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Leadership and Team Management

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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
Lesson 22
MOTIVATION AT WORK, MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP
Work motivation explains why employees behave as they do. Four prominent theories about work
motivation need theory, expectancy theory, equity theory, and organizational justice theory
provide complementary approaches to understanding and managing motivation in organizations.
Similarly Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs also help us to understand the employees work
behavior. Each theory answers different questions about the motivational process.
Work motivation can be defined as the psychological forces within a person that determine the
direction of a person's behavior in an organization, a person's level of effort, and a person's level of
persistence in the face of obstacles.
Three Approaches to Motivation:
Individual Differences Approach: Treats motivation as a characteristic of the individual.
Job & Organization Approach: Emphasizes the design of jobs and the general organizational
environment
Managerial Approach: Focuses on behaviors of managers, in particular, their use of goals and rewards
Needs Theories of Motivation:
Basic idea: Individuals have needs that, when unsatisfied, will result in motivation. Different
theories already discussed in chapter number 21 can also explain this phenomenon.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs is the most well-
o
known theory of motivation. He hypothesized that within every human being there exists a
hierarchy of five needs
Motivation-Hygiene theory: hygiene theory. Proposed by psychologist Frederick
o
Herzberg when he investigated the question, "What do people want from their jobs?" He
asked people to describe, in detail, situations in which they felt exceptionally good or bad
about their jobs.
Alderfer's ERG theory: Clayton Alderfer's existence-relatedness-growth (ERG) theory
o
builds on some of Maslow's thinking but reduces the number of universal needs from five
to three and is more flexible on movement between levels.
McClelland's Theory of Needs: The theory focuses on three needs: achievement, power,
o
and affiliation. Need for achievement: The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of
standards, to strive to succeed
What Factors Diminish
Motivation in the Workplace?
Unpredictable change in
Meaningless tasks
direction
Red tape
Lack of recognition
Lack of clear goals
Absence of humor
Failure to set priorities
Micromanagement
Distractions
Failure to delegate
Over-commitment
Bureaucratic hurdles
Information overload
Interpersonal conflict
No positive feedback
Lack of accountability
Lack of autonomy
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
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What are Some of the Results of
Poor Motivation in the Workplace?
Frustration
Laziness
Conflict
Failure
Lack of meaning
Poor quality
Absence of pride
Resistance
Resentment
Avoidance
Turnover
Tardiness
Detachment
Burnout
Discouragement
Demoralization
Negative
organizational culture
Causes of Motivational Problems:
Belief that effort will not result in performance.
Belief that performance will not result in rewards.
What are Some of the Most Powerful
Motivators in our Lives?
Commitment
Sense of
accomplishment
Money
Cultural norms
Meaning
Chance to make a
Recognition
difference
Love
Independence
Participation
Opportunity to serve
Emotion
Duty
Appreciation
Habit
Collegiality
High energy level
Competition
Perceived need for
Hate
change
Religious beliefs
How Can You Motivate Yourself?
Stick with your passions.
Share your enthusiasm.
Hang out with high achievers.
Flavor tedium with pleasure.
Go with your strengths.
Make lists.
Stay focused on results.
Just do something.
How Can You Motivate Others?
Associate with highly motivated people.
Set a measurable goal.
Make a compelling case.
Use emotional temptation.
Set a fire and keep it going.
Make it fun.
Explain how.
Keep doing something new and different.
Celebrate
Employee Motivation:
Good leadership is key
Create a culture of trust
Encourage risk taking
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
Foster ownership
Goal-directed efforts
Applying Motivational Concepts:
Recognize individual differences
Match people to jobs
Set challenging goals
Encourage participation
Individualize rewards
Link rewards to performance
Check for equity
Don't ignore money
Conditions of Leadership Motivation:
Leadership generates motivation when:
o
o  It increases the number and kinds of payoffs
o  Path to the goal is clear and easily traveled with coaching and direction
o  Obstacles and roadblocks are removed
o  The work itself is personally satisfying
Money as a Motivator:
According to Maslow and Alderfer, pay should prove especially motivational to people who
have strong lower-level needs.
If pay has this capacity to fulfill a variety of needs, then it should have good potential as a
motivator.
The Role of Money:
They value their services and place high value on them
They perceive money as symbol of their achievement
They do not remain in low paying organization
They are very self ­ confident
Know their abilities and limitations
Methods for Motivating Employees:
o  Set Goals
o  Use Pay for Performance
o  Improve Merit Pay
o  Use Recognition
o  Use Positive Reinforcement
o  Use Behavior Management
o  Empower Employees
o  Enrich the Jobs
o  Use Skill-Based Pay
o  Provide Lifelong Learning
o  Create motivating environment
o  Be positive
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION, ORGANIZATION THE STAGE FOR LEADERSHIP:Challenges, Value creation
  2. FOCUSING ON PEOPLE: THE KEY TO SUCCESS:People in the Process, Developing and Sustaining A World-class Workforce
  3. LEADERSHIP:Characteristics of Successful Leader, Why Study Leadership?
  4. LEADERSHIP (CONTD.):Characteristics of Leaders Who Fail, Why Leaders Fail?
  5. MANAGERS VS LEADERS:Characteristics, Effective Leadership, Respect for Diversity
  6. FOLLOWER-SHIP:Importance of Followers, Follower-ship Style
  7. LEADERSHIP PROCESS:Strategies for Cultivating Exemplary Followers, Important Traits of Leaders
  8. LEADERSHIP PROCESS (CONTD.):Qualities of Leaders, Self-Confidence, Integrity
  9. LEADERSHIP THEORIES/ APPROACHES:Personal Characteristics of Leaders, Managerial Grid
  10. CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP:The Fiedler Model, Situational Leadership Theory, Path-Goal Theory
  11. TRANSACTIONAL, CHARISMATIC AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Visionary Leadership
  12. THE LEADER AS AN INDIVIDUAL:Personality, Situation, Heredity, Environment
  13. ATTITUDE-PERSONALITY:Job Satisfaction, Work Situation, Self - Monitoring
  14. BIG FIVE MODEL, MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI):Sub-Categories Defined, Information Gathering
  15. SITUATIONAL FACTORS:Social and psychological climate, Culture of the organization
  16. BECOMING A LEADER! WHAT DOES IT MEAN & HOW DO YOU GET IT?:Mission Statement, Leading oneself
  17. BECOMING A LEADER:Elements of Leadership, CONCEPT OF POWER,
  18. UNDERSTANDING POWER:Sources of Power, Responses to the Use of Power, Managing Political Behavior
  19. LEADERSHIP POWER & INFLUENCE:Positional Power, Being an Effective Leader
  20. LEADERSHIP AND EMPOWERMENT:Power sharing and Empowerment, Share Information
  21. MOTIVATION:Guidelines for Delegating, Human Resource Approach
  22. MOTIVATION AT WORK, MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:What Factors Diminish Motivation in the Workplace
  23. LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION:Communication & the Four Management Functions
  24. REVIEW-1:Organizational Performance, That is the Role of Management?, Leaders Vs Managers
  25. GROUP & TEAM CONCEPT:Groups versus Teams, Deciding When to Use a Team
  26. TEAM DYNAMICS:Stages of Group Development, Problem-Solving Teams, Benefits of Teams
  27. BUILDING THE TEAM:Leadership success requires, Strategies for Team Building
  28. A TEAM-BASED ORGANIZATION:Basic Steps, Span of Control, Categories of Decisions
  29. DECISION MAKING:Categories of Decisions, The Decision-Making Process
  30. TEAM DECISION MAKING:Team Problem Solving Techniques, Concept of QC
  31. EFFECTIVE TEAM COMMUNICATION:Team/Group Communications
  32. CONFLICT IN TEAM:Sources of Conflict, Scarcity of Resources, Dysfunctional Outcomes
  33. TRAINING/LEARNING OF TEAM:Training Methods, Phases of Learning Cycles
  34. LEARNING ORGANIZATION:A Litmus Test, Work Relations
  35. REWARDING & RECOGNIZING TEAMWORK:Compensating Teams, Individual or Team Rewards?
  36. MANAGING/LEADING VIRTUAL TEAMS:Communications in Virtual Organizations, Virtual Leadership
  37. EFFECTIVE TEAM MEETINGS:Better Meetings, Meeting Roles, Meeting Room Facilities
  38. LEADING TEAM:Team Leadership Structures, Leadership Demands and Duties, Leadership Direction
  39. REVIEW-II:Types of Teams, Characteristics of High Performance Teams, Sources of Conflict
  40. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP:Strategic Management, Determining Strategic Direction, Developing Human Capital:
  41. LEADING CHANGE:Dynamics of Change, Change Models, Unfreeze
  42. CREATIVE LEADERSHIP:Awaken Your Senses, How Might These Definitions Be Integrated
  43. ETHICS IN LEADERSHIP:Character Traits Reflect Ethics, Manifests Honesty
  44. LOOKING AT THE FUTURE: WHAT COMES NEXT:Benefits of Teams, Ethical Leadership,
  45. TEAMWORK: LEARNING FROM NATURE:Social Behavior, Termites, Learning from Nature