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Principles of Management

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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
Lesson 8.24
MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE (MBO)
Time Span of Goals and Plans
1.
Strategic goals and plans generally involve time periods of 3-5 years.
2.
Tactical goals and plans typically involve time periods of 1 to 3 years.
3.
Operational goals and plans can be for as short a period as 1 week or as long as 1 year.
Characteristics of Well-Designed Goals
a.
Written in terms of outcomes
b.
Measurable and quantifiable
c.
Clear as to a time frame
d.
Challenging but attainable
e.
Written down
f.
Communicated to all organizational members
Steps in Goals Setting--Five Steps
a.
Review the organization's mission.
Goals should reflect what the mission statement says.
b.
Evaluate available resources.
c.
Determine individually, or with input from others, the goals.
d.
Write down the goals and communicate them to all who need to know.
e.
Review results and whether goals are being met.
Developing Plans
The process of developing plans is influenced by three contingency factors and by the planning approach
followed.
1.
Contingency Factors in Planning.
a.
Manager's level in the organization.
Operational planning usually dominates the planning activities of lower-level managers. As managers move
up through the levels of the organization, their planning becomes more strategic.
b.
Degree of environmental uncertainty. The greater the environmental uncertainty, the more plans
should be directional and emphasis placed on the short term.
1)
When uncertainty is high, plans should be specific, but flexible.
2)
Managers must be prepared to rework and amend plans, or even to abandon their plans.
c.
Length of Future Commitments.
1)
Commitment concept means that plans should extend far enough to meet those commitments
made when the plans were developed.
2)
Planning for too long or for too short a time period is inefficient and ineffective.
Approaches to Establishing Goals
Goals can be established through a process of traditional goal setting or through management by objectives
a.
Traditional goal setting is defined as the process whereby goals are set at the top of the
organization and then broken down into sub goals for each level in an organization.
1)
Top managers are assumed to know what's best because they see the "big picture."
2)
These goals are also often largely non operational.
3)
Specificity is achieved as each manager applies his or her own set of interpretations and biases.
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
4)
However, what often results is that objectives lose clarity and
unity as they move from top to bottom.
5)
When the hierarchy of objectives is clearly defined, it forms an
integrated means-end chain in which higher-level objectives are
linked to lower-level objectives. These lower-level objectives
serve as the means for the accomplishment of the higher-level
objectives. And the goals at the lower levels (means) must be
achieved in order to reach the goals at the next level (ends.)
Goal setting has some potential pitfalls
1.
Setting difficult goals increases the risk that they will not be reached.
2.
High goals may increase the stress levels of organizational members.
3.
Failure to meet high goals may undermine the self-confidence of organizational
members.
4.
Non goal areas may be ignored.
5.
Setting goals may encourage excessive shot-range thinking.
6.
Inappropriate goals may lead to dishonesty and cheating.
Management by Objectives
Management by objective (MBO) is a process through which specific goals are set collaboratively for the
organization as a whole and every unit and individual within it; the goals then are used as a basic for
planning, managing organizational activities, and assessing and rewarding contributions.
In Management by objectives (MBO) specific performance goals are jointly determined by employees
and their managers, progress toward accomplishing these goals is periodically reviewed, and rewards are
allocated on the basis of this progress.
1)
MBO was first described by Peter Drucker and consists of four elements:
i)
Goal specificity
ii)
Participative decision making
iii)
Explicit time period
iv)
Performance feedback
2)
MBO makes objectives operational through the process by which they cascade down through the
organization.
Although there is considerable variation across organizations, MBO processes typically include six steps.
1.
Organizational goals are developed based on organizational missions.
2.
Specific goals are established for departments, subunits, and individuals.
a.
In the top-down process, upper-level managers, conferring with their
immediate managerial subordinates, formulate specific objectives for their
areas of responsibility. These in turn enter into the formulation of
objectives for the next level down, and so forth.
b.
In the bottom-up process, operational goals are proposed by lower-level
managers on the basis of what they think they can achieve. These in turn
are developed into tactical and finally strategic plans.
3.
Action plans are formulated, describing what is to be done, how, when, where, and
by whom in order to achieve a particular goals.
4.
Individuals are given the responsibility of reaching their objectives and that goals
will ultimately be met.
5.
Performance is appraised at the end of the goal-setting cycle, typically at one-year
intervals. Praise, recognition, and rewards should be given for effective
performance.
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
The strengths of MBO are that it
1.
Aids coordination of goals and plans.
2.
Helps clarify priorities and expectations.
3.
Facilitates vertical and horizontal communications.
4.
Fosters employee motivation.
The weaknesses of MBO are that it
1.
Tends to falter without strong, continual commitment from top management.
2.
Necessitates considerable training of managers.
3.
Can be misused as a punitive device.
4.
May cause overemphasis of quantitative goals.
The "spirit" of MBO is tremendous. In practice however, MBO has been successful only about 20 to 25
percent of the time, primarily because of lack of support from top management and poor goal-setting and
communication skills.
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Table of Contents:
  1. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT:The Egyptian Pyramid, Great China Wall
  2. MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS:Why Study Management?
  3. MANAGERIAL ROLES IN ORGANIZATIONS:Informational roles, Decisional roles
  4. MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS I.E. POLCA:Management Process, Mistakes Managers Make
  5. MANAGERIAL LEVELS AND SKILLS:Middle-level managers, Top managers
  6. MANAGEMENT IDEAS: YESTERDAY AND TODAY, Anthropology, Economics
  7. CLASSICAL VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Scientific management
  8. ADMINISTRATIVE VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Division of work, Authority
  9. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT:The Hawthorne Studies
  10. QUANTITATIVE, CONTEMPORARY AND EMERGING VIEWS OF MANAGEMENT
  11. SYSTEMíS VIEW OF MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION:Managing Systems
  12. ANALYZING ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
  13. 21ST CENTURY MANAGEMENT TRENDS:Organizational social Responsibility
  14. UNDERSTANDING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT WTO AND SAARC
  15. DECISION MAKING AND DECISION TAKING
  16. RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Models of Decision Making
  17. NATURE AND TYPES OF MANAGERIAL DECISIONS:Decision-Making Styles
  18. NON RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Group Decision making
  19. GROUP DECISION MAKING AND CREATIVITY:Delphi Method, Scenario Analysis
  20. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-I:Methods of Forecasting, Benchmarking
  21. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-II:Budgeting, Scheduling, Project Management
  22. PLANNING: FUNCTIONS & BENEFITS:HOW DO MANAGERS PLAN?
  23. PLANNING PROCESS AND GOAL LEVELS:Types of Plans
  24. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE (MBO):Developing Plans
  25. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT -1:THE IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
  26. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT - 2:THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
  27. LEVELS OF STRATEGIES, PORTERíS MODEL AND STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT (BCG) AND IMPLEMENTATION
  28. ENTREPRENEURSHIP MANAGEMENT:Why Is Entrepreneurship Important?
  29. ORGANIZING
  30. JOB DESIGN/SPECIALIZATION AND DEPARTMENTALIZATION
  31. SPAN OF COMMAND, CENTRALIZATION VS DE-CENTRALIZATION AND LINE VS STAFF AUTHORITY
  32. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND ORGANIC VS MECHANISTIC VS VIRTUAL STRUCTURES
  33. LEADING AND LEADERSHIP MOTIVATING SELF AND OTHERS
  34. MASLOWíS NEEDS THEORY AND ITS ANALYSIS
  35. OTHER NEED AND COGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  36. EXPECTANCY, GOAL SETTING AND RE-ENFORCEMENT THEORIES
  37. MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE PROFESSIONALS LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORIES
  38. BEHAVIORAL AND SITUATIONAL MODELS OF LEADERSHIP
  39. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP MODELS
  40. UNDERSTANDING GROUP DYNAMICS IN ORGANIZATIONS
  41. GROUP CONCEPTS, STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT AND TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
  42. UNDERSTANDING MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  43. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND CHANNELS EFFECT OF ICT ON MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  44. CONTROLLING AS A MANAGEMENT FUNCTION:The control process
  45. CONTROLLING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY