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Principles of Management

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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
Lesson 13.37
MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE PROFESSIONALS
LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORIES
Motivating the "New Workforce i.e. Knowledge Professionals."
Another current motivation issue revolves around motivating the "new workforce." These special groups
present unique motivational challenges to managers. These professionals possess specialty knowledge of
markets, of customers, of supplier, of software, of hardware, of technology and are very important to run
the organizations smoothly in 21st century.
1.
Motivating professionals is one of these special challenges.
a.
Professionals are different from nonprofessionals and have different needs.
b.
Money and promotions are typically low on the motivation priority list for professionals. Job
challenge is usually ranked high as is support and the feeling that they're working on something
important.
Special challenges in motivating professionals include their long-term commitment to their field of
expertise, with greater loyalty to their profession than to their employer. Money and promotions are
typically low on professionals' priority list. Contingent workers lack the security that permanent employees
have and do not identify with or display much commitment to the organization. Temporary workers also
typically lack benefits such as health care and pensions. Low-skilled minimum-wage workers typically have
limited education and skills; offering higher pay is usually not an option.
Leadership
The recognition of the important role that leadership plays in organizational performance is widely
acknowledged by managers everywhere. Leadership is what makes things happen in organizations.
MANAGERS VERSUS LEADERS
There are distinctions between managers and leaders. Managers are appointed and have legitimate power
within the organization.
Leaders are those persons who are able to influence others and who possess managerial authority.
Leadership, then, is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals.
How leaders influence others
Leadership, the foundation of the management function of leading, is the process of influencing others
toward the achievement of organizational goals.
Power is the capacity to affect the behavior of others.
There are different types of power depending upon their sources originally identified by French and Raven.
1.
Legitimate power stems from a position's placement in the managerial hierarchy and the authority
vested in the position.
2.
Reward power is based on the capacity to control and provide valued rewards to others.
3.
Coercive power is based on the ability to obtain compliance through fear of punishment.
4.
Expert power is based on the possession of expertise that is valued by others.
5.
Information power result from access to and control over the distribution of important
information about organizational operations and future plans.
6.
Referent power results from being admired, personally identified with, or liked by others.
The different types of power can engender different levels of subordinate motivation.
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
1.
With commitment, employees respond enthusiastically and exert a high level of
effort toward organizational goals.
a.
Commitment is the most common outcome of referent power and expert
power.
b.
Commitment is least likely to result from the use of coercive power.
2.
With compliance, employees exert at least minimal efforts to complete directives,
but are likely to deliver average, rather than stellar, performance.
a.
Compliance is the most likely outcome of the use of legitimate power,
information power, and reward power.
b.
Compliance is a possible outcome of coercive power if used in a helpful
way or of referent power of expert power when some element of apathy is
present.
3.
With resistance, employees may appear to comply, but actually do the absolute
minimum, possibly even attempting to sabotage the attainment of organizational
goals.
a.
Resistance is a likely outcome of coercive power.
b.
Resistance is a possible outcome of other types of power if used
inappropriately.
4.
The effective manager is one who does not have to rely on a single power base but
rather, has high levels of power in several (all if possible) of these six power types.
Searching for Leadership Traits
Researchers began to study leadership in the early part of the 20th century. These early theories focused on
the leader (trait theories) and how the leader interacted with his/her group members (behavior theories).
A.
Trait Theories
1.
Research in the 1920s and 1930s focused basically on leader traits with the intent to isolate one or
more traits that leaders possessed, but that nonleaders did not.
2.
Identifying a set of traits that would always differentiate leaders from nonleaders proved
impossible.
B.
Traits are distinctive internal qualities or characteristics of an individual such as physical
characteristics (e.g., height, weight, appearance, energy), personality characteristics (e.g., dominance,
extroversion, originality), skills and abilities (e.g., intelligence, knowledge, technical competence), and social
factors (e.g., interpersonal skills sociability, and socioeconomic position).
C.
A number of the early research attempts were reanalyzed in the 1950s and concluded that there is
no set of traits which consistently distinguish leaders from nonleaders.
D.
Recent efforts suggest that the trait approach may have been abandoned prematurely.
1.
More sophisticated statistical techniques are now available.
2.
Several rather predictable traits have now been suggested such as
a.
intelligence
b.
dominance
c.
aggressiveness
d.
decisiveness
E.
The question of whether traits can be associated with leadership remains open. Recent research
work has looked at communication skills, human relations skills, resistance to stress, tolerance of
uncertainty, and others.
101
Table of Contents:
  1. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT:The Egyptian Pyramid, Great China Wall
  2. MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS:Why Study Management?
  3. MANAGERIAL ROLES IN ORGANIZATIONS:Informational roles, Decisional roles
  4. MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS I.E. POLCA:Management Process, Mistakes Managers Make
  5. MANAGERIAL LEVELS AND SKILLS:Middle-level managers, Top managers
  6. MANAGEMENT IDEAS: YESTERDAY AND TODAY, Anthropology, Economics
  7. CLASSICAL VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Scientific management
  8. ADMINISTRATIVE VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Division of work, Authority
  9. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT:The Hawthorne Studies
  10. QUANTITATIVE, CONTEMPORARY AND EMERGING VIEWS OF MANAGEMENT
  11. SYSTEMíS VIEW OF MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION:Managing Systems
  12. ANALYZING ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
  13. 21ST CENTURY MANAGEMENT TRENDS:Organizational social Responsibility
  14. UNDERSTANDING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT WTO AND SAARC
  15. DECISION MAKING AND DECISION TAKING
  16. RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Models of Decision Making
  17. NATURE AND TYPES OF MANAGERIAL DECISIONS:Decision-Making Styles
  18. NON RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Group Decision making
  19. GROUP DECISION MAKING AND CREATIVITY:Delphi Method, Scenario Analysis
  20. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-I:Methods of Forecasting, Benchmarking
  21. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-II:Budgeting, Scheduling, Project Management
  22. PLANNING: FUNCTIONS & BENEFITS:HOW DO MANAGERS PLAN?
  23. PLANNING PROCESS AND GOAL LEVELS:Types of Plans
  24. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE (MBO):Developing Plans
  25. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT -1:THE IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
  26. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT - 2:THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
  27. LEVELS OF STRATEGIES, PORTERíS MODEL AND STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT (BCG) AND IMPLEMENTATION
  28. ENTREPRENEURSHIP MANAGEMENT:Why Is Entrepreneurship Important?
  29. ORGANIZING
  30. JOB DESIGN/SPECIALIZATION AND DEPARTMENTALIZATION
  31. SPAN OF COMMAND, CENTRALIZATION VS DE-CENTRALIZATION AND LINE VS STAFF AUTHORITY
  32. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND ORGANIC VS MECHANISTIC VS VIRTUAL STRUCTURES
  33. LEADING AND LEADERSHIP MOTIVATING SELF AND OTHERS
  34. MASLOWíS NEEDS THEORY AND ITS ANALYSIS
  35. OTHER NEED AND COGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  36. EXPECTANCY, GOAL SETTING AND RE-ENFORCEMENT THEORIES
  37. MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE PROFESSIONALS LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORIES
  38. BEHAVIORAL AND SITUATIONAL MODELS OF LEADERSHIP
  39. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP MODELS
  40. UNDERSTANDING GROUP DYNAMICS IN ORGANIZATIONS
  41. GROUP CONCEPTS, STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT AND TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
  42. UNDERSTANDING MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  43. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND CHANNELS EFFECT OF ICT ON MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  44. CONTROLLING AS A MANAGEMENT FUNCTION:The control process
  45. CONTROLLING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY