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Total Quality Management TQM

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Total Quality Management ­ MGT510
VU
Lesson # 16
JURAN AND CROSBY ON QUALITY AND QUALITY IS FREE
The Juran Philosophy and Trilogy
The Juran Trilogy® is a registered trademark of Juran Institute, Inc.
Quality
Improvement
Quality
Control
Quality
Planning
Juran taught quality principles to the Japanese in the 1950s just after Deming and was a principal force
in their quality reorganization. Like Deming, he concludes that we face a major crisis due to the loss of
sales to foreign competition and the huge costs of poor quality. To solve this crisis, new thinking about
quality that includes all levels of the managerial hierarchy is required. Upper management in particular
requires training and experience in managing for quality.
Juran's programs are designed to fit into a company's current strategic business planning with minimal
risk of rejection. This is in contrast to Deming who proposes sweeping cultural change. Juran contends
that employees at different levels of an organization speak in different "languages." (Deming believes
statistics should be the common language.)
Top management speaks in the language of dollars, workers speak in the language of things, and middle
management must be able to speak both languages and translate between dollars and things. Thus, to get
top management's attention, quality issues must be cast in the language they understand ­ dollars.
Juran advocates the accounting and analysis of quality costs to focus attention on quality problems. At
the operational level, Juran's focus is on increasing conformance to specifications through elimination
of defects, supported extensively by statistical tools for analysis. Thus, his philosophy fits well into
existing management systems.
Juran defines quality as "fitness for use." (Deming advocates no specific definition.) This s broken
down into four categories: quality of design, quality of conformance, availability, and field service.
Quality of design focuses on market research, the product concept, and design specifications. Quality of
conformance includes technology, manpower, and management Availability focuses on reliability,
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Total Quality Management ­ MGT510
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maintainability, and logistical support. Field service quality comprises promptness, competence, and
integrity.
Juran views the pursuit of quality on two levels: (1) the mission of the firm as whole is to achieve high
product quality, and (2) the mission of each individual department in the firm is to achieve high
production quality. Like Deming, Juran advocates a never-ending spiral of activities that includes
market research, product development, design, planning for manufacture, purchasing, production
process control, and inspection and testing, followed by customer feedback. Because of the
interdependence of these functions, the need for competent company-wide quality management is great.
Senior management must play an active and enthusiastic leadership role in the quality management
process.
Juran's prescriptions focus on three major aspects of quality called the Quality Trilogy.
Quality planning ­ the process for preparing to met quality goals,
Quality control ­ the process for meeting quality goals during operations, and
Quality improvement ­ the process for breaking through to unprecedented levels of performance.
Quality planning begins with identifying customers, both external and internal, determining their needs,
and developing product features that respond to customer needs.
Quality control involves determining what to control, establishing units of measurement so that data
may be objectively evaluated, establishing standards of performance, measuring actual performance,
interpreting the difference between actual performance and the standard, and taking action on the
difference.
Juran's program for quality improvement involves demonstrating the need for improvement, identifying
specific projects for improvement, organizing to guide the projects, diagnosing the causes, providing
remedies for the causes, proving that the remedies are effective under operating conditions, and
providing control to hold improvements.
Quality Planning:
Quality planning involves developing the products, systems, and process
needed to meet or exceed customer expectations. The following steps are required:
1.
Determine who the customers are.
2.
Identify customers' needs.
3.
Develop products with features that respond to customer needs.
4.
Develop systems and processes that allow the organization to produce these features.
5.
Deploy the plans to operational levels.
Quality Control:
The control of quality involves the following processes:
1.
Assess actual quality performance.
2.
Compare performance with goals.
3.
Act on differences between performance and goals.
Quality Improvement: The improvement of quality should be ongoing continual:
1.
Develop the infrastructure necessary to make annual quality improvements.
2.
Identify specific areas in need of improvement, and implement improvement projects.
3.
Establish a project team with responsibility for completing each improvement project.
4.
Provide teams with what they need to be able to diagnose problems to determine root causes
develop solutions, and establish control that will maintain gains made.
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Total Quality Management ­ MGT510
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Juran's assessment of most companies is that quality control is far and away the top priority among the
trilogy and most companies feel they are strong in this category. Quality planning and quality
improvement, however, are not important priorities and are significantly weaker in most organizations.
He feels that more effort needs to be placed on quality planning and even more on quality improvement.
Japanese efforts at quality improvement were supported by massive training programs and top
management leadership. Training in managerial quality-oriented concepts as well as training in the tools
for quality improvement, cost reduction, data collection, and analysis is one of the most important
components of Juran's philosophy. Juran maintains that the Japanese experience leaves little doubt as to
the significance of the return on quality training in competitive advantage, reduced failure costs, higher
productivity, smaller inventories, and better delivery performance.
Crosby's Philosophy and Contributions
Philip B. Crosby started his career in quality later than Deming and Juran. His corporate background
includes 14 years as director of quality at ITT (1965-1979). He left ITT in 1979 to form Philip Crosby
Associates, an international consulting firm on quality improvement, which he ran until 1992, when he
retired as CEO to devote his time to lecturing on quality related issues.
Crosby, who defines quality simply as conformance to customer requirements, is best known for his
advocacy of zero defects management and prevention as opposed to statistically acceptable levels of
quality. He is also known for his work on Costs of Quality, Quality is Free and Crosby's Fourteen Steps
to Quality Improvement.
The essence of Crosby's quality philosophy is embodied in what he calls the Absolutes of Quality
Management and the Basic Elements of Improvement..
Crosby's Absolutes of Quality Management are as follows:
·
Quality means conformance to requirements not elegance. Crosby dispels the myth that quality is
simply a feeling of "excellence." Requirements must be clearly stated so that they cannot be
misunderstood. Requirements are communication devices and are ironclad. Once a task is done, one
can take measurements to determine conformance to requirements. The nonconformance detected is
the absence of quality. Quality problems become nonconformance problems ­ that is, variation in
output. Setting requirements is the responsibility of management.
·
There is no such thing as a quality problem. Problems must be identified by the individuals or
departments that cause them. There are accounting problems, manufacturing problems, design
problems, front-desk problems, and so on. Quality originates in functional departments, not in the
quality department, and the burden of responsibility for such problems lies with the functional
departments. The quality department should measure conformance, report results, and lead the drive
to develop a positive attitude toward quality improvement. This is similar to number 3 of Deming's
Points.
·
There is no such thing as the economics of quality: it is always cheaper to do the job right the first
time. Crosby supports the premise that "economics of quality" has no meaning. Quality is free.
What costs money are all the actions that involve not doing jobs right the first time. The Deming
Chain Reaction provides a similar message.
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Table of Contents:
  1. OVERVIEW OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT:PROFESSIONAL MANAGERIAL ERA (1950)
  2. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND TOTAL ORGANIZATION EXCELLENCE:Measurement
  3. INTEGRATING PEOPLE AND PERFORMANCE THROUGH QUALITY MANAGEMENT
  4. FUNDAMENTALS OF TOTAL QUALITY AND RATERS VIEW:The Concept of Quality
  5. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND GLOBAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE:Customer Focus
  6. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING FOR QUALITY AT OFFICE
  7. LEADERS IN QUALITY REVOLUTION AND DEFINING FOR QUALITY:User-Based
  8. TAGUCHI LOSS FUNCTION AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT
  9. WTO, SHIFTING FOCUS OF CORPORATE CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL MODEL OF MANAGEMENT
  10. HISTORY OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT PARADIGMS
  11. DEFINING QUALITY, QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND LINKS WITH PROFITABILITY
  12. LEARNING ABOUT QUALITY AND APPROACHES FROM QUALITY PHILOSOPHIES
  13. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT THEORIES EDWARD DEMING’S SYSTEM OF PROFOUND KNOWLEDGE
  14. DEMING’S PHILOSOPHY AND 14 POINTS FOR MANAGEMENT:The cost of quality
  15. DEMING CYCLE AND QUALITY TRILOGY:Juran’s Three Basic Steps to Progress
  16. JURAN AND CROSBY ON QUALITY AND QUALITY IS FREE:Quality Planning
  17. CROSBY’S CONCEPT OF COST OF QUALITY:Cost of Quality Attitude
  18. COSTS OF QUALITY AND RETURN ON QUALITY:Total Quality Costs
  19. OVERVIEW OF TOTAL QUALITY APPROACHES:The Future of Quality Management
  20. BUSINESS EXCELLENCE MODELS:Excellence in all functions
  21. DESIGNING ORGANIZATIONS FOR QUALITY:Customer focus, Leadership
  22. DEVELOPING ISO QMS FOR CERTIFICATION:Process approach
  23. ISO 9001(2000) QMS MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY:Issues to be Considered
  24. ISO 9001(2000) QMS (CLAUSE # 6) RESOURCES MANAGEMENT:Training and Awareness
  25. ISO 9001(2000) (CLAUSE # 7) PRODUCT REALIZATION AND CUSTOMER RELATED PROCESSES
  26. ISO 9001(2000) QMS (CLAUSE # 7) CONTROL OF PRODUCTION AND SERVICES
  27. ISO 9001(2000) QMS (CLAUSE # 8) MEASUREMENT, ANALYSIS, AND IMPROVEMENT
  28. QUALITY IN SOFTWARE SECTOR AND MATURITY LEVELS:Structure of CMM
  29. INSTALLING AN ISO -9001 QM SYSTEM:Implementation, Audit and Registration
  30. CREATING BUSINESS EXCELLENCE:Elements of a Total Quality Culture
  31. CREATING QUALITY AT STRATEGIC, TACTICAL AND OPERATIONAL LEVEL
  32. BIG Q AND SMALL q LEADERSHIP FOR QUALITY:The roles of a Quality Leader
  33. STRATEGIC PLANNING FOR QUALITY AND ADVANCED QUALITY MANAGEMENT TOOLS
  34. HOSHIN KANRI AND STRATEGIC POLICY DEPLOYMENT:Senior Management
  35. QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD) AND OTHER TOOLS FOR IMPLEMENTATION
  36. BASIC SQC IMPROVEMENT TOOLS:TOTAL QUALITY TOOLS DEFINED
  37. HOW QUALITY IS IMPLEMENTED? A DIALOGUE WITH A QUALITY MANAGER!
  38. CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM AND OTHER TOOLS OF QUALITY:Control Charts
  39. STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC) FOR CONTINUAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
  40. STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL….CONTD:Control Charts
  41. BUILDING QUALITY THROUGH SPC:Types of Data, Defining Process Capability
  42. AN INTERVIEW SESSION WITH OFFICERS OF A CMMI LEVEL 5 QUALITY IT PAKISTANI COMPANY
  43. TEAMWORK CULTURE FOR TQM:Steering Committees, Natural Work Teams
  44. UNDERSTANDING EMPOWERMENT FOR TQ AND CUSTOMER-SUPPLIER RELATIONSHIP
  45. CSR, INNOVATION, KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND INTRODUCING LEARNING ORGANIZATION