transactions
  12. NEURO-LINGUISTIC-PROGRAMMING
  13. CREATE YOUR OWN BLUEPRINT
  14. LEADERSHIP:ORGANIZATIONAL DEMOCRACY
  15. LEADERSHIP:Environment and Strategic Leadership Link, Concluding Remarks
  16. UNDERSTANDING GROUP BEHAVIOR:Stages of Group Development, Advantages of Group Decision Making
  17. UNDERSTANDING TEAM BEHAVIOR:TYPES OF TEAMS, Characteristics of Effective Teams,
  18. EMOTIONAL FACET:PHYSICAL FACET
  19. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT & THE ROLE OF GOVERNACE:Rule of Law, Transparency,
  20. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and Its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  21. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI):Methodology,
  22. REPORTS:Criticisms of Freedom House Methodology, GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS
  23. SECTORS OF A SOCIETY: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS:PUBLIC SECTOR, PRIVATE SECTOR
  24. NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS):Types, Methods, Management, Citizen organization
  25. HEALTH SECTOR:Health Impact of the Lebanon Crisis, Main Challenges,
  26. A STUDY ON QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE
  27. ADULT EDUCATION:Lifelong learning
  28. THE PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ADULT EDUCATION:Problems of Adult Literacy, Strategies for Educating Adults for the Future
  29. TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION:VET Internationally, Technical Schools
  30. ASSESSING THE LINK BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL FORMATION AND PERFORMANCE OF A UNIVERSITY
  31. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION:Social responsibility, Curriculum content
  32. ENVIRONMENT:Dark Greens and Light Greens, Environmental policy instruments
  33. HDI AND GENDER SENSITIVITY:Gender Empowerment Measure
  34. THE PLIGHT OF INDIAN WOMEN:
  35. ENTREPRENEURSHIP:Characteristics of entrepreneurship, Advantages of Entrepreneurship
  36. A REVISIT OF MODULE I & II
  37. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT & ECONOMIC GROWTH (1975 TO 2003):
  38. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP:Origins, The Desired Outcomes of PPPs
  39. PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP):Situation in Pakistan,
  40. DEVOLUTION REFORMS A NEW SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT:
  41. GOOD GOVERNANCE:Participation, Rule of law, Accountability
  42. MACROECONOMIC PROFILE OF A COUNTRY: EXAMPLE ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN
  43. COORDINATION IN GOVERNANCE: AN EXAMPLE OF EU, The OMC in Social Inclusion
  44. MOBILIZING REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: THE ASEAN UNIVERSITY NETWORK, A CASE STUDY
  45. GOVERNMENT PRIORITIES AND POLICIES:Role of Government, Socio Cultural Factors in Implementing HRD Programs