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Principles of Management

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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
Lesson 11.33
LEADING AND LEADERSHIP
MOTIVATING SELF AND OTHERS
The nature of motivation
Being able to effectively motivate employees is a challenge that managers face in all types and sizes of
organizations. "Everything that we give to our workers gets returned to us in terms of efficiency, quality,
loyalty, and innovation."
Motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the
effort's ability to satisfy some individual need.
A.
Effort is a measure of intensity or drive. High levels of effort are unlikely to lead to
favorable job performance unless the effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the
organization.
B.
A need is an internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. An unsatisfied need
creates tension that stimulates drives within an individual. These drives generate a search behavior to find
particular goals that, if attained, will satisfy the need and reduce the tension.
Hence motivation is the force that energizes behavior, gives direction to behavior, and underlies the
tendency to persist.
1.
A person's motivation is not directly measurable, but must be inferred from
behavior.
2.
Performance is a function of ability, motivation and working conditions.
3.
Besides hiring individual with ability to do the work, managers have the challenge
to provide working conditions that nurture and support individual motivation to
work toward organization goals.
The main elements of motivation have been identified based on numerous studies. A simplified model of
motivation has been developed.
1.
Inner needs and cognitions lead to behaviors.
2.
Appropriate behaviors may result in rewards, which reinforce the behaviors, fulfill
needs, and provide cognitive input regarding the future association of behaviors
and rewards.
3.
Lack of rewards may lead to unfulfilled needs, un-reinforced behaviors, and
cognitive input in the form of expectations about the future.
Intrinsic Motivators
A person's internal desire to do some thing for his satisfaction, respect, prestige or loyalty.
Extrinsic Motivators
Factors of motivation that comes from outside (environment) or organization like pay, bonuses, tangible
benefits etc.
FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE: SUGGESTIONS FOR MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES
Several suggestions for motivating employees are given and are based on what is currently known about
motivation.
A.
Recognize individual differences in terms of needs, attitudes, personality, and other important
individual factors.
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
B.
Match people to jobs by identifying what needs are important to individuals and trying to provide
jobs that allow them to fulfill those needs.
C.
Use goals because the literature on goal setting suggests that managers should ensure that
employees have hard, specific goals and feedback on how well they're doing in pursuit of those
goals.
D.
Ensure that goals are perceived as attainable. Employees who see goals as unattainable will reduce
their levels of effort.
E.
Individualize rewards. Because employees have different needs, what is a reward and
reinforce to one may not work for another.
F.
Link rewards to performance by making rewards contingent on desired levels of performance.
G.
Check the system for equity. Employees should perceive that the rewards or outcomes are equal to
the inputs given.
H.
Don't ignore money. The allocation of performance-based increases, piecework bonuses, and other
pay incentives is important in determining employee motivation.
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Table of Contents:
  1. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT:The Egyptian Pyramid, Great China Wall
  2. MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS:Why Study Management?
  3. MANAGERIAL ROLES IN ORGANIZATIONS:Informational roles, Decisional roles
  4. MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS I.E. POLCA:Management Process, Mistakes Managers Make
  5. MANAGERIAL LEVELS AND SKILLS:Middle-level managers, Top managers
  6. MANAGEMENT IDEAS: YESTERDAY AND TODAY, Anthropology, Economics
  7. CLASSICAL VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Scientific management
  8. ADMINISTRATIVE VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Division of work, Authority
  9. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT:The Hawthorne Studies
  10. QUANTITATIVE, CONTEMPORARY AND EMERGING VIEWS OF MANAGEMENT
  11. SYSTEMíS VIEW OF MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION:Managing Systems
  12. ANALYZING ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
  13. 21ST CENTURY MANAGEMENT TRENDS:Organizational social Responsibility
  14. UNDERSTANDING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT WTO AND SAARC
  15. DECISION MAKING AND DECISION TAKING
  16. RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Models of Decision Making
  17. NATURE AND TYPES OF MANAGERIAL DECISIONS:Decision-Making Styles
  18. NON RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Group Decision making
  19. GROUP DECISION MAKING AND CREATIVITY:Delphi Method, Scenario Analysis
  20. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-I:Methods of Forecasting, Benchmarking
  21. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-II:Budgeting, Scheduling, Project Management
  22. PLANNING: FUNCTIONS & BENEFITS:HOW DO MANAGERS PLAN?
  23. PLANNING PROCESS AND GOAL LEVELS:Types of Plans
  24. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE (MBO):Developing Plans
  25. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT -1:THE IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
  26. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT - 2:THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
  27. LEVELS OF STRATEGIES, PORTERíS MODEL AND STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT (BCG) AND IMPLEMENTATION
  28. ENTREPRENEURSHIP MANAGEMENT:Why Is Entrepreneurship Important?
  29. ORGANIZING
  30. JOB DESIGN/SPECIALIZATION AND DEPARTMENTALIZATION
  31. SPAN OF COMMAND, CENTRALIZATION VS DE-CENTRALIZATION AND LINE VS STAFF AUTHORITY
  32. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND ORGANIC VS MECHANISTIC VS VIRTUAL STRUCTURES
  33. LEADING AND LEADERSHIP MOTIVATING SELF AND OTHERS
  34. MASLOWíS NEEDS THEORY AND ITS ANALYSIS
  35. OTHER NEED AND COGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  36. EXPECTANCY, GOAL SETTING AND RE-ENFORCEMENT THEORIES
  37. MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE PROFESSIONALS LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORIES
  38. BEHAVIORAL AND SITUATIONAL MODELS OF LEADERSHIP
  39. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP MODELS
  40. UNDERSTANDING GROUP DYNAMICS IN ORGANIZATIONS
  41. GROUP CONCEPTS, STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT AND TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
  42. UNDERSTANDING MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  43. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND CHANNELS EFFECT OF ICT ON MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  44. CONTROLLING AS A MANAGEMENT FUNCTION:The control process
  45. CONTROLLING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY