Total Quality Management MGT510
Lesson # 16
JURAN AND CROSBY ON QUALITY AND QUALITY IS FREE
The Juran Philosophy and Trilogy
The Juran Trilogy® is a registered trademark of Juran Institute, Inc.
Juran taught quality principles to the Japanese in the 1950s just after Deming and was a principal force
in their quality reorganization. Like Deming, he concludes that we face a major crisis due to the loss of
sales to foreign competition and the huge costs of poor quality. To solve this crisis, new thinking about
quality that includes all levels of the managerial hierarchy is required. Upper management in particular
requires training and experience in managing for quality.
Juran's programs are designed to fit into a company's current strategic business planning with minimal
risk of rejection. This is in contrast to Deming who proposes sweeping cultural change. Juran contends
that employees at different levels of an organization speak in different "languages." (Deming believes
statistics should be the common language.)
Top management speaks in the language of dollars, workers speak in the language of things, and middle
management must be able to speak both languages and translate between dollars and things. Thus, to get
top management's attention, quality issues must be cast in the language they understand dollars.
Juran advocates the accounting and analysis of quality costs to focus attention on quality problems. At
the operational level, Juran's focus is on increasing conformance to specifications through elimination
of defects, supported extensively by statistical tools for analysis. Thus, his philosophy fits well into
existing management systems.
Juran defines quality as "fitness for use." (Deming advocates no specific definition.) This s broken
down into four categories: quality of design, quality of conformance, availability, and field service.
Quality of design focuses on market research, the product concept, and design specifications. Quality of
conformance includes technology, manpower, and management Availability focuses on reliability,
Total Quality Management MGT510
maintainability, and logistical support. Field service quality comprises promptness, competence, and
Juran views the pursuit of quality on two levels: (1) the mission of the firm as whole is to achieve high
product quality, and (2) the mission of each individual department in the firm is to achieve high
production quality. Like Deming, Juran advocates a never-ending spiral of activities that includes
market research, product development, design, planning for manufacture, purchasing, production
process control, and inspection and testing, followed by customer feedback. Because of the
interdependence of these functions, the need for competent company-wide quality management is great.
Senior management must play an active and enthusiastic leadership role in the quality management
Juran's prescriptions focus on three major aspects of quality called the Quality Trilogy.
Quality planning the process for preparing to met quality goals,
Quality control the process for meeting quality goals during operations, and
Quality improvement the process for breaking through to unprecedented levels of performance.
Quality planning begins with identifying customers, both external and internal, determining their needs,
and developing product features that respond to customer needs.
Quality control involves determining what to control, establishing units of measurement so that data
may be objectively evaluated, establishing standards of performance, measuring actual performance,
interpreting the difference between actual performance and the standard, and taking action on the
Juran's program for quality improvement involves demonstrating the need for improvement, identifying
specific projects for improvement, organizing to guide the projects, diagnosing the causes, providing
remedies for the causes, proving that the remedies are effective under operating conditions, and
providing control to hold improvements.
Quality planning involves developing the products, systems, and process
needed to meet or exceed customer expectations. The following steps are required:
Determine who the customers are.
Identify customers' needs.
Develop products with features that respond to customer needs.
Develop systems and processes that allow the organization to produce these features.
Deploy the plans to operational levels.
The control of quality involves the following processes:
Assess actual quality performance.
Compare performance with goals.
Act on differences between performance and goals.
Quality Improvement: The improvement of quality should be ongoing continual:
Develop the infrastructure necessary to make annual quality improvements.
Identify specific areas in need of improvement, and implement improvement projects.
Establish a project team with responsibility for completing each improvement project.
Provide teams with what they need to be able to diagnose problems to determine root causes
develop solutions, and establish control that will maintain gains made.
Total Quality Management MGT510
Juran's assessment of most companies is that quality control is far and away the top priority among the
trilogy and most companies feel they are strong in this category. Quality planning and quality
improvement, however, are not important priorities and are significantly weaker in most organizations.
He feels that more effort needs to be placed on quality planning and even more on quality improvement.
Japanese efforts at quality improvement were supported by massive training programs and top
management leadership. Training in managerial quality-oriented concepts as well as training in the tools
for quality improvement, cost reduction, data collection, and analysis is one of the most important
components of Juran's philosophy. Juran maintains that the Japanese experience leaves little doubt as to
the significance of the return on quality training in competitive advantage, reduced failure costs, higher
productivity, smaller inventories, and better delivery performance.
Crosby's Philosophy and Contributions
Philip B. Crosby started his career in quality later than Deming and Juran. His corporate background
includes 14 years as director of quality at ITT (1965-1979). He left ITT in 1979 to form Philip Crosby
Associates, an international consulting firm on quality improvement, which he ran until 1992, when he
retired as CEO to devote his time to lecturing on quality related issues.
Crosby, who defines quality simply as conformance to customer requirements, is best known for his
advocacy of zero defects management and prevention as opposed to statistically acceptable levels of
quality. He is also known for his work on Costs of Quality, Quality is Free and Crosby's Fourteen Steps
to Quality Improvement.
The essence of Crosby's quality philosophy is embodied in what he calls the Absolutes of Quality
Management and the Basic Elements of Improvement..
Crosby's Absolutes of Quality Management are as follows:
Quality means conformance to requirements not elegance. Crosby dispels the myth that quality is
simply a feeling of "excellence." Requirements must be clearly stated so that they cannot be
misunderstood. Requirements are communication devices and are ironclad. Once a task is done, one
can take measurements to determine conformance to requirements. The nonconformance detected is
the absence of quality. Quality problems become nonconformance problems that is, variation in
output. Setting requirements is the responsibility of management.
There is no such thing as a quality problem. Problems must be identified by the individuals or
departments that cause them. There are accounting problems, manufacturing problems, design
problems, front-desk problems, and so on. Quality originates in functional departments, not in the
quality department, and the burden of responsibility for such problems lies with the functional
departments. The quality department should measure conformance, report results, and lead the drive
to develop a positive attitude toward quality improvement. This is similar to number 3 of Deming's
There is no such thing as the economics of quality: it is always cheaper to do the job right the first
time. Crosby supports the premise that "economics of quality" has no meaning. Quality is free.
What costs money are all the actions that involve not doing jobs right the first time. The Deming
Chain Reaction provides a similar message.
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