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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
VU
LESSON 34
LEADERSHIP
At the end of the lecture students will be able to understand:
-
Leader ship functions;
-
Leadership styles;
-
Theoretical explanations of leadership and
-
Importance of theories to management;
Leadership Functions
To operate effectively groups need leaders who can perform two major functions in the
organizations to achieve objectives. The functions of leader in organization are:
1.
Task-related or problem-solving functions: While supervising workers, manager has to help
group solve problems. For example the employees are asked to process an admission
application in a college and the computers in which data is entered is not working. The
manager will have to resolve this problem by asking concerned people to repair computer.
The mangers that focus more on tasks are more concerned about output.
Group-maintenance or social functions. Group-maintenance functions are mediating
2.
disputes and ensuring that individuals feel valued by the group. These problems relate to
people . Suppose two employees working have some differences and now they do not talk to
each other. The manager will have to mediate between two employees.
Leadership Styles
Managers who have a task-oriented style closely supervise employees to be sure the task is
performed satisfactorily. Getting the job done is given more emphasis than employees' growth or personal
satisfaction. Managers with an employee-oriented style put more emphasis on motivating, mediating etc.,
rather than controlling subordinates.
Tannenbaum and Schmidt were the first to describe factors that influence managers' choice of
leadership style. They favoured `employee-centered' style, but they said that managers considered three sets
of forces before choosing a leadership style. These sets of forces are:
1. Forces in manager: his/her knowledge, background, experience, for example a managers who
believes that organization's needs are more important will be more directive.
2.  Forces in employees: their knowledge, experience, background, willingness to work, attitudes
aptitude etc.
3.  Organizational force: organizational preferred style, culture, pressure of time etc.
All the three forces will combine to determine what style of leadership is used by manger.
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
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Figure 1
Continuum of Leadership Behaviour
Subordinate-Centered
Boss-Centered
Leadership
Leadership
Use of Authority
By the Manager
Area of Freedom
For Subordinates
Manager
Manager
Manager
Manager
Manager
Manager
Manager
Defines
Permits
Presents
Presents
Presents
makes
"sells"
Limits;
employees
Problem,
Ideas and
Tentative
Decision and
Decision
Asks
to function
Gets
Invites
Decision
announces
group
Within limits
Suggestions,
Subject to
Questions
it
To make
Defined by
Makes
Change
decision
superior
decision
Now let's look at figure 1 which shows a scale of leadership style i.e. whether manager will have
"subordinate centre style", in which, area of freedom for subordinates will be more. Or whether manager
would have "boss centered leadership" where boss will have more authority. The two extreme leadership
styles are shown and in between these two extremes is the variation of style that a manager will adopt
depending upon the three forces.
Contingency Approaches
Researchers using the trait and behavioral approaches showed that effective leadership depended on
many variables, such as organizational culture and the nature of tasks. No one trait was common to all
effective leaders. No one style was effective in all situations. According to this approach it will be the
situation that will determine what should be the leadership style. And since every situation is different,
therefore, every style is different.
Contingencies theories focus on the following factors that determine leadership style:
1. Task requirements: The style of leadership depends on what the work demands. For example, in
the battle field the task demands that orders to be complied strictly.
2.  Peers' expectations and behavior: In organizational situation, people whom we work with have
certain expectations, like peers may expect that you will cooperate.
3.  Employees' characteristics, expectations, and behavior: It is important for manager to know
characteristics and expectations of employee and decide to have a leadership style accordingly.
4.  Organizational culture and policies: Organizations have their culture and every organization has its
own policies; therefore, managerial leader should also keep in view these factors before adopting
leadership style.
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
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Hersey & Blanchard's Contingency Model
Main contingency approach to leadership is given by Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchard's
Contingency leadership model. It says that the most effective leadership style varies with the "readiness" of
employees. Hersey and Blanchard define `readiness' as desire for achievement, willingness to accept
responsibility, task-related ability, skill, and experience of employees. Also the goals and knowledge of
followers are important variables in determining effective leadership style.
In other words the situational leadership says that leadership style will vary from situation to situation.
Personal Characteristics of Employees
The personal characteristics of employees will partially determine leadership style. Hersey and
Blanchard believe that the relationship between a manager and follower (employee) moves through four
phases as employees develop, and managers need to vary their leadership style (Figure 2). In the initial phase
of readiness high amounts of task behavior by the manager is most appropriate (box 1). In this situation
employees must be instructed, and managers will have low level of relationship behaviour and high level of
guidance. In box 2 there is high task and high relationship as employees have understood the job and
manager's guidance is little and there is shift on relationship. In box 3 employees have understood job well,
now there is high relationship and low task emphasis.
Figure 2
Situational Model of Leadership
Leader Behavior
(High)
High Task And
High Relationship
High Relationship
And Low Task
Relationship Behavior
2
3
(Providing Supportive
Behavior)
High Task and
Low Relationship
Low Relationship
And Low Task
4
1
(Low)
(Low)
(High)
Leader Behavior
(Providing Guidance)
There are two other types of leader. These are discussed below
1. Transformational or Charismatic
One area of growing interest is the study of individuals who have an exceptional impact on their
organizations. These individuals may be called transformational leaders. Through their personal vision and
energy they inspire followers and have a major impact on their organizations.
2. Transactional Leaders
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
VU
Leaders who determine what subordinates need to do to achieve objectives, classify those
requirements, and help subordinates become confident. They do routine work of the organization and are
also called bureaucratic leader.
Managerial Leadership and Team
As it was said in the beginning of the lecture on leadership that a leader needs followers and
without followers leader has no significance. In managerial leadership it is the existence of team which is
important. Besides, people get the organizational work done through people. Therefore must know the
dynamics of team
Concepts
Leadership functions:
Two important leadership functions that manager has to
perform (task-related and social functions).
Employee centered style:
This style of leadership is more concerned with employee
characteristics and accordingly adopting a leadership style.
Situational leadership style:
This style of leadership is the style that depends on situation.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  8. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION II
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  20. PLANNING COMMISSION AND PLANNING DEVELOPMENT:Functions, Approval Authority
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  25. SELECTION AND TRAINING AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS:Performance Evaluation,
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  44. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA I
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management