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Principles of Management

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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
Lesson 1.2
MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS
The concepts of organizations, managers, and management are explored in this session. Every organization,
regardless of size, type, or location, needs managers who have a variety of characteristics. Managers may
come from any nationality or be of either gender.
Four questions are addressed:
1.
Who are managers?
2.
What do managers do?
3.
What is management?
4.
Why study management?
1.
Who are Managers?
"A manager is someone who works with and through other people by coordinating their work
activities in order to accomplish organizational goals."
The changing nature of organizations and work has blurred the clear lines of distinction between managers
and non-managerial employees. Many workers' jobs now include managerial activities. Definitions used in
the past may no longer work. Hence, an organizational member who works with and through other people
by coordinating their work activities in order to accomplish organizational goals may be called a manager.
However, keep in mind that managers may have other roles and work duties not related to integrating the
work of others.
You should be aware that managers may have a variety of titles and roles. They perform various jobs and
duties and are responsible for higher profits and for great performance. Managers work in various
departments and are employed by many types of organization.
You will be meeting different managers in this session and note what jobs, roles and work they perform in
their organizations, may it be national or multi-national or entrepreneurial organization.
2.
What do managers do?
No two managers' jobs are alike. But management writers and researchers have developed some specific
categorization schemes to describe what managers do. We can focus on following five categorization
schemes while making mind what do managers do:
1. Management functions and management process as detailed below:
Traditionally, a manager's job has been classified according to the following four functions i.e.:
Planning: determining organizational goals and the means for achieving them
Organizing: deciding where decisions will be made, who will do what jobs and tasks, and who will work
for whom
Leading: inspiring and motivating workers to work hard to achieve organizational goals
Controlling: monitoring progress towards goal achievement and taking corrective action when needed
I.  Good managers are those who assure themselves to perform these functions well.
II. New-style or 21st century managers are changing the way they perform these functions, thinking of
themselves more like mentors, coaches, team leaders, or internal consultants. They work with anyone
who can help them accomplish their goals rather than only following the chain of command. They ask
others to participate in making decisions and share information with others.
III. New-style managers perform four functions that have evolved out of the traditional functions: making
things happen; meeting the competition; organizing people, projects, and processes; and leading.
A. Making Things Happen: To make things happen you must determine what you want to
accomplish, plan how to achieve these goals, gather and manage the information needed to
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
make a good decision, and control performance, so that you can take corrective action if
performance falls short.
B. Meeting the Competition: Free trade agreements, shorter product development cycles, and
fewer barriers to entering industries have created increased competition. Companies must
consider how to deal with international competitors, have a well-thought-out competitive
strategy, be able to embrace change and foster new product and service ideas, and structure
their organizations to quickly adapt to changing customers and competitors.
C. Organizing People: Projects, and Processes: Changes in how a company is organized must
consider both people issues and work processes (how the work gets done)
D. Leading: Motivating and inspiring workers.
Management process is the set of ongoing decisions and work activities in which managers engage as they plan, organize, lead,
and control.
2. Managers perform various roles in organizations.
3. While performing, variety of management skills are needed and employed by managers.
4. Regardless of the level the manager is on, he or she must ensure that the work activities in the part of
the organizational system he or she is responsible for are coordinated and integrated.
5. Managers must "read" and attempt to interpret the situational contingencies facing them before
deciding the best way to work with and through others as they coordinate work activities.
What is Management
Simply speaking, management is what managers do. However, this simple statement doesn't tell us much.
We define management as the process of coordinating and integrating work activities so that they are
completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. Let's look at some specific parts of this
definition.
The process represents the ongoing functions of primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions
are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Let us remember it by POLCA.
Why Study Management?
Management is important for our society, industry and government organizations. The importance of
studying management can be explained by looking at the way we interact with organizations every day in
our lives. Every product we use, every service we receive, and every action we take is provided or affected
by organizations. These organizations require managers.
Modern management ensures to create competitive advantage through People:
A. Top-performing companies recognize the importance of the way they treat their work forces.
B. These companies use ideas such as employee satisfaction, selective recruiting, performance
based high wages , reduction of status differences, sharing information, self-managed
teams, and training and skill development .
C. Investing in people will create long-lasting competitive advantages that are difficult for other
companies to duplicate.
D. Sound management practices can produce substantial advantages in sales, revenues, and
customer satisfaction.
E. Poorly performing companies that adopted management techniques as simple as setting
expectations, coaching, and rewarding were able to substantially improve return on
investment.
F. Good management can increase customer satisfaction because employees tend to treat
customers the same way that their managers treat them.
By studying management, students will be able to recognize good management and encourage it, as well as
to recognize poor management and work to get it corrected.
After graduation, you will either manage or be managed. A course in management provides insights into the
way your boss or peer behave and shall help you to be familiar with the internal working of organizations.
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Table of Contents:
  1. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT:The Egyptian Pyramid, Great China Wall
  2. MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS:Why Study Management?
  3. MANAGERIAL ROLES IN ORGANIZATIONS:Informational roles, Decisional roles
  4. MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS I.E. POLCA:Management Process, Mistakes Managers Make
  5. MANAGERIAL LEVELS AND SKILLS:Middle-level managers, Top managers
  6. MANAGEMENT IDEAS: YESTERDAY AND TODAY, Anthropology, Economics
  7. CLASSICAL VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Scientific management
  8. ADMINISTRATIVE VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Division of work, Authority
  9. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT:The Hawthorne Studies
  10. QUANTITATIVE, CONTEMPORARY AND EMERGING VIEWS OF MANAGEMENT
  11. SYSTEMíS VIEW OF MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION:Managing Systems
  12. ANALYZING ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
  13. 21ST CENTURY MANAGEMENT TRENDS:Organizational social Responsibility
  14. UNDERSTANDING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT WTO AND SAARC
  15. DECISION MAKING AND DECISION TAKING
  16. RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Models of Decision Making
  17. NATURE AND TYPES OF MANAGERIAL DECISIONS:Decision-Making Styles
  18. NON RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Group Decision making
  19. GROUP DECISION MAKING AND CREATIVITY:Delphi Method, Scenario Analysis
  20. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-I:Methods of Forecasting, Benchmarking
  21. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-II:Budgeting, Scheduling, Project Management
  22. PLANNING: FUNCTIONS & BENEFITS:HOW DO MANAGERS PLAN?
  23. PLANNING PROCESS AND GOAL LEVELS:Types of Plans
  24. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE (MBO):Developing Plans
  25. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT -1:THE IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
  26. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT - 2:THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
  27. LEVELS OF STRATEGIES, PORTERíS MODEL AND STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT (BCG) AND IMPLEMENTATION
  28. ENTREPRENEURSHIP MANAGEMENT:Why Is Entrepreneurship Important?
  29. ORGANIZING
  30. JOB DESIGN/SPECIALIZATION AND DEPARTMENTALIZATION
  31. SPAN OF COMMAND, CENTRALIZATION VS DE-CENTRALIZATION AND LINE VS STAFF AUTHORITY
  32. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND ORGANIC VS MECHANISTIC VS VIRTUAL STRUCTURES
  33. LEADING AND LEADERSHIP MOTIVATING SELF AND OTHERS
  34. MASLOWíS NEEDS THEORY AND ITS ANALYSIS
  35. OTHER NEED AND COGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  36. EXPECTANCY, GOAL SETTING AND RE-ENFORCEMENT THEORIES
  37. MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE PROFESSIONALS LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORIES
  38. BEHAVIORAL AND SITUATIONAL MODELS OF LEADERSHIP
  39. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP MODELS
  40. UNDERSTANDING GROUP DYNAMICS IN ORGANIZATIONS
  41. GROUP CONCEPTS, STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT AND TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
  42. UNDERSTANDING MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  43. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND CHANNELS EFFECT OF ICT ON MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  44. CONTROLLING AS A MANAGEMENT FUNCTION:The control process
  45. CONTROLLING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY