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Leadership and Team Management

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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
Lesson 23
LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION
Communication is one of the most important processes that take place in any organizations. Effective
communication allows individuals, groups, teams and organizations to achieve their goals and perform
at a high level, and it affects virtually every aspect of organizational behavior.
One of the defining features of communication is the sharing of information with other people.
Another defining feature is reaching a common understanding. In this case, communication is the
sharing of information between two or more individuals or groups to reach a common understanding.
Reaching a common understanding does not mean that people have to agree with each other.
Communication is good or effective when members of organization share information with each other
and all parties involved are relatively clear about what information means.
Why is this important???
Effective communication is important in organizations because it affects practically every aspect of
organizational behavior. Good communication prevents many problems from occurring and serves as
motivation in an organization. Why it is important for leaders?
As a leader:
You need people to understand what you are talking about.
You must take into consideration other people's needs.
You need to be able to hear others opinions and ideas.
You need to organize and capitalize on the best ideas.
You need to delegate.
A good leader spend 70% of day on communicating to share vision, motivate team
members/employees, pass the information and build the relationship with other people.
How Communication Works:
Before communication can take place a purpose expressed as a message to be conveyed, is needed.
o  It passes between a source (the sender) and a receiver.
o  The message is encoded (converted to symbolic form) and is passed by way of some medium
(channel) to the receiver, who retranslates (decodes) the message initiated by the sender.
o  The result is transference of meaning from one person to another.
The communication model is made up of eight parts: the source, encoding, the message, the channel,
decoding, the receiver, noise, and feedback:
o  The source initiates a message by encoding a thought.
o  The message is the actual physical product from the source.
o  The channel is the medium through which the message travels.
o  The receiver is the object to whom the message is directed.
o  Decoding--the symbols in the message must be translated into a form that can be understood
by the receiver.
o  The receiver is limited by his/her skills, attitudes, knowledge, and social-cultural system.
o  Noise represents communication barriers that distort the clarity of the message.
o  Feedback is the check on how successful we have been in transferring our messages as
originally intended.
Communications experts tell us that effective communication is the result of a common understanding
between the communicator and the receiver. In fact the word communication is derived from the Latin
"communis", meaning "common."
Communication & the Four Management Functions:
Planning:
 Gather information
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
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 Write memos, letters, reports
 Meet to formulate plans
Organizing:
 Gather info about state of organization
 Communicate new structure
Directing:
 Communicate plan and strategy
 Motivate employees
Controlling:
 Feedback; "How we doing?"
Communication Principles:
o  Communication has purpose
o  Communication is continuous
o  Communication is relational
o  Communication is culturally bound
o  Communication has ethical implications
o  Communication is learned
Downward
Communication that flows from one level of a group organization to a lower level is a downward
o
communication. This is typically what we think of when managers communicate with workers.
Its purpose is to assign goals, provide instructions, communicate policies and procedures, provide
o
feedback, etc.
It does not have to be face-to-face or an oral communication.
o
Upward
o  Upward communication flows to a higher level in the group or organization.
o  It is used to provide feedback to higher-ups, inform them of progress, and relay current problems.
o  Examples of upward communication are: performance reports prepared by lower management for
review by middle and top management, suggestion boxes, employee attitude surveys, etc.
Lateral
o  When communication takes place among members of the same work group, among members of
work groups at the same level, among managers at the same level, or among any horizontally
equivalent personnel, horizontal communications are often necessary to save time and facilitate
coordination. In some cases, these lateral relationships are formally sanctioned. Often, they are
informally created to short-circuit the vertical hierarchy and expedite action.
o  They can create dysfunctional conflicts when the formal vertical channels are breached, when
members go above or around their superiors to get things done, or when bosses find out that actions
have been taken or decisions made without their knowledge.
Communication Types:
Speaking Skills
Speeches/Lectures
Conversation
Counseling
Writing skills
Presentation/Briefing skills
Actions
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
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Interpersonal Communication:
Oral Communication
o  Oral communication is the chief means of conveying messages. Speeches, formal one-on-
one and group discussions, and informal rumor mill or grapevine are popular forms of oral
communication.
o  Advantages are speed and feedback. A major disadvantage arises when the message must
be passed through a number of people. This increases the potential for distortion.
Written Communication
o  Written communications include memos, letters, electronic mail, faxes, periodicals, bulletin
boards, etc.
o  Advantages include that they are tangible and verifiable. A written record is available for
later use. People are more careful when communication is via written word.
o  Drawbacks include: time-consuming, lack of feedback, and no guarantee of receipt.
Nonverbal Communication
o  We send a nonverbal message every time we send a verbal one. At times the nonverbal
message may stand alone. They include body movements, facial expressions, and the
physical distance between sender and receiver.
o  We use body language to convey a message and typically do unconsciously.
o  The two most important messages body language conveys is the extent to which an
individual likes another and is interested in his or her views and the relative perceived
status between sender and receiver.
o  Intonations can change the meaning of a message.
o  Facial expressions convey meaning.
o  Physical distance or the way individuals space themselves also has meaning.
o  Proper physical spacing is dependent on cultural norms.
Barriers to Effective Communication:
A.
Filtering
o  Filter refers to a sender's purposely manipulating information so it will be seen as more
favorable by the receiver. For example, telling the boss what she wants to hear.
o  The more levels in an organization's structure, the more opportunities there are for
filtering. Being reluctant to give bad news, or trying to please one's boss distorts upward
communications.
B.
Selective Perception
o  Receivers in their communication process selectively see and hear based on their needs,
motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics.
o  Receivers project their interests and expectations into communications as they decode
them.
C.
Information Overload
o  When the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity, the result is
information overload.
o  The result is they tend to select out, ignore, pass over, or forget information. Or they may
put it aside until the overload situation is over. The result is lost information and less
effective communication.
D.
Emotions
o  How a receiver feels at the time a message is received will influence how he or she
interprets it. Extreme emotions are likely to hinder effective communication.
o  During those times we are most likely to disregard objective thinking and substitute
emotions for judgments.
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
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E.
Language
o  Words mean different things to different people. English--our common language--is far
from uniform in usage.
o  Individuals interpret meanings in different ways. For example, incentives and quotas are
often perceived as implying manipulation causing resentment among lower levels of the
organization.
F.
Communication Apprehension
o  An estimated five-to-twenty percent of the population suffer from communication
apprehension. They experience undue tension or anxiety in oral and/or written
communication. They may find it difficult to talk with others face-to-face or on the
telephone.
o  Studies show those affected with communication apprehension avoid jobs where
communication is a dominant requirement.
Managers need to be aware there is a group of people who severely limit their communications with
others and rationalize the behavior telling themselves it is not necessary for them to do their jobs
effectively.
Overcoming and Preventing Communication Barriers:
o  Be sensitive to the fact that cross-cultural communication barriers exist.
o  Challenge your cultural assumptions.
o  Show respect for all workers.
o  Use straightforward language, and speak slowly and clearly.
o  Look for signs of misunderstanding when your language is not the listener's native
language
o  When the situation is appropriate, speak the language of the people from another culture
o  Observe cross-cultural differences
o  Do not be sidetracked by style, accent, grammar, or personal appearance
o  Be sensitive to differences in nonverbal communication
Formal vs. Informal Communication
Formal Communication: Formal reporting relationships in an organization reflect one type of
o
organizational communication network. Formal reporting relationships emerge from the chain
of command established by an organization's hierarchy. Communication flows up and down
the hierarchy of the organization from superiors to subordinates and vice versa.
Informal Communication: Informal communication is more spontaneous communication
o
occurring without regard for the formal channels of communication.
Nonverbal Behaviors of Communication:
o  Eye contact
o  Facial Expressions
o  Gestures
o  Posture and body orientation
o  Proximity
o  Vocal
Nonverbal Communication:
o  We send a nonverbal message every time we send a verbal one. At times the nonverbal
message may stand alone. They include body movements, facial expressions, and the
physical distance between sender and receiver.
o  We use body language to convey a message and typically do unconsciously.
o  The two most important messages body language conveys is the extent to which an
individual likes another and is interested in his or her views and the relative perceived
status between sender and receiver.
o  Intonations can change the meaning of a message.
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
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o  Facial expressions convey meaning.
o  Physical distance or the way individuals space themselves also has meaning.
o  Proper physical spacing is dependent on cultural norms.
Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information or idea that the
sender intended to transmit.
Keys to Effective Communication:
Who is the audience?
Have you targeted them correctly?
Can you push the right buttons?
What is your message?
What is the desired affect?
Clarity/Conciseness
Honesty/Knowledge/Expertise
Some Dos and Don't during communication
Do
Don't
Have sad/bored face
Smile
Have a creepy stare!
Look them in the eye
Act bossy, as if you are above others
Look them in the eye Invade their space
bubble
Take charge
The Communication Planning Process:
Before communication can take place a purpose expressed as a message to be conveyed, is needed.
o  It passes between a source (the sender) and a receiver.
o  The message is encoded (converted to symbolic form) and is passed by way of some
medium (channel) to the receiver, who retranslates (decodes) the message initiated by the
sender.
o  The result is transference of meaning from one person to another.
The communication model is made up of eight parts: the source, encoding, the message, the
channel, decoding, the receiver, noise, and feedback:
o  The source initiates a message by encoding a thought.
o  The message is the actual physical product from the source.
o  The channel is the medium through which the message travels.
o  The receiver is the object to whom the message is directed.
o  Decoding--the symbols in the message must be translated into a form that can be
understood by the receiver.
o  The receiver is limited by his/her skills, attitudes, knowledge, and social-cultural system.
o  Noise represents communication barriers that distort the clarity of the message.
o  Feedback is the check on how successful we have been in transferring our messages as
originally intended.
Models of Communication:
Action Model: Sender to Receiver
Interaction Model: Receiver gives feedback to Sender
Transactional Model: Both Sender and Receiver are in simultaneous communication
Communication in Organization: Communication is a process that links the individual, the group,
and the organization.
There are three common small-group networks: the chain, wheel, and all-channel.
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o  The chain rigidly follows the formal chain of command.
o  The wheel relies on the leader to act as the central conduit for all the group's
communication.
o  The all-channel network permits all group members to actively communicate with each
other.
The effectiveness of each network depends on the dependent variable with which you are concerned.
No single network will be best for all occasions
Major Problems of Organizational Communication:
o  Employees don't trust leaders
o  Leaders resist hearing the truth
o  Info filtered by chain of command
o  Different goal/perspectives
Communication and Leadership:
o  Effective leaders are also effective communicators.
o  To be effective, the leader must synchronize verbal and nonverbal behavior.
o  Technology has had a meaningful impact on leaders' communication and coordination
"In areas of leadership there is no talent more essential than one's ability to communicate."
Guarino (1974, p. 1)
The Leader as Communication Champion:
 Establish credibility
 Build goals on common ground
 Make your position compelling to others
 Connect emotionally
Strong relationships are built on mutual understanding. Leadership is a dialogue, not a monologue
Dialogue requires listening to others and sharing of yourself
Personal credibility: do what you say you will do.
Through effective communication, relationships are built, trust is established, and respect is gained.
Reducing Communication Barriers:
Leaders must have a plan that can be used to reduce barriers to effective communication through;
Establishing effective interpersonal relations
Managing position power
Being an active listener
Acquiring feedback
Displaying empathy
Applying ethics to the conversation
Speaking Hints:
When speaking or trying to explain something, ask the listeners if they are following you.
Ensure the receiver has a chance to comment or ask questions.
Try to put yourself in the other person's shoes - Consider the feelings of the receiver.
Be clear about what you say.
Look at the receiver. Make sure your words match your tone and body language (Nonverbal
Behaviors).
Vary your tone and pace.
Do not complicate what you are saying with too much detail.
Do not ignore signs of confusion.
Leadership is about listening:
 Hearing
 Understanding
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
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 Remembering
 Interpreting
 Evaluating
 Responding
 Hearing
Leaders and Communications
Leaders articulate and define what has
previously been unsaid. Communications
creates meaning for people. It's the only
way any group, small or large, can
become aligned behind the overarching
goals of an organization
Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus
Leaders
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION, ORGANIZATION THE STAGE FOR LEADERSHIP:Challenges, Value creation
  2. FOCUSING ON PEOPLE: THE KEY TO SUCCESS:People in the Process, Developing and Sustaining A World-class Workforce
  3. LEADERSHIP:Characteristics of Successful Leader, Why Study Leadership?
  4. LEADERSHIP (CONTD.):Characteristics of Leaders Who Fail, Why Leaders Fail?
  5. MANAGERS VS LEADERS:Characteristics, Effective Leadership, Respect for Diversity
  6. FOLLOWER-SHIP:Importance of Followers, Follower-ship Style
  7. LEADERSHIP PROCESS:Strategies for Cultivating Exemplary Followers, Important Traits of Leaders
  8. LEADERSHIP PROCESS (CONTD.):Qualities of Leaders, Self-Confidence, Integrity
  9. LEADERSHIP THEORIES/ APPROACHES:Personal Characteristics of Leaders, Managerial Grid
  10. CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP:The Fiedler Model, Situational Leadership Theory, Path-Goal Theory
  11. TRANSACTIONAL, CHARISMATIC AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Visionary Leadership
  12. THE LEADER AS AN INDIVIDUAL:Personality, Situation, Heredity, Environment
  13. ATTITUDE-PERSONALITY:Job Satisfaction, Work Situation, Self - Monitoring
  14. BIG FIVE MODEL, MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI):Sub-Categories Defined, Information Gathering
  15. SITUATIONAL FACTORS:Social and psychological climate, Culture of the organization
  16. BECOMING A LEADER! WHAT DOES IT MEAN & HOW DO YOU GET IT?:Mission Statement, Leading oneself
  17. BECOMING A LEADER:Elements of Leadership, CONCEPT OF POWER,
  18. UNDERSTANDING POWER:Sources of Power, Responses to the Use of Power, Managing Political Behavior
  19. LEADERSHIP POWER & INFLUENCE:Positional Power, Being an Effective Leader
  20. LEADERSHIP AND EMPOWERMENT:Power sharing and Empowerment, Share Information
  21. MOTIVATION:Guidelines for Delegating, Human Resource Approach
  22. MOTIVATION AT WORK, MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:What Factors Diminish Motivation in the Workplace
  23. LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION:Communication & the Four Management Functions
  24. REVIEW-1:Organizational Performance, That is the Role of Management?, Leaders Vs Managers
  25. GROUP & TEAM CONCEPT:Groups versus Teams, Deciding When to Use a Team
  26. TEAM DYNAMICS:Stages of Group Development, Problem-Solving Teams, Benefits of Teams
  27. BUILDING THE TEAM:Leadership success requires, Strategies for Team Building
  28. A TEAM-BASED ORGANIZATION:Basic Steps, Span of Control, Categories of Decisions
  29. DECISION MAKING:Categories of Decisions, The Decision-Making Process
  30. TEAM DECISION MAKING:Team Problem Solving Techniques, Concept of QC
  31. EFFECTIVE TEAM COMMUNICATION:Team/Group Communications
  32. CONFLICT IN TEAM:Sources of Conflict, Scarcity of Resources, Dysfunctional Outcomes
  33. TRAINING/LEARNING OF TEAM:Training Methods, Phases of Learning Cycles
  34. LEARNING ORGANIZATION:A Litmus Test, Work Relations
  35. REWARDING & RECOGNIZING TEAMWORK:Compensating Teams, Individual or Team Rewards?
  36. MANAGING/LEADING VIRTUAL TEAMS:Communications in Virtual Organizations, Virtual Leadership
  37. EFFECTIVE TEAM MEETINGS:Better Meetings, Meeting Roles, Meeting Room Facilities
  38. LEADING TEAM:Team Leadership Structures, Leadership Demands and Duties, Leadership Direction
  39. REVIEW-II:Types of Teams, Characteristics of High Performance Teams, Sources of Conflict
  40. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP:Strategic Management, Determining Strategic Direction, Developing Human Capital:
  41. LEADING CHANGE:Dynamics of Change, Change Models, Unfreeze
  42. CREATIVE LEADERSHIP:Awaken Your Senses, How Might These Definitions Be Integrated
  43. ETHICS IN LEADERSHIP:Character Traits Reflect Ethics, Manifests Honesty
  44. LOOKING AT THE FUTURE: WHAT COMES NEXT:Benefits of Teams, Ethical Leadership,
  45. TEAMWORK: LEARNING FROM NATURE:Social Behavior, Termites, Learning from Nature