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Web Design & Development ­ CS506
Lesson 43
JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL)
The JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL) is a collection of custom tag libraries that implement general-
purpose functionality common to Web applications, including iteration and conditionalization, data
management formatting, manipulation of XML, and database access. Like JSP, JSTL is also a specification
not an implementation. The development theme of JSTL is "scriptlet free JSP".
These tag libraries provide a wide range of custom action functionality that most JSP authors have found
themselves in need of in the past. Having a defined specification for how the functionality is implemented
means that a page author can learn these custom actions once and then use and reuse them on all future
products on all application containers that support the specification. Using the JSTL will not only make
your JSPs more readable and maintainable, but will allow you to concentrate on good design and
implementation practices in your pages.
JSTL includes supports for Expression Language thus EL can be used to specify dynamic attribute values
for JSTL actions without using full-blown programming language. Prior to JSP 2.0, EL can only be used in
attributes of JSTL tags but EL now becomes a standard part of JSP 2.0. This allows the use of EL anywhere
in the document.
Functional Overview
As mentioned, JSTL encapsulates common functionality that a typical JSP author would encounter. This
set of common functionality has come about through the input of the various members of the expert group.
Since this expert group has a good cross-section of JSP authors and users, the actions provided in the JSTL
should suit a wide audience. While the JSTL is commonly referred to as a single tag library, it is actually
composed of four separate tag libraries:
Core - contains tags for conditions, control flow and to access variables etc.
XML manipulation - contains tags for XML parsing and processing
SQL - contains tags for accessing and working with database.
Internationalization and formatting - contains tags to support locale messages, text, numbers and
date formation
Twin Tag Libraries
JSTL comes in two flavors to support various skill set personal
Expression Language (EL) version
- Dynamic attribute values of JSTL tags are specified using JSTL expression language (i.e.
- The EL based JSTL tag libraries along with URIs and preferred prefixes
are given below
tabular format
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Request Time (RT) version
- Dynamic attribute values of JSTL tags are specified using JSP expression
(i.e. <%= expression %>)
- The RT based JSTL tag libraries along with URIs and preferred prefixes are given below in tabular format
Using JSTL
As we discussed earlier, JSTL includes four standard tag libraries. As is true with any JSP custom tag
library, a taglib directive must be included in any page that you want to be able to use this library's tags.
For example, to use EL based core tag library, the taglib directive appears as:
<%@taglib prefix="c" uri=http://java.sun.com/jsp/jstl/core %>
And to use RT based core tag library, the taglib directive appears as:
<%@taglib prefix="c_rt" uri=http://java.sun.com/jsp/jstl/core_rt %>
Working with Core Actions (tags)
The set of tags that are available in the Core tag library come into play for probably most anything you will
be doing in your JSPs such as:
Manipulation of scoped variables
Conditional logic
URL manipulation
and Handling errors.
Let's walk through some important core actions:
Provides a tag based mechanism for creating and setting scope based variables. Its syntax is as follows:
<c:set var="name" scope = "scope" value = "expression" />
Where the var attribute specifies the name of the scoped variable, the scope attribute indicates which scope
(page | request | session | application) the variable resides in, and the value attribute specifies the value to be
bound to the variable. If the specified variable already exists, it will simply be assigned the indicated value.
If not, a new scoped variable is created and initialized to that value.
The scope attribute is optional and default to page.
Three examples of using c:set are given below. In the first example, a page scoped variable "timezone" is
set to a value"Asia / Karachi".
<c:set var="timezone" value="Asia/Karachi" />
In the second example, a request scoped variable "email" email is set to a value "me@gmail.com"
<c:set var="email" scope="request" value="me@gmail.com" />
In the third example, a page scoped variable "email" is set to value of request parameter "email" by using
paramimplicit object. If email parameter is defined in JSP page as:
<input type="text" value = "email" />
Web Design & Development ­ CS506
Then c:set tag would be used as:
<c:set var="email" scope="request" value="param.email" />
Using c:set with JavaBeans & Map
c:settag can also be used to change the property of a bean or the value against some key. For this purpose,
the syntax of the c:set tag would look like this:
<c:set target="bean/map" property="property/key" value="value" />
If target is a bean, sets the value of the property specified. This process is equivalent to
<jsp:setProperty ... /> JSP action tag.
If target is a Map, sets the value of the key specified
And of course, these beans and maps must be stored in some scope prior to any attempt is made to change
their properties.
For example, consider the following snippet of code that stores PersonInfo's object person into request
scope using <jsp:useBean ... /> tag. Then using c:set tag, person's name property is set to "ali".
<jsp:useBean id="person" class="vu.PersonInfo" scope="request" />
<c:set target="person" property ="name" value = "ali" />
A developer will often want to simply display the value of an expression, rather than store it. This can be
done by using c:out core tag, the syntax of which appears below:
<c:out value = "expression" default = "expression" />
This tag evaluates the expression specified by its value attribute, and then prints the result. If the optional
default attribute is specified, the c:out action will print its (default) value if the value attribute's expression
evaluates either to null or an empty String. This tag is equivalent to JSP expression i.e. <%=expression %>.
Consider the following examples in which the usage of c:out tag has shown. In the first example, string
"Hello" would be displayed
c:out value = "Hello" />
In the second example, if request parameter num evaluates to null or an empty string then default value "0"
would be displayed.
c:out value = "${param.num}" default = "0" />
The above fragment of code is equivalent to following scriptlet:
tring no = request.getParameter("num");
if (no == null || no.equals(""))
If we want to display the property of a bean like name, we'll write
<c:out value= "${person.name}" default = "Not Set" />
As its name suggests, the c:removeaction is used to delete a scoped variable, and takes two attributes. The
var attribute names the variable to be removed, and the optional scope attribute indicates the scope from
which it should be removed and defaults to page.
For example, to remove a variable named square from page scope, we'll write:
<c:remove var = "square" />
And if variable email is required to be removed from request scope, then c:remove tag will look like:
Web Design & Development ­ CS506
<c:remove var = "email" scope = "request" />
In the context of Web applications, iteration is primarily used to fetch and display collections of data,
typically in the form of a list or sequence of rows in a table. The primary JSTL action for implementing
iterative content is the c:forEach core tag. This tag supports two different styles of iteration:
Iteration over an integer range (like Java language's for statement)
Iteration over a collection (like Java language's Iterator and Enumeration classes).
Iteration over an Integer range
To iterate over a range of integers, the syntax of the c:forEach tag will look like:
<c:forEach var="name" begin="expression" end="expression" step="expression" >
Body Content
The begin and end attributes should be either constant integer values or expressions evaluating to integer
values. They specify the initial value of the index for the iteration and the index value at which iteration
should cease, respectively. When iterating over a range of integers using c:forEach, these two attributes are
required and all others are optional.
The step attribute specifies the amount to be added to the index after each iteration. Thus the index of the
iteration starts at the value of the begin attribute, is incremented by the value of the step attribute, and halts
iteration when it exceeds the value of the endattribute. Note that if the stepattribute is omitted, the step size
defaults to 1.
If the var attribute is specified, then a scoped variable with the indicated name will be created and assigned
the current value of the index for each pass through the iteration. This scoped variable has nested visibility
that is it can only be accessed within the body of the c:forEachtag.
For example to generate squares corresponding to range of integer values, the c:forEachtag will be used as:
<c:forEach var="x" begin="0" end="10" step="2" >
<c:out value="${x * x}" />
By executing the above code, following output would appear: 4 16 36 64 100
Iteration over a Collection
When iterating over the members of a collection and arrays etc, one additional attribute of the c:forEach tag
is used: the items attribute. Now the c:forEach tag will look similar to this:
<c:forEach var="name" items="expression" >
Body Content
When you use this form of the c:forEach tag, the items attribute is the only required attribute. The value of
the items attribute should be the collection/array over whose members the iteration is to occur, and is
typically specified using an EL expression. If a variable name is also specified using var attribute, then the
named variable will be bound to successive elements of the collection for each iteration pass.
For example, to iterate over a String array (messages) using java code, we used to write in JSP:
for(int i=0; i<messages.length; i++) {
String msg = messages[i];
<%= msg %>
} // end for
Web Design & Development ­ CS506
This can be done using c:forEach tag in much simpler way as shown below:
<c:forEach var="msg" items="${messages}" >
<c:out value= "${msg}" />
Similarly, to iterate over a persons ArrayList that contains PersonInfo objects, we used to write in JSP:
ArrayList persons = (ArrayList)request.getAttribute("pList");
for(int i=0; i<persons.size(); i++)
PersonInfo p == (PersonInfo)persons.get(i);
String name = p.getName();
<%= name %>
} // end for
Indeed, the above task can be achieved in much simpler way using c:forEach tag as shown below:
<c:forEach var="p" items="${persons}" >
<c:out value= "${p.name}" />
The c:forEach tag processes each element of this list(persons) in turn, assigning it to a scoped variable
named p. Note that typecast is also not required.
Furthermore, you can use the begin, end, and step attributes to restrict which elements of the collection are
included in the iteration.
Like ordinary Java's if, used to conditionally process the body content. It simply evaluates a single test
expression and then processes its body content only if that expression evaluates to true. If not, the tag's
body content is ignored. The syntax for writing c:iftag is:
<c:if test= "expression" >
Body Content
For example, to display a message "a equals b" if two strings a & b are equal, the c:if tag is used as:
<c:if test= "${a == b}" >
<h2> A equals B </h2>
c:choose the second conditionalization tag, used in cases in which mutually exclusively test are required to
determine what content should be displayed. The syntax is shown below:
<c:when test= "expression" >
Body content
<c:otherwise >
Body content
Web Design & Development ­ CS506
Each condition to be tested is represented by a corresponding <c:when> tag, of which there must be at least
one. Only the body content of the first <c:when> tag whose test evaluates to true will be processed. If none
of the <c:when> tests return true, then the body content of the <c:otherwise>tag will be processed.
Note, though, that the <c:otherwise> tag is optional; a <c:choose> tag can have at most one nested
<c:otherwise> tag. If all <c:when> tests are false and no <c:otherwise> action is present, then no
<c:choose> body content will be processed.
The example code given below illustrates the usage of c:choose tag in which two strings a & b are
compared and appropriates messages are displayed:
<c:when test= "a == b" >
<h2> a equals b</h2>
<c:when test= "a <= b" >
<h2> a is less than b</h2>
<c:otherwise >
<h2> Don't know what a equals to </h2>
netBeans 4.1 and JSTL
If you are using netBeans 4.1 IDE then you have to add JSTL library to your project manually. To do so,
right click on the libraries folder, you can find it under project's name and select the Add Library option.
This is also shown in the following figure:
The Add Library dialog box opens in front of you. Select JSTL 1.1 option and press Add Library button.
Now you can refer to any JSTL library in your JSPs.
Web Design & Development ­ CS506
Note: Remember that the JSTL 1.1 library is only added to current project. You have to repeat this step for
each project in which you want to incorporate JSTL.
Example Code: AddressBook using JSTL core tags
This is the modified version of AddressBook that was built using Expression Language in the last handout.
Only showperson.jsp is modified to incorporate JSTL core tags along with Expression Language in place of
scriptlets. The remaining participants searchperson.jsp, ControllerServlet, PersonInfo and PersonDAO left
unchanged. Let's look on the code of each of these components:
The JavaBean used to represent one person record.
package vu;
import java.io.*;
public class PersonInfo implements Serializable{
private String name;
private String address;
private int phoneNum;
// no argument constructor
public PersonInfo() {
name = "";
address = "";
phoneNum = 0;
// setters
public void setName(String n){
name = n;
public void setAddress(String a){
address = a;
Web Design & Development ­ CS506
public void setPhoneNum(int pNo){
phoneNum = pNo;
// getters
public String getName( ){
return name;
public String getAddress( ){
return address;
public int getPhoneNum( ){  return phoneNum;