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Leadership and Team Management

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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
Lesson 19
LEADERSHIP POWER & INFLUENCE
Leaders use power as a means of influencing followers and attaining group goals. Getting things done
through others. Leaders achieve goals, and power is a means of facilitating their achievement. Power is
the capacity of a leader to influence work actions or decisions.
Sources of Leadership Power:
 There are two sources of the power used by leaders:
­
The power of the position
­
The leader's personal qualities
Position powers:
Person powers:
­
­
Reward
Expert
­
­
Coercive
Referent
­
­
Legitimate
Rational
­
­
Information
Charisma
Positional Power:
Coercive Power
The coercive power base is being dependent on fear.
It rests on the application, or the threat of application, of physical sanctions such as the infliction of
pain, the generation of frustration through restriction of movement, or the controlling by force of
basic physiological or safety needs.
At the organizational level, A has coercive power over B if A can dismiss, suspend, or demote B,
assuming that B values his or her job.
Similarly, if A can assign B work activities that B finds unpleasant or treat B in a manner that B
finds embarrassing, A possesses coercive power over B.
Reward Power
The opposite of coercive power is reward power.
People comply because doing so produces positive benefits; therefore, one who can distribute
rewards that others view as valuable will have power over those others.
These rewards can be anything that another person values.
Coercive power and reward power are actually counterparts of each other.
If you can remove something of positive value from another or inflict something of negative
value upon him/her, you have coercive power over that person.
If you can give someone something of positive value or remove something of negative value,
you have reward power over that person.
Legitimate Power
In formal groups and organizations, the most frequent access power is one's structural position. It
represents the power a person receives as a result of his/her position in the formal hierarchy.
Positions of authority include coercive and reward powers.
Legitimate power, however, is broader than the power to coerce and reward. It includes acceptance
of the authority of a position by members of an organization.
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
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Person Power:
Expert Power
Expert power is "influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill, or knowledge."
Expertise has become a powerful source of influence as the world has become more technological.
As jobs become more specialized, we become increasingly dependent on experts to achieve goals.
Referent Power
Its base is identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. If I admire and
identify with you, you can exercise power over me because I want to please you.
Referent power develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person; it is a lot
like charisma.
Referent power explains why celebrities are paid millions of dollars to endorse products in
commercials.
Charismatic Power
Charismatic power is an intense form of referent power stemming from an individual's personality,
physical, or other abilities that induces others to believe in and follow that person.
When charismatic power exists, other forms of power lose their significance because followers give
the charismatic leader the right to hold the reins of power and make the decisions that define the
vision and goals of an organization and its members.
Many charismatic leaders can excite a whole organization and propel it to new heights.
Charismatic power can have a dark side; charismatic power can be abused.
Some argue that charismatic power is an advantage only when a formal hierarchy of authority
places some checks on the power of this person.
The Leadership Position
Leadership is needed in all areas of society and at all levels of responsibility
 Power and responsibility come with the office of leadership
 Titles of leadership include:
­  President
­  Chief
­  Captain
­  Manager
­  Director
­  Supervisor
Power is important to get things done and lead the way to get the job done.
Bases of Power: following are the bases of powers;
Legitimate power ­ based on formal position of the leader
Reward Power ­ leader's ability to deliver rewards a worker values
Coercive Power ­ deliver punishment for wrong behavior
Expert Power ­ belief in superior task knowledge of leader
Referent Power ­ Personal attractiveness of the leader
Sources of Leader Power:
Furniture and office arrangements
Prominently displayed symbols
Appearances of title and authority
Choice of clothing
Presence or absence of crisis
Power Cues:
Commanding Large Personal Space
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
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Maximizing Body Size
Touching
Breaking Eye Contact
No Excessive Smiling
Avoiding Submissive Language
Being an Effective Leader:
First Competency- an effective leader has people waiting to join the team
Second Competency - a leader of commitment and focus with meaning
Third Competency ­ the management of trust
Fourth Competency ­ management of self
Fifth Competency: Focus on providing appropriate delegation.
Sixth Competency: Monitoring or update meetings
Seventh Competency: Develop the skill of letting others "RUN WITH THE BALL"
Asserting Leader Influence:
Use Rational Persuasion
Make People Like you
Develop Allies
Ask for What You Want
Extend Formal Authority with Expertise and Credibility
Using Power and Politics for Leader's Future:
Use Persuasion over Coercion
Use Patience over Impatience
Be Open-Minded Rather Than Close-Minded
Use Compassion over Confrontation
Use Integrity over Dishonesty
Contrasting Leadership and Power:
Leadership
Power
1. Used as a means for achieving goals.
1. Focuses on goal achievement.
2. Requires follower dependency.
2. Requires  goal  compatibility
with
3. Used to gain lateral and upward
followers.
influence.
3. Focuses influence downward.
How do Leaders Acquire the Power Needed for Leadership?
Acquiring and using power and influence: There are three dimensions of managerial power and
influence.
Downward.
Upward.
Lateral.
Effective Leaders /Managers build and maintain position power and personal power to exercise
downward, upward, and lateral influence.
Leadership Authority:
Views on leadership authority:
Top-down
Bottom-up
Lateral
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
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The top-down theory holds"
Leadership authority is based on position in a social hierarchy. Power flows from the highest level to
the lowest
In an organizational pyramid: Workers support managers, Managers support executives. The pyramid
serves as the basis of most classical organizational structures
The top-down concept is the traditional view of leadership.
The right of authority is derived from the right of private property.
Transfer of authority:
The Board appoints executives to manage the organization.
Executives give authority to managers and employees.
Bottom-Up View:
The
bottom-up
theory
holds
that
Power
flows
from
below
because
people  can  reject  a  directive  by  saying  no.  Saying  yes  or  no  affirms  or
denies
the
authority
of
others.
This
theory
was
first
described
by
Chester Barnard of AT&T
According to Barnard, an order will be accepted if four conditions are met:
1.
The person understands the order what a superior gave.
2.
The order is consistent with the organization's goals.
3.
The person believes that the order is compatible with his/her interests and he can do what the
superior says.
4.
The person is mentally and physically able to comply with order.
Leaders must make sure that:
a.
Directives fall within their subordinates' zones of acceptance.
b.
If not, orders may be met with resistance and even hostility.
Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up
Both views have merit that by accepting employment, employees should acknowledge, the
authority of Leaders is to make decisions and give orders, the employee's duty is to comply and
obey the orders.
How do Leaders Acquire the Power Needed for Leadership?
Building personal power by:
Building expertise.
Leader can build expertise by getting advanced training and education,
participation
in
professional associations, and project involvement.
Learning political know-how.
Leader may learn the ways to negotiate, persuade, and understand goals and means that others
accept.
Enhancing likeability.
Through Pleasant personality characteristics, agreeable behavior patterns, and attractive
personal appearance, he may acquire the power.
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Leaders increase the visibility of their job performance by:
a. Expanding contacts with senior people and making a strong network of strong/professional people
with in and out side the organization.
b. Making oral presentations of written work.
c. Participating in problem-solving task forces and involve in decision making.
d.  Sending out notices of accomplishment to the top management.
e. Seeking opportunities to increase name recognition.
Servant Leadership:
Servant leadership is a calling to serve and is an approach to leadership development.It begins with
caring for and wanting to help others. All great leaders are servants first.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION, ORGANIZATION THE STAGE FOR LEADERSHIP:Challenges, Value creation
  2. FOCUSING ON PEOPLE: THE KEY TO SUCCESS:People in the Process, Developing and Sustaining A World-class Workforce
  3. LEADERSHIP:Characteristics of Successful Leader, Why Study Leadership?
  4. LEADERSHIP (CONTD.):Characteristics of Leaders Who Fail, Why Leaders Fail?
  5. MANAGERS VS LEADERS:Characteristics, Effective Leadership, Respect for Diversity
  6. FOLLOWER-SHIP:Importance of Followers, Follower-ship Style
  7. LEADERSHIP PROCESS:Strategies for Cultivating Exemplary Followers, Important Traits of Leaders
  8. LEADERSHIP PROCESS (CONTD.):Qualities of Leaders, Self-Confidence, Integrity
  9. LEADERSHIP THEORIES/ APPROACHES:Personal Characteristics of Leaders, Managerial Grid
  10. CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP:The Fiedler Model, Situational Leadership Theory, Path-Goal Theory
  11. TRANSACTIONAL, CHARISMATIC AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Visionary Leadership
  12. THE LEADER AS AN INDIVIDUAL:Personality, Situation, Heredity, Environment
  13. ATTITUDE-PERSONALITY:Job Satisfaction, Work Situation, Self - Monitoring
  14. BIG FIVE MODEL, MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI):Sub-Categories Defined, Information Gathering
  15. SITUATIONAL FACTORS:Social and psychological climate, Culture of the organization
  16. BECOMING A LEADER! WHAT DOES IT MEAN & HOW DO YOU GET IT?:Mission Statement, Leading oneself
  17. BECOMING A LEADER:Elements of Leadership, CONCEPT OF POWER,
  18. UNDERSTANDING POWER:Sources of Power, Responses to the Use of Power, Managing Political Behavior
  19. LEADERSHIP POWER & INFLUENCE:Positional Power, Being an Effective Leader
  20. LEADERSHIP AND EMPOWERMENT:Power sharing and Empowerment, Share Information
  21. MOTIVATION:Guidelines for Delegating, Human Resource Approach
  22. MOTIVATION AT WORK, MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:What Factors Diminish Motivation in the Workplace
  23. LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION:Communication & the Four Management Functions
  24. REVIEW-1:Organizational Performance, That is the Role of Management?, Leaders Vs Managers
  25. GROUP & TEAM CONCEPT:Groups versus Teams, Deciding When to Use a Team
  26. TEAM DYNAMICS:Stages of Group Development, Problem-Solving Teams, Benefits of Teams
  27. BUILDING THE TEAM:Leadership success requires, Strategies for Team Building
  28. A TEAM-BASED ORGANIZATION:Basic Steps, Span of Control, Categories of Decisions
  29. DECISION MAKING:Categories of Decisions, The Decision-Making Process
  30. TEAM DECISION MAKING:Team Problem Solving Techniques, Concept of QC
  31. EFFECTIVE TEAM COMMUNICATION:Team/Group Communications
  32. CONFLICT IN TEAM:Sources of Conflict, Scarcity of Resources, Dysfunctional Outcomes
  33. TRAINING/LEARNING OF TEAM:Training Methods, Phases of Learning Cycles
  34. LEARNING ORGANIZATION:A Litmus Test, Work Relations
  35. REWARDING & RECOGNIZING TEAMWORK:Compensating Teams, Individual or Team Rewards?
  36. MANAGING/LEADING VIRTUAL TEAMS:Communications in Virtual Organizations, Virtual Leadership
  37. EFFECTIVE TEAM MEETINGS:Better Meetings, Meeting Roles, Meeting Room Facilities
  38. LEADING TEAM:Team Leadership Structures, Leadership Demands and Duties, Leadership Direction
  39. REVIEW-II:Types of Teams, Characteristics of High Performance Teams, Sources of Conflict
  40. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP:Strategic Management, Determining Strategic Direction, Developing Human Capital:
  41. LEADING CHANGE:Dynamics of Change, Change Models, Unfreeze
  42. CREATIVE LEADERSHIP:Awaken Your Senses, How Might These Definitions Be Integrated
  43. ETHICS IN LEADERSHIP:Character Traits Reflect Ethics, Manifests Honesty
  44. LOOKING AT THE FUTURE: WHAT COMES NEXT:Benefits of Teams, Ethical Leadership,
  45. TEAMWORK: LEARNING FROM NATURE:Social Behavior, Termites, Learning from Nature