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Principles of Management

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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
Lesson 10.30
JOB DESIGN/SPECIALIZATION AND DEPARTMENTALIZATION
Building Blocks of Organizing
1.
Job design
A.
Job design is an essential part of organizational structure.
1.
Job design is the specification of task activities, usually repeated on a regular
basis, associated with each particular job.
a.
Task activities need to be grouped in reasonably logical ways for each job.
b.
The way the jobs are configured influences employee motivation.
2.
Work specialization is the degree to which the work necessary to achieve
organizational goals is broken down into various jobs.
In Work specialization the tasks in an organization are divided into separate jobs. Another term for this is
division of labor.
1.
Work specialization can be traced back to the writings of Adam Smith.
2.
Work specialization was seen as a way to make the most efficient use of workers' skills because
workers would be placed in jobs according to their skills and paid accordingly.
3.
Other advantages of work specialization included improvement in employees' skills at performing a
task, more efficient employee training, and encouragement of special inventions and machinery to
perform work tasks.
4.
Work specialization was viewed as a source of unending productivity improvements. And it was--
up to a certain point.
5.
The human diseconomies from work specialization included boredom, fatigue, stress, lowered
productivity, poor quality of work, increased absenteeism, and higher job turnover.
B.
There are four approaches to job design.
1.
Job simplification is the process of configuring or designing jobs so that job
holders have only a small number of narrow, repetitive, activities to perform.
a.
The concept of job simplification was championed by economist Adam
Smith and by Frederick Taylor
b.
Training new workers becomes relatively easy and workers become almost
interchangeable.
c.
The advantage is that major production efficiencies may be gained.
d.
The disadvantages are that, if carried too far, job satisfaction may be
destroyed by narrow, repetitive, boring jobs and the firm may become too
inflexible to serve customers with varying needs.
Types of Departmentalization
Departmentalization is the clustering of individuals into units and units into departments and larger units
in order to facilitate achieving organizational goals.
1.
An organization design is an overall pattern of departmentalization.
2.
There are four major patterns of departmentalization.
a.
The functional structure groups jobs into units based upon similarity of
expertise, skills, and work activities, e.g., marketing, accounting.
b.
The divisional structure groups jobs into units according to the similarity
of products or markets.
c.
The hybrid structure combines aspects of both the functional and
divisional forms, with some jobs grouped into departments by functions
and other grouped by products or markets.
d.
The matrix structure superimposes a horizontal set of divisional reporting
relationships onto a hierarchical functional structure.
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
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Assessing Structural Alternatives
A.
Each of the four most common types of departmentalization has major advantages and
disadvantages.
B.
Functional structure is a type of departmentalization in which positions are grouped
according to their main functional (or specialized) area.
1.
Typical functional form of organization has several major advantages.
2.
The functional form of organization has several major advantages.
a.
In-depth development of expertise is encouraged.
b.
Employees have clear career paths within their function.
c.
Resources are used more efficiently.
d.
Economies of scale may be possible because of specialized people and
equipment.
e.
Intradepartmental coordination is facilitated.
f.
Specialized technical competencies may be developed and may constitute
a competitive advantage.
3.
The functional form of origination has several disadvantages.
a.
Response time on multifunctional problems may be slow due to
coordination problems.
b.
Major issues and conflicts between departments may have to be resolved
by top management, with resultant delays.
c.
Bottlenecks due to sequential tasks.
d.
Over specialization may lead to a restricted view of the department's and
the organization's needs.
e.
Performance may be difficult to measure because several functions are
responsible for organizational results.
f.
Managers may be trained too narrowly in a single department.
4.
The functional form of departmentalization is more appropriate under certain
circumstances.
a.
The organization is small or medium-sized.
b.
There is a limited number of related products or services, or a relatively
homogeneous set of customers or clients.
c.
The organization is large and diverse, but the environment is stable.
C
Divisional structure is a type of departmentalization in which positions are grouped according to
similarity of products, services, or markets.
1.
Divisional structures are also called "self-contained structures" because each
division contains the major functional resources it needs to pursue its own goals
with little or no reliance on other divisions.
2.
The three major forms of divisional structure differ according to the rationale for
forming the divisions.
a.
Product divisions are divisions created to concentrate on a single
product or service or at least a relatively homogeneous set of products or
services.
Geographic divisions are divisions designed to serve different
b.
geographic areas.
c.
Customer divisions are divisions set up to service particular types of
clients or customers.
3.
Divisional structure has several major advantages.
a.
Divisions can react quickly to changes in the environment.
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
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b.
Coordination across functions is simplified.
c.
Each division can focus upon serving its customers.
d.
The division's goals can be emphasized.
e.
Performance is more easily measured.
f.
Managers can be trained in general management skills.
4.
Divisional structure has several disadvantages.
a.
Duplication of resources in each division often occurs.
b.
In-depth expertise may be sacrificed.
c.
Divisions may compete for limited resources.
d.
Expertise across divisions may not be shared.
e.
Innovations may be restricted to single divisions.
f.
Divisional goals may take priority over overall organizational goals.
5.
The divisional structure is likely to be used in large organizations where substantial
differences exist among products or services, geographic areas, or customers
served.
D.
Hybrid structure is a form of departmentalization that adopts parts of both functional and
divisional structures at the same level of management.
1.
Hybrid structures are adopted by large organizations to gain the advantages of
functional and divisional structures.
a.
Functional departments are created to take advantage of resource
utilization efficiencies, economies of scale, or in-depth expertise.
b.
Divisional departments are usually created to benefit from a stronger
focus on products, services, or markets.
2.
The hybrid structure has several advantages.
a.
Corporate and divisional goals can be aligned.
b.
Specialized expertise and economies of scale can be achieved in major
functional areas.
c.
Adaptability and flexibility may be achieved in handling diverse product or
service lines, geographic areas, or customers.
3.
The hybrid structure has several disadvantages.
a.
Conflict may arise between departments and divisions.
b.
Hybrid organizations tend to develop excessively large staffs in the
corporate-level functional departments.
c.
There may be a slow response to exceptional situations requiring
coordination between a division and a corporate functional department.
4.
The hybrid structure is best used under particular conditions.
a.
The organization faces environmental uncertainty best met by a divisional
structure.
b.
The organization requires functional expertise and/or efficiency.
c.
The organization has sufficient resources to justify the structure.
E.
A matrix structure is a type of departmentalization that superimposes a horizontal set of divisional
reporting relationships onto a hierarchical functional structure.
1.
An organization with a matrix structure has a functional and a divisional structure
at the same time.
2.
Employees who work in a matrix organization report to two "bosses," thus, the
unity-of-command principle is violated.
3.
Organizations that adopt a matrix structure usually go through several identifiable
structural stages.
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
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a.
Stage 1 is a traditional structure, usually a functional structure, which
follows the unity-of-command principle.
b.
Stage 2 is a temporary overlay in which managerial integrator positions are
created to handle issues of finite duration that involves coordinating
across functional departments.
c.
Stage 3 is a permanent overlay in which the managerial integrator
positions become permanent.
d.
Stage 4 is a mature matrix, in which matrix bosses have equal power.
4.
As an organization passes through the matrix stages, horizontal integration
increases at the cost of greater administrative complexity. The matrix form of
organization has several advantages.
5.
The matrix form of organization has several advantages.
a.
Decision making can be decentralized.
b.
Horizontal coordination is strengthened.
c.
Environmental monitoring is improved.
d.
Responses to environmental changes are quickly made.
e.
Functional specialists can be added to or resigned to projects as needed.
f.
Support systems can be allocated to projects as needed.
6.
Matrix designs have several disadvantages.
a.
Administrative costs are increased.
b.
Lines of authority and responsibility may not be clear to individual
employees.
c.
Possibilities of conflict are increased.
d.
Individuals can become preoccupied with internal relations at the expense
of clients and project goals.
e.
All decisions may become group decisions, leading to gross inefficiency.
f.
Reactions to change may be slowed if interpersonal skills are lacking or
top management fights for control.
7.
Matrix designs are usually appropriate when the following three conditions are
met:
a.
The considerable pressure from the environment that necessitates a
simultaneous and strong focus on both functional and divisional
dimensions.
b.
The demands placed on the organization are changing and unpredictable,
making it important to have a large capacity for processing information
and coordinating activities quickly.
c.
There is pressure for shared resources.
8.
Research indicates some of the factors that may be necessary to the success of a
matrix systems
a.
The organizational culture may need to be changed to support
collaboration.
b.
Managers may need special training, especially in interpersonal relations.
F.
Of particular interest are two new types of organizational structure that have recently emerged: the
process structure and the networked structure.
1.
A process structure is a type of departmentalization which groups positions into process team
which are given beginning-to-end responsibility for that process or that specified work flow. The process
structure is sometimes called the horizontal organization.
2.
The networked structure is a form of organizing in which many functions are
contracted out to other independent firms and coordinated through the use of
information technology networks. Sometimes the networked structure is called the
virtual corporation because it performs as virtually one corporation.
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Table of Contents:
  1. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT:The Egyptian Pyramid, Great China Wall
  2. MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS:Why Study Management?
  3. MANAGERIAL ROLES IN ORGANIZATIONS:Informational roles, Decisional roles
  4. MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS I.E. POLCA:Management Process, Mistakes Managers Make
  5. MANAGERIAL LEVELS AND SKILLS:Middle-level managers, Top managers
  6. MANAGEMENT IDEAS: YESTERDAY AND TODAY, Anthropology, Economics
  7. CLASSICAL VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Scientific management
  8. ADMINISTRATIVE VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Division of work, Authority
  9. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT:The Hawthorne Studies
  10. QUANTITATIVE, CONTEMPORARY AND EMERGING VIEWS OF MANAGEMENT
  11. SYSTEMíS VIEW OF MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION:Managing Systems
  12. ANALYZING ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
  13. 21ST CENTURY MANAGEMENT TRENDS:Organizational social Responsibility
  14. UNDERSTANDING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT WTO AND SAARC
  15. DECISION MAKING AND DECISION TAKING
  16. RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Models of Decision Making
  17. NATURE AND TYPES OF MANAGERIAL DECISIONS:Decision-Making Styles
  18. NON RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Group Decision making
  19. GROUP DECISION MAKING AND CREATIVITY:Delphi Method, Scenario Analysis
  20. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-I:Methods of Forecasting, Benchmarking
  21. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-II:Budgeting, Scheduling, Project Management
  22. PLANNING: FUNCTIONS & BENEFITS:HOW DO MANAGERS PLAN?
  23. PLANNING PROCESS AND GOAL LEVELS:Types of Plans
  24. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE (MBO):Developing Plans
  25. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT -1:THE IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
  26. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT - 2:THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
  27. LEVELS OF STRATEGIES, PORTERíS MODEL AND STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT (BCG) AND IMPLEMENTATION
  28. ENTREPRENEURSHIP MANAGEMENT:Why Is Entrepreneurship Important?
  29. ORGANIZING
  30. JOB DESIGN/SPECIALIZATION AND DEPARTMENTALIZATION
  31. SPAN OF COMMAND, CENTRALIZATION VS DE-CENTRALIZATION AND LINE VS STAFF AUTHORITY
  32. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND ORGANIC VS MECHANISTIC VS VIRTUAL STRUCTURES
  33. LEADING AND LEADERSHIP MOTIVATING SELF AND OTHERS
  34. MASLOWíS NEEDS THEORY AND ITS ANALYSIS
  35. OTHER NEED AND COGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  36. EXPECTANCY, GOAL SETTING AND RE-ENFORCEMENT THEORIES
  37. MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE PROFESSIONALS LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORIES
  38. BEHAVIORAL AND SITUATIONAL MODELS OF LEADERSHIP
  39. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP MODELS
  40. UNDERSTANDING GROUP DYNAMICS IN ORGANIZATIONS
  41. GROUP CONCEPTS, STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT AND TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
  42. UNDERSTANDING MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  43. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND CHANNELS EFFECT OF ICT ON MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  44. CONTROLLING AS A MANAGEMENT FUNCTION:The control process
  45. CONTROLLING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY